Table of Contents

  • FABLE

    Mahmoud and Teresa P. Omidsalar

    a kind of story often defined as “an animal tale with a moral"; there is no exact Persian equivalent of the term, but the words afsāna, dāstān, hekāyat, qeṣṣa, and samar are used to refer to such stories.

  • FABRITIUS, LUDVIG

    Rudi Matthee

    or LODEWYCK (b. Brazil, 1648; died Stockholm, 1729), Swedish envoy to the Safavid court.

  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN

    Multiple Authors

    This article will deal with the faculties of Agriculture, Fine Arts, Law and Political Science, Letters and Humanities, and Medicine, which are among the oldest and most important secular institutions of higher education in Persia. Other faculties of the University of Tehran and main faculties of other major universities will be treated under individual UNIVERSITIES.

  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN i. Faculty of Agriculture

    MOḤAMMAD-ḤASAN MAHDAWĪ ARDABĪLĪ

    ll graduates received the equivalent of bachelors’s degrees in agricultural engineering and were employed by the Ministry of Agriculture (Wezārat-e kešāvarzī). From 1930 to 1939 a total of 187 people were graduated, an average of nineteen a year.

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  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN ii. Faculty of Fine Arts

    MORTAŻĀ MOMAYYEZ

    Like most other faculties of the University of Tehran, the Faculty of Fine Arts was created by integrating already existing institutions.

  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN iii. Faculty of Law and Political Science

    Ahmad Ashraf

    one of the oldest institutions of modern higher education in Persia, founded in 1927 with the merger of the School of Political Science (established in 1899) and the School of Law (established in 1918). In 1934, when the University of Tehran was founded, the school formed one of six main faculties.

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  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN iv. Faculty of Letters and Humanities

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    The Faculty of Letters and Humanities (Dāneškada-ye adabīyāt wa ʿolūm-e ensānī), originally named the Faculty of Letters, Philosophy, and Educational Sciences (Dāneškada-ye adabīyāt wa falsafa wa ʿolūm-e tarbīatī), was one of the six faculties of the University of Tehran when it was founded in February 1935.

  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN v. Faculty of Medicine

    YŪNOS KARĀMATĪ and EIr

    (Dāneškada-ye pezeškī), the pioneering academic institution of modern medicine in Persia, one of the six main faculties of the new University of Tehran in 1934. It was the successor to the Dār al-fonūn Department of Medicine, established in 1851, which had become the School of Medicine (Madrasa-ye ṭebb) in 1919.

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  • FĀDŪSBĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀDŪSPĀN.

  • FĀʾEQ ḴĀṢṢA, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (d. Khorasan 999), Turkish eunuch and slave commander of the Samanid army in Transoxania and Khorasan during the closing decades of that dynasty’s power.

  • FAḠĀNĪ, BĀBĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀBĀ FAḠĀNĪ.

  • FAGERGREN, CONRAD GUSTAF

    Bo Utas

    (b. Stockholm, 1818; d. Shiraz, 1879), Swedish physician in Shiraz, 1848-79.

  • FAHHĀD, FARĪD-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ

    David Pingree

    , the most prolific producer of astronomical tables in the Islamic world. FARID-AL-DIN ABU’L-HASAN ALI FAHHADis credited with a total of six tables, all of which are lost. There are three lists of these tables, given by Moḥammad b. Abū Bakr Fāresī in his al-Zīj al-momtaḥan al-moẓaffarī, by Šams Monajjem Wābeknavī in his al-Zīj al-moḥaqqaq, and by Ḥājī Ḵalīfa.

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  • FAHLABAḎ

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀRBAD.

  • FAHLAVĪYĀT

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    an appellation given especially to the quatrains and by extension to the poetry in general composed in the old dialects of the Pahla/Fahla regions.

  • FAHLĪĀN

    Jamšīd Ṣadāqat-Ḵīš

    a rural district (dehestān) situated 12 km northwest of Nūrābād in the Mamassanī šahrestān.

  • FAHRAJ

    Rezazadeh Langarudi

    subdistrict (dehestān) and town in the Persian province of Yazd.

  • FAḴR-AL-DĪN ĀḎARĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See under BAHMANID DYNASTY.

  • FAḴR-AL-DĪN ASʿAD

    Cross-Reference

    See GORGĀNĪ, FAḴR-AL-DĪN ASʿADĪ.

  • FAḴR-AL-DĪN ʿERĀQĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿERĀQI, FAḴR-AL-DIN.

  • FAḴR-AL-DĪN HAMADĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD HAMADĀNĪ.

  • FAḴR-al-DĪNZARRĀDĪ, MAWLĀNĀ

    Sharif Husain Qasemi

    a 14th century spiritual leader of the Češtī Sufi order in India.

  • FAḴR-AL-MOLK ARDALĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN ARDALĀN.

  • FAḴR-AL-MOLK, ABU’L-FATḤ MOẒAFFAR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Neẓām al-Molk (1043-1106/7), eldest son of the great Saljuq vizier and himself vizier to the Saljuq sultans Barkīāroq (1092-1105) and Moḥammad b. Malekšāh (1105-18).

  • FAḴR-AL-ZAMĀNĪ QAZVĪNĪ, ʿABD-AL-NABĪ

    Cross-reference

    See ʿABD-AL-NABĪ QAZVĪNĪ.

  • FAḴR-E MODABBER

    EIr

    pen-name of Moḥammad b. Manṣūr b. Saʿīd, entitled Mobārakšāh, author of two prose works in Persian written in India in the late 12th and early 13th century, a book on genealogy with no formal title and the famous Ādāb al-ḥarb wa’l-šajāʿa.

  • FAḴRĀʾĪ, EBRĀHĪM REŻĀZĀDA

    Moḥammad-Taqī Pūr Aḥmad Jaktājī

    (b. Rašt, 1899; d. Tehran, 1988), educator, journalist, lawyer, and scholar.

  • FAḴRĪ BANĀKATĪ

    Cross-reference

    See BANĀKATĪ.

  • FAḴRĪ HERAVĪ, SOLṬĀN-MOḤAMMAD

    Sharif Husain Qasemi

    b. Moḥammad Amīr Khan (or Solṭān) Amīrī Heravī (b. Herat, ca. 1497, d. probably in Agra, after 1566), poet, scholar, and Sufi who wrote on various aspects of the poetic art.

  • FĀḴTA

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    an obsolete Persian name for a columbine bird, most probably the so-called “collared turtle dove."

  • FĀḴTAʾĪ, ḤOSAYN QAWĀMĪ

    Cross-Reference

    a master vocalist of Persia in the second half of the 20th century. See QAWĀMI, ḤOSAYN.

  • FĀL

    Cross-reference

    See DIVINATION.

  • FĀL-ASĪRĪ, Ḥājj Sayyed ʿALĪ-AKBAR

    Manṣūr Rastgār FASāʾī

    prominent mojtahed of Shiraz (1840-1901). He led the prayer at Wakīl Mosque, where he regularly preached, and for years he wielded great influence in the religious, political, and social affairs of the city. He was an active opponent of the tobacco concession and instigated a riot against it.

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  • FĀL-NĀMA

    Īraj Afšār

    a book of presages and omens. The narrower and more common use of the term, equivalent to “bibliomancy,” is confined to texts used as material for divination by the reader directly or through a fortune-teller.

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  • FALAK

    Cross-Reference

    Arabic word for "sphere" (pl. aflāk). In Persian works of literature it is often referred to as being responsible for determining people's destiny. See ASTROLOGY AND ASTRONOMY IN IRAN; COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY.

  • FALAKA

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    also falak, čūb o falak; one of the most common instruments of corporal punishment in Persia.

  • FALĀḴAN

    Parviz Mohebbi

    a sling.

  • FALAKĪ ŠARVĀNĪ, Abu’l-Neẓām Moḥammad

    François de Blois

    or ŠERVĀNĪ, a Persian poet of the first half of the 12th century.

  • FALĀṬŪRĪ, ʿABD-AL-JAWĀD

    Judith Pfeiffer

    (b. Isfahan, 1926; d. Berlin, 30 December 1996), professor of Islamic studies at Cologne University (1974-96).

  • FALCONS AND FALCONRY

    Cross-reference

    See BĀZ; BĀZDĀRĪ.

  • FALLĀḤ, REŻĀ

    Bāqer ʿĀqelī and EIr

    (b. Kāšān, 1910; d. London, 1981), deputy manager of the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC; Šerkat-e mellī-e naft-e Īrān), in charge of international relations and marketing.

  • FALSAFA

    Mansour Shaki

    philosophy in the pre-Islamic period. For philosophy in the Islamic period, see also articles under individual authors and schools, e.g., AVICENNA, FĀRĀBĪ, ILLUMINATIONISM, ISFAHAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY, and MOLLĀ ṢADRĀ.

  • FALSAFĪ, NAṢR–ALLĀH

    Manouchehr Parsadoust

    (b. Tehran, 1901; d. 1981), Persian historian, educator, journalist, translator, and poet.

  • FALUDY, György

    ANDRÁS BODROGLIGETI

    (1910-2006), Hungarian poet, translator, and publicist.  

  • FĀMĪ

    Cross-reference

    See ABU NAṢR FĀMI.

  • FAMILY LAW

    Ziba Mir-Hosseini, Mansour Shaki, Jeanette Wakin

    legal prescriptions dealing with marriage, divorce, the status of children, inheritance, and related matters.

  • FAMILY PLANNING

    Mehdi Amani, Nancy Hatch Dupree

    a term for programs to regulate family size that came into use in the West in the 1930s. Although it originally encompassed efforts both to promote and to curtail fertility, explosive population growth in the developing countries since mid-century has narrowed its meaning to control of fertility.

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  • FAMINES

    Xavier de Planhol

    in Persia.

  • FANĀ ḴOSROW

    Cross-reference

    See ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA, FANĀ ḴOSROW.

  • FANĀʾĪĀN, Mīrzā FARAJ-ALLĀH JONŪN

    Vahid Rafati

    b. Loṭf-ʿAlī b. Moḥammad-Reżā (b. Sangsar, 1873), poet.