Table of Contents

  • ʿENĀYAT-ALLĀH

    Sheila S. Blair

    Timurid builder or tile maker of the 15th century.

  • ʿENĀYAT-ALLĀH KANBO

    Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi

    (b. Burhanpur, 31 August 1608; d. Delhi, 23 September 1671), Sufi and scholar, descendant of an old respected Lahore family that had converted to Islam in Punjab.

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIA IRANICA

    Elton L. Daniel

    an alphabetically arranged reference work which seeks to provide scholarly articles relating to “all aspects of Iranian life and culture.”

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAM

    Elton L. Daniel

    a reference work of fundamental importance on topics dealing, according to its self-description, with “the geography, ethnography and biography of the Muhammadan peoples.”

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF TAJIKISTAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ĖNTSIKLOPEDIYAI SOVETII TOJIK.

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIAS, PERSIAN

    Živa Vesel and Hūšang Aʿlam

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Premodern, ii. Modern.

  • ENDOWMENTS

    Cross-Reference

    See CHARITABLE FOUNDATIONS. See under individual entries, such as BONYĀD-E FARHANG-E ĪRĀN;BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪDBONYĀD-E ŠĀH-NĀMA-YE FERDOWSĪ.

  • ENGLAND

    Cross-Reference

    See GREAT BRITAIN.

  • ENGLISH i. Persian Elements in English

    D. N. Mackenzie

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Persian elements in English. ii. Persian influences in English and American literature. iii. Translations of classical Persian literature. iv. Translations of modern Persian literature. v. i. Translations of English literature into Persian.

  • ENGLISH ii. Persian Influences in English and American Literature

    John D. Yohannan

    Although academic Persian studies may be said to have begun in England in the early 17th century, it was not until the late 18th century that the Persian poets began to be read in English translations. This was due to the linguistic and literary skills of Sir William Jones and to the fact that Persian was the official language at the Indian courts.

  • ENGLISH iii. Translations Of Classical Persian Literature

    Michael Beard

    fall initially into two categories. There is a group of texts whose purpose is to convey the information of the original in discrete units, most useful with prose or narrative poetry and not necessarily “literary.” There are other translations designed to carry over the formal elements of a literary text.

  • ENGLISH iv. Translations Of Modern Persian Literature

    Michael Beard

    Modernist literature in Persia can be said to develop gradually throughout the 19th century, but for English readers it begins abruptly, shortly after the Constitutional revolution (q.v.), with the translations of Edward Browne.

  • ENGLISH v. Translation Of English Literature into Persian

    Karīm Emāmi

    The first texts translated from English into Persian were diplomatic exchanges and bilateral treaties.

  • ENJAVĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ, SAYYED ABU’L-QĀSEM

    Ulrich Marzolph

    (b. Shiraz, 1921; d. Tehran, 16 September 1993), eminent Persian folklorist.

  • ENJĪL

    Cross-Reference

    See BIBLE.

  • ENJŪ

    Cross-Reference

    See INJU DYNASTY.

  • ENOCH

    Cross-Reference

    See AḴNŪḴ.

  • ENOCH, BOOKS OF

    J. C. Reeves

    attributed to the seventh antediluvian biblical patriarch Enoch (Genesis 5.21-24), which show Iranian influence.

  • ENQELĀB-E ESLĀMĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See REVOLUTION OF 1978-79.

  • ENQELĀB-E ESLĀMĪ NEWSPAPER

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a newspaper published by Abu’l-Ḥasan Banī-Ṣadr and supporting his political views. 

  • ENQELĀB-E MAŠṞUṬĪYĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION.

  • ENQELĀB-E SAFĪD

    Cross-Reference

    See WHITE REVOLUTION.

  • ENŠĀʾ

    Jürgen Paul

    lit. "composition"; the process of creating or composing something as well as the result of this process and the rules of the art; it denotes a genre of prose literature, copies, drafts, or specimens of official and private correspondence.

  • ENŠĀʾ-ALLĀH KHĀN, SAYYED

    M. Asif Naim Siddiqui

    (b. Moršedābād, 1756; d. Lucknow, 1818), Urdu-Persian poet and writer.

  • ENSĀN-E KĀMEL

    Gerhard Böwering

    lit. "the Perfect Human Being"; a key idea in the philosophy and ethics of Islamic mysticism.

  • ENTEBĀH

    L. P. ELWELL-SUTTON

    lit. “Awakening”; a Persian newspaper published in Karbalā, Iraq, in 1914 by Mīrzā ʿAlī Āqā Šīrāzī Labīb-al-Molk, editor of Moẓaffarī published in Būšehr and Mecca.

  • ENTEẒĀM, ʿABD-ALLĀH and NAṢR-ALLĀH

    Fakhreddin Azimi

    two brothers active in 20th-century Persian politics. ʿAbd-Allāh (1895-1983), as a career diplomat, served in various posts, including minister of foreign affairs. Naṣr-Allāh (1899-1980) held a series of ministerial posts under Moḥammad Reżā Shah, including the ambassadorship to the United States.

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  • ĖNTSIKLOPEDIYAI SOVETII TOJIK

    H. Borjian

    (Tajik Soviet Encyclopedia), the first general encyclopedia of Tajikistan, published in the Tajik Persian language and Cyrillic alphabet (8 vols., Dushanbe, 1978-88).

  • ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Eskandar Firouz, Daniel Balland

    efforts to protect natural resources, wildlife, and ecosystems and to control pollution. In Persia conservation consciousness began, as it so often does, with concern for wildlife.

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  • ENZELI

    Cross-Reference

    See ANZALĪ.

  • EPHESUS, SEVEN SLEEPERS OF

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    Christian legend attested by texts in many languages.

  • EPHRAIM KHAN

    Cross-Reference

    See EPʿREM KHAN.

  • EPICS

    François de Blois

    narrative poems of legendary and heroic content.

  • EPIDEMICS

    Cross-Reference

    See PLAGUES.

  • EPIGRAM

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    originally a Greek word meaning “inscription” and denoting in Western literatures a genre of short poems characterized by their contents and style rather than by a specific prosodic form.

  • EPIGRAPHY

    Multiple Authors

    the study of inscriptions, particularly their collection, decipherment, interpretation, dating, and classification.

  • EPIGRAPHY i. Old Persian and Middle Iranian epigraphy

    Helmut Humbach

    Iranian epigraphy of the pre-Islamic period covers mainly inscriptions in the Old and Middle Iranian languages: Old Persian, Middle Persian, Parthian, Chorasmian, Sogdian, and Bactrian. Old and Middle Persian inscriptions span by far the longest period of time, from the Bīsotūn inscription until the early Islamic period.

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  • EPIGRAPHY ii. Greek inscriptions from ancient Iran

    Philip Huyse

    In April 1815 the Prussian Akademie der Wissenschaften in Berlin enthusiastically accepted the proposal by August Boeckh to produce a comprehensive thesaurus of inscriptions that would include all Greek inscriptional material published to date.

  • EPIGRAPHY iii. Arabic inscriptions in Persia

    Sheila S. Blair

    In Persia, as in the rest of the Islamic lands, Arabic was the basic language for foundation and religious texts on buildings and objects. In the early Islamic period these texts were usually written in some variant of the angular script known as Kufic. From the 12th century inscriptions in Persian became more common, and cursive scripts tended to replace angular ones.

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  • EPIGRAPHY iv. Safavid and later inscriptions

    Sussan Babaie

    The principal characteristic of epigraphy in Persia after the advent of the Safavids (1501) is the emphasis on Persian poetry and pious Shiʿite texts with an iconographic potency and deliberate frequency hitherto unknown. Arabic remained the language of koranic and Hadith quotations while Persian became increasingly prominent.

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  • EPIGRAPHY v. Inscriptions from the Indian subcontinent

    Ziyaud-Din A. Desai

    The systematic survey and study of Perso-Arabic epigraphy of the Indian subcontinent is not even half a century old.

  • EPIPHANIUS

    Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin

    (b. Eleutheropolis, Judaea, ca. 315; d. Constantia, Cyprus), bishop of Constantia on Cyprus, founded on the remains of Salamis.

  • EPISCOPAL

    Hassan B. Dehqani-Tafti

    a diocese of the Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East, one of thirty-seven independent churches of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

  • EPISTLES OF MANI

    Cross-Reference

    See MANICHEISM.

  • EPISTOLARY STYLE

    Cross-Reference

    See CORRESPONDENCE.

  • EPʿREM KHAN

    Aram Arkun

    Pers. Yeprem/Efrem (1868-1912), Armenian revolutionary and important military leader of the Constitutional Revolution. He uneasily reconciled his beliefs with his position as police chief of Tehran, resigning and returning to office several times.  On 24 December 1911, he shut down the parliament to comply with a Russian ultimatum, and this marked the close of Persia’s Constitutional Revolution.

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  • EQBĀL

    Cross-Reference

    a newspaper. See EḤTĪĀJ.

  • EQBĀL ĀḎAR, ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN QAZVĪNĪ

    Moḥammad-Taqī Masʿudiya

    or EQBĀL-AL-SOLṬĀN (b. Alvand, near Qazvīn, ca. 1869; d. Tabrīz, probably 1973), singer of Persian traditional music.

  • EQBĀL ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, ʿABBĀS

    Īraj Afšār

    During his years at Dār al-fonūn, Eqbāl came to know such litterati as Moḥammad-ʿAlī Forūḡī, Abu’l-Ḥasan Forūḡī, Mortażā Najmābādī, ʿAbd-al-ʿAẓīm Qarīb, Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Rahnemā, and ʿAbd-al-Razzāq Bōḡāyerī, under whose influence he embarked on a career of scholarship that continued until his death.

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  • EQBĀL LĀHŪRĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-Reference

    See IQBAL, MUHAMMAD.