Table of Contents

  • FASĀ ii. Tall-e Żaḥḥāk

    JOHN F. HANSMAN

    a tell or artificial mound, lying within a still broader archeological zone, built up by successive layers of human occupation from prehistoric to medieval times; it is located 130 km south of Shiraz and 3 km southeast of Fasā.

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  • FASĀʾĪ, ḤĀJJ MĪRZĀ ḤASAN ḤOSAYNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See FĀRS-NĀMA-YE NĀṢERĪ.

  • FAṢD

    Cross-Reference

    See BLOODLETTING.

  • FASIH, Esma’il

    Ali Ferdowsi

    Fasih left Iran in 1956, and eventually ended up in Montana State College in Bozeman, Montana. Beginning with his junior year at the college, he transferred to the University of Montana in Missoula where he earned a BS in Chemistry and a BA in English.

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  • FAṢĪḤĪ HERAVĪ, MĪRZĀ FAṢĪḤ-AL-DĪN

    ḎABĪḤ-ĀLLĀH ṢAFĀ

    b. Abu’l-Makārem b. Mawlānā Mīrjān Anṣārī (1579-1639), poet of the 11th/17th century.

  • FASMER, RICHARD RICHARDOVICH

    Anatol Ivanov

    or VASMER (1858-1938), eminent Russian numismatist.

  • FASTING

    Denise Soufi

    in Persia. Both individually and communally, fasting is typically a religious exercise—employed by devotees as means of supplication to the will of God, preparation for rites of devotion, worship of divinity, purification of the body so that spiritual issues can be better comprehended, penitence for transgressions against religious codes, and mourning for deceased persons.  OVERVIEW of entry: i. Among Zoroastrians, Manicheans, and Bahais. ii. In Sunni and Shiʿite Islam.

  • FATALISM

    Based on a longer article by ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Zarrīnkūb

    in the Islamic period. The concept of fatalism as commonly used in Islamic philosophy and Persian literature denotes the belief in the pre-ordained Decree of God (qażā wa qadar), according to which whatever happens to human beings or in the whole universe has been pre-determined by the will and knowledge of the Almighty, and that no changes or transformations in it can be made through the agency of the human will.

  • FATĀWĪ-E ʿĀLAMGĪRĪ

    S. H. Qasemi

    abridged Persian translation by Qāżī Najm-al-Dīn Khan Kākorī of a six-volume Arabic work on Hanafite law (ed. Būlāq, 1859) considered the authoritative compendium of religious law, policy, and practice in India.

  • FATE

    Cross-Reference

    See BAḴT; FATALISM; FREE WILL.