Table of Contents

  • FANĀRŪZĪ, ḴᵛĀJA ʿAMĪD ABU’L-FAWĀRES

    cross-reference

    See SENDBĀD-NĀMA.

  • FANĪ KAŠMĪRĪ

    Sharif Husain Qasemi

    pen name of Shaikh MOḤAMMAD-MOḤSEN b. Ḥasan KAŠMĪRĪ (d. 1670/71), Indo-Persian scholar and poet.

  • FĀNŪS

    Cross-reference

    lanterns. See ČERĀḠ.

  • FAQĪR DEHLAVĪ, MĪR ŠAMS-AL-DĪN

    Munibur Rahman

    or Maftūn (fl. 18th century), Persian poet from the Indian sub-continent.

  • FAQĪR-ALLĀH JALĀLĀBĀDĪ

    Cross-reference

    See AFGHANISTAN xii. LITERATURE.

  • FĀRĀB

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a small district on the middle Syr Darya in Transoxania, at the confluence of that river with its right-bank tributary, the Arys, which flows down from Esfījāb, and also the name of a small town within it.

  • FĀRĀBĪ

    Multiple Authors

    Muslim philosopher of the 10th century.

  • FĀRĀBĪ i. Biography

    Dimitri Gutas

    No one among Fārābī’s successors and their followers, or even unrelated scholars, undertook to write his full biography.

  • FĀRĀBĪ ii. Logic

    Deborah L. Black

    Many of his writings take the form of commentaries on, or summaries of, the Aristotelian Organon, which, following the tradition of the Alexandrian commentators of late antiquity, included Porphyry’s Isagoge as well as Aristotle’sRhetoric and Poetics.

  • FĀRĀBĪ iii. Metaphysics

    Thérèse-Anne Druart

    His metaphysics scillates between two main projects: (1) a study of what is common to all beings, i.e., being as such and other universal notions such as oneness, and (2) a study of the ultimate causes, i.e., God and other immaterial beings. 

  • FĀRĀBĪ iv. Fārābī and Greek Philosophy

    Dimitri Gutas

    Fārābī’s philosophical moorings and direct affiliation lie in the Greek neo-Aristotelian school of Ammonius in Alexandria, in the form in which it survived and was revived after the Islamic conquest among Syriac Christian clerics and intellectuals in the centers of Eastern Christianity in the Fertile Crescent.

  • FĀRĀBĪ v. Music

    George Sawa

    In the history of Middle Eastern music Fārābī remains unequalled as a theorist, but this aspect of his manifold achievements has been obscured by his more widely known writings on philosophy.

  • FĀRĀBĪ vi. Political Philosophy

    Muhsin Mahdi

    The central theme of Fārābī’s political writings is the virtuous regime, the political order whose guiding principle is the realization of human excellence by virtue. 

  • FARĀH

    Daniel Balland

    Farāh has retained practically the same name since the first millennium B.C.E. At the end of the first century B.C.E, the “very great city” of Phra in Aria was reckoned as a major stage on the overland route between the Levant and India.

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  • FARAḤĀBĀD

    Wolfram Kleiss

    common place name throughout Persia, without any cultural or historical significance. The three best-known locales with this name are a city quarter of Tehran, the remains of a palace complext near Isfahan, and an Abbasid pleasure palace on the Caspian sea.

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  • FARĀHĀN

    Reżā Reżāzāda Langarūdī

    a district (baḵš) in Tafreš subprovince (šahrestān) of the Central (Markazī) province.

  • FARĀHĀNĪ, MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN

    Hafez Farmayan

    (1847-1913) Persian diplomat and author of a travelogue (safar-nāma) intended to show how a Shiʿite pilgrim could successfully undertake the journey to Mecca. In it one learns much about Arabia, the Ottoman empire, and the Sunnis in general.

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  • FARĀHĀNĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ṢĀDEQ

    Cross-Reference

    See ADĪB-AL-MAMĀLEK FARĀHĀNĪ.

  • FARĀHĪ, ABŪ NAṢR BADR-al-DĪN MASʿŪD

    Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    or Moḥammad, Maḥmūd; b. Abī Bakr b. Ḥosayn b. Jaʿfar Farāhī (fl. 13th century), poet and litterateur.

  • FARĀHRŪD

    Daniel Balland

    river in southwestern Afghanistan, rising at about 3,300 meters above sea level in the Band-e Bayān, and, after a course of 712 km in a south-western direction, ending in the Hāmūn-e Ṣāberī (Sīstān) at an altitude of 475 m.

  • FARAHVAŠI, Bahrām

    Mahnaz Moazami

    Bahrām Farahvaši was born into a family with a long tradition of literary and scholarly pursuits.  His father, ʿAli Moḥammad Farahvaši (1875-1968), was one of the pioneers of education reform in the early 20th century and established modern schools in Tehran, Zanjan, and Azerbaijan.

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  • FARAJ-E BAʿD AZ ŠEDDAT

    Cross-Reference

    See DEHESTĀNI, ḤOSAYN.

  • FARĀLĀVĪ

    François de Blois

    the conventional reading of the name of an early Persian poet.

  • FARĀMARZ

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    son of Iran’s national hero Rostam, and himself a renowned hero of the Iranian national epic whose adventures were very popular, especially during the 10th and 11th centuries.

  • FARĀMARZ, ABŪ MANṢŪR

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ MANṢŪR FARĀMARZ.

  • FARĀMARZ-NĀMA

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    a Persian epic recounting the adventures of the hero Farāmarz.

  • FARĀMARZĪ, ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    Mohammad Zarnegar

    (b. Gačūya, 1897; d. Tehran, 1972), an outspoken journalist, writer, educator, Majles deputy, and poet.

  • FARĀMŪŠ-ḴĀNA

    Cross-Reference

    See FREEMASONRY.

  • FARĀNAK

    Cross-reference

    according to the Šāh-nāma, the mother of Ferēdūn; also the name of a wife of Bahrām V Gōr.

  • FARANG, FARANGĪ

    Forthcoming

    Forthcoming online.

  • FARANGĪ MAḤALL

    Muhammad Wali-ul-Haq Ansari

    or FERANGĪ MAḤAL; family of Indian Muslim teachers, Hanafite scholars, and mystics active over the last 300 years.

  • FARANGĪS

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    eldest daughter of Afrāsīāb and wife of Sīāvaḵš.

  • FARAS-NĀMA

    Īraj Afšār

    a category of books and manuals dealing with horses and horsemanship. Topics treated in this literary genre include horse-breeding, grazing, dressage, veterinary advice, horseracing and betting, and the art of divination based on the mien and movements of horses.

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  • FARĀVA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    or Parau, a small medieval town in eastern Persia, lying east of the Caspian Sea and just beyond the northern edge of the Kopet-Dag range facing the Kara Kum desert.

  • FARDIN, Moḥammad ʿAli

    Jamsheed Akrami

    Fardin’s 23-year film career blossomed late, after a short stint in the theater, and it suffered an early demise in 1981 when the Islamic Republic of Iran banned him from filmmaking in a wholesale purge of the major entertainers of the pre-revolution era.

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  • FĀRES

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    the Arabic term for “rider on a horse, cavalryman,” connected with the verb farasa/farosa “to be knowledgeable about horses, be a skillful horseman” and the noun faras “horse."

  • FĀRESĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ ʿALĪ FĀRESĪ.

  • FĀRESĪ, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ḤASAN MOḤAMMAD

    Gül A. Russell

    (d. 1320), the most significant figure in optics after Ebn al-Hayṯam (Alhazen; 965-1040). The two names have been linked due to his critical revision of Ebn al-Hayṯam’s Ketāb al-manāẓer, which represents a watershed in the scientifi;c understanding of light and vision.

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  • FĀRESĪYĀT

    Aḥmad Mahdawī Dāmḡānī

    a literary term used in Arabic literature to refer to poems in Arabic which contain some Persian words or even phrases in their original form, the most notable example being the Fāresīyāt of Abū Nowās.

  • FARḠĀNA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    valley of the Syr Darya (Jaxartes) river extending ca. 300 km between the Farḡāna mountains in the east and the first sharp bend of the river’s course to the north.

  • FARḠĀNĪ, AḤMAD

    David Pingree

    b. Moḥammad b. Kaṯīr (fl. ca. 950 C.E.), Muslim astronomer.

  • FARḠĀNĪ, EMĀM-AL-ḤARAMAYN SERĀJ-Al-DĪN ABU’L-MOḤAMMAD ʿALĪ

    Sayyāra Mahīnfar

    b. ʿOṯmān Ūšī or Ūsī (d. 1173), oṣūlī jurist (faqīh), traditionist, and author.

  • FARḠĀNĪ, SAʿĪD-AL-DĪN MOHAMMAD

    William C. Chittick

    b. Ahmad (d. 1300), Sufi author from the town of Kāsān in Farḡān.

  • FARḠĀNĪ, SAYF-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    Sayyāra Mahīnfar

    thirteenth century Persian poet and Sufi of Farḡāna.

  • FARHĀD (1)

    Heshmat Moayyad

    romantic figure in Persian legend and literature, best known from the poetry of Neẓāmī Ganjavī as a rival with the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parvēz (r. 591-628) for the love of the beautiful Armenian princess Šīrīn.

  • FARHĀD (2)

    Cross-Reference

    name of a number of Parthian kings. See PHRAATES.

  • FARHĀD KHAN QARAMĀNLŪ, ROKN-AL-SALṬANA

    Rudi Matthee

    military commander of Shah ʿAbbās I, executed at the Shah’s orders in 1598.

  • FARHĀD MĪRZĀ MOʿTAMAD-AL-DAWLA

    Kambiz Eslami

    (1818-1888), Qajar prince-governor and bibliophile. Holding highly conservative religious views on the administration of Persia, he viewed Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah's reformist vizier as an obliterator of the “foundation of the Muslim šarīʿa,” who was guilty of spreading the word “liberty” among the people.

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  • FARHANG

    Nassereddin Parvin

    the title of five newspapers and magazines printed in Persia and Europe.

  • FARHANG Ī OĪM

    Cross-Reference

    See FRAHANG Ī OĪM.