Table of Contents

  • FRANCE xvii. Persian Community in France

    VidaNassehi-Behnam

    The emergence of a Persian community in France can perhaps be traced back to 1272/1855-6, when Farrok Khan Ḡaffārī, Amīn-al-Molk, later Amīn-al-Dawla was sent to Paris as the shah’s envoy (īlcī-e kabīr).

  • FRANKLIN BOOK PROGRAM

    Datus C. Smith, Jr.

    (Moʾassasa-ye entešārāt-e Ferānklīn), an American non-profit corporation seeking to aid development of indigenous book publishing in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The program in Persia (1954-1979, the first after Egypt) was the largest of the seventeen around the world.

  • FRANRASYAN

    Cross-reference

    See AFRĀSĪĀB.

  • FRĀRĀST

    Cross-reference

    See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

  • FRAŠEGERD

    Cross-reference

    See FRAŠŌ.KƎRƎTI.

  • FRASER JAMES BAILLIE

    Denis Wright

    (1783-1856), 15th laird of Reelig, traveler, writer, and artist.

  • FRAŠŌ.KƎRƎTI

    Almut Hintze

    an eschatological term referring to the final renovation and transfiguration of Ahura Mazdā’s creation after evil has been utterly defeated and driven away.

  • FRAŠOŠTAR

    Cross-reference

    See JĀMĀSP.

  • FRATARAKA

    Josef Wiesehöfer

    lit. “leader, governor, forerunner”; ancient Persian title.

  • FRAVARTISH

    Cross-Reference

    Median rebel against Darius I. See PHRAORTES.

  • FRAVAŠI

    Mary Boyce

    the Avestan word for a powerful supernatural being whose concept at an early stage in Zoroastrianism became blended with that of the urvan (the human soul).

  • FRAWĀG

    Cross-reference

    See SĪĀMAG.

  • FRAWAHR

    Cross-reference

    See FRAVAŠI.

  • FRAWARDĪGĀN

    William W. Malandra

    name of the ten-day Zoroastrian festival (gāhānbār) at year’s end in honor of the spirits of the dead.

  • FRAWARDĪN

    Cross-reference

    name of the nineteenth day of a month and also the name of the first month of the year in the Zoroastrian calendar. See CALENDARS i.

  • FRAWARDĪN YAŠT

    Mary Boyce

    the thirteenth of the Zoroastrian yašt hymns, devoted to the fravašis.

  • FRĀXKARD

    Ahmad Tafazzoli

    name of the cosmic ocean in Iranian mythology.

  • FREE VERSE

    Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak

    in Persian poetry. The term šeʿr-e āzād, Persian for the French vers libre and English free verse, entered Persia in the 1940s and immediately began to be used in a variety of senses and applied to diverse subspecies of the emerging canon of šeʿr-e now (new poetry), especially to highlight those features in which this body of poetry was felt to differ from classical Persian poetry and the contemporary practice modeled after it.

  • FREE WILL

    Multiple Authors

    i. IN TWELVER SHI'ISM, ii. IN ISMA'ILI SHI'ISM.

  • FREEMASONRY

    Multiple Authors

    This famous fraternal order, bound by rituals and secret oaths, was introduced to Persia and adopted by Persian notables in the 19th century. It developed in the early 20th century and burgeoned in the period from 1950-78. Its practice still continues among some middle- and upper-class Persians in exile at the turn of the 21st century.  The topic will be treated in five entries.