Table of Contents

  • ELTON, JOHN

    John Perry

    (?-1751), English merchant, seaman and shipbuilder for Nāder Shah Afšār.

  • ĒLTOTMEŠ, ŠAMS-AL-DĪN

    Peter Jackson

    (d. 1236), first Sultan of Delhi.

  • ELWELL-SUTTON, LAURENCE PAUL

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Elwell-Sutton’s interests and publications in Persian studies fall into five categories: Persian language; Persian literature; modern Persian history and politics; Persian folklore; and Islamic science. In the first of these, his Colloquial Persian and Elementary Persian Grammar have remained in print as standard works.

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  • ELYĀSIDS

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E ELYĀS.

  • ELYMAIS

    John F. Hansman

    semi-independent state frequently subject to Parthian domination, which existed between the second century B.C.E. and the early third century C. E. in the territories of Ḵūzestān, in southwestern Persia.

  • ʿEMĀD ḤASANĪ, MĪR, ʿEMĀD-AL-MOLK

    Kambiz Eslami

    b. Ebrāhīm (ca. 1554-1615), celebrated calligrapher. His rendition of nastaʿlīq, with smooth lines, many curves, very occasional diacritical marks, symmetry of letters and words, and usually excellent choice of decorations surrounding the words, had widespread appeal during his lifetime and after his death.

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  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DAWLA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Būya b. Fanā-Ḵosrow, the eldest of three brothers who came to power in western Persia during the tenth century as military adventurers and founded the Buyid dynasty.

  • ʿEMĀD-al-DAWLA, Mīrzā MOḤAMMAD-ṬĀHER

    Kathryn Babayan

    WAḤĪD QAZVĪNĪ (ca. 1615-1701), poet and Safavid court historiographer for nearly three decades (1645-74).

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ FAQĪH KERMĀNĪ

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    mystic and poet of the 14th century who used ʿEmād or, more rarely, ʿEmād-e Faqīh, as a pen name.

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN KĀTEB, ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH MOḤAMMAD

    Donald S. Richards

    b. Moḥammad b. Ḥāmed EṢFAHĀNĪ, an eminent 12th-century government servant and man of letters, born in Isfahan in 1125.

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MAḤMŪD

    Emilie Savage-Smith

    b. Serāj-al-Dīn Masʿūd ŠĪRĀZĪ, the most prominent member of a 16th-century family of physicians in Shiraz.

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MARZBĀN, ABŪ KĀLĪJĀR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Solṭān-al-Dawla Abū Šojāʿ (1009-48), amir of the Buyid dynasty in the period of that family’s decadence and incipient disintegration, being the last effective ruler of the line.

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-ESLĀM

    Maria E. Subtelny

    b. Moḥammad ʿAtīq-Allāh (1470-1506), a vizier of the Timurid Sultan Ḥosayn Bāyqarā, executed in Herat in 1498.

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-KOTTĀB, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN SAYFĪ QAZVĪNĪ

    ʿAbd-Allāh Forādi

    (b. Qazvīn, 16 April 1866; d. Tehran, 17 July 1936), calligrapher.

  • ʿEMĀDĪ RĀZĪ

    Taqi Pūr-Nāmdārīān

    poet of the first half of the 12th century.

  • EMĀM

    Cross-Reference

    (Imam), see SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; ČAHĀRDAH MAʿSŪM.

  • EMĀM ṢĀḤEB

    Mehrdad Shokouhi

    two archeological sites in Afghanistan: (1) a village near the south bank of the Amū Daryā, about 50 km north of Qondūz, (2) a village in the Jōzjān region, south of the river Balḵāb, halfway between Balḵ and Āqča.

  • EMĀM-AL-ḤARAMAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See JOVAYNĪ, Emām-al-Ḥaramayn.

  • EMĀM-E ḠĀʾEB

    Cross-Reference

    "The Hidden Imam." See ḠAYBA and ISLAM IN IRAN vii. THE CONCEPT OF MAHDI IN TWELVER SHIʿISM.

  • EMĀM-E JOMʿA

    Hamid Algar

    leader of the congregational prayer performed at midday on Fridays.

  • EMĀM-E ZAMĀN

    Cross-Reference

    Mahdi or "The Hidden Imam." See ḠAYBA and ISLAM IN IRAN vii. THE CONCEPT OF MAHDI IN TWELVER SHIʿISM.

  • ʿEMĀMA

    Cross-Reference

    the turban. See ʿAMĀMA.

  • EMĀMA

    Cross-Reference

    (Imamate), see SHIʿITE DOCTRINE.

  • EMĀMĪ HERĀVĪ, RAŻĪ-AL-DĪN ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH MOḤAMMAD

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    b. Abī Bakr b. ʿOṯmān (b. in Herat; d. in Isfahan, 1287), Persian poet of the Mongol period also noted for his learning.

  • EMĀMĪ, JAMĀL

    Fakhreddin Azimi

    (b. 1901, Koy; d. 1966, Paris), politician.

  • EMAMI, KARIM

    ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Āzarang and EIr

    Emami took an early interest in contemporary Persian art and literature. In 1959, before starting his career as a journalist and translator, he worked as a photographer and filmmaker at the film studio of Ebrāhim Golestān (b. 1922), modernist writer and director.

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  • EMĀMĪ, Sayyed ḤASAN

    Cyrus Mir

    (1903-1981), Friday prayer leader of Tehran from 1947 to 1978. He studied traditional Islamic sciences in Tehran and continental law in Lausanne, Switzerland. Upon completing his doctorate, he returned to Iran and worked as a judge in the Ministry of Justice. He was regarded as a member of the shah’s inner circle. 

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  • EMĀMĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya.

  • EMĀMQOLĪ KHAN

    Roger M. Savory

    son of the celebrated Georgian ḡolām Allāhverdī Khan; governor-general (beglarbeg) of Fārs in the early 17th century.

  • EMĀMVERDĪ MĪRZĀ ĪL-ḴĀNĪ

    Ḥosayn Maḥbūbī Ardakānī

    (b. 9 March 1796), the twelfth son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah Qajar; his mother was Begom Jān Qazvīnī.

  • EMĀMZĀDA

    Multiple Authors

    a shrine believed to be the tomb of a descendent of a Shiʿite Imam. such structures are also known as āstāna (lit., threshold), marqad (resting place, mausoleum), boqʿa (revered site), rawża (garden/tomb), gonbad (dome), mašhad (place of martyrdom), maqām (site/abode), qadamgāh (stepping place), and torbat (dust, grave).

  • EMĀMZĀDA i. Function and devotional practice

    Hamid Algar

    "Sites where divine favor and blessing occur, where mercy and grace descend; they are a refuge for the distressed, a shelter for the despondent, a haven for the oppressed, and a place of consolation for weary hearts, and will ever remain so until resurrection.”

  • EMĀMZĀDA ii. Forms, decorations, and other characteristics

    PARVĪZ VARJĀVAND

    The identity of the people interred in emāmzādas and the exact location where they are entombed are often moot questions, as in most cases there are no historical documents authenticating the claims for these shrines.

  • EMĀMZĀDA iii. Number, distribution, and important examples

    PARVĪZ VARJĀVAND

    Information and statistics regarding the number and distribution of emāmzādas in Persia vary from one source to another.

  • EMBROIDERY

    Cross-Reference

    See CLOTHING.

  • EMDĀD-ALLĀH ḤĀJĪ

    Barbara D. Metcalf

    (b. Thana Bhawan, India, 1817, d. Mecca, 1899), spiritual guide and scholar.

  • ĒMĒD Ī AŠAWAHIŠTĀN

    Mansour Shaki

    (Exposition [of Zoroastrian doctrines] by Ēmēd, son of Ašawahišt), a major 10th-century Pahlavi work comprising forty-four questions (pursišn).

  • EMERSON, RALPH WALDO

    John D. Yohannan

    (b. 25 May 1803, Boston; d. 27 April 1882, Concord), distinguished American transcendentalist, philosopher, and poet.

  • EMIGRATION

    Cross-Reference

    See HUMAN MIGRATION.

  • EMĪN YOMNĪ, MEḤMED

    Tahsın Yazici

    Moḥammad Amīn (b. Solaymānīya in Persia, 1845, d. Istanbul, 5 April 1924), Turkish poet and man of letters who also wrote in Persian.

  • EMIR

    Cross-Reference

    See AMIR.

  • EMIRATES OF THE PERSIAN GULF

    Cross-Reference

    See UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.

  • EMLĀ BOḴĀRĀʾĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Jirí Bečka

    b. ʿAlāʾ-al-Dīn (b. 1688, Sangārak, Afghanistan; d. 1749, Bukhara), Sufi poet of Arab descent.

  • EMMERICK, RONALD ERIC

    Mauro Maggi

    Between 1963-65, Emmerick wrote his doctoral dissertation entitled “Indo-Iranian Studies: Saka Grammar” and took his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in 1965. In the meantime, he had been elected research fellow at St. John’s College, Cambridge (1964-67) and lecturer in Iranian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies of the University of London (1964-71).

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  • EMPLOYMENT

    M. Amani

    , economic activity in which one engages and employs his or her time and energy. One of the major factors contributing to the growth of services is the considerable number of people working for the government.

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  • EMRĀNĪ

    David Yeroushalmi

    the name or most likely the penname (taḵalloṣ) of the fifteenth century Jewish-Persian poet of Isfahan and Kāšān.

  • EMTĪĀZĀT

    Cross-Reference

    See CONCESSIONS.

  • EN ISLAM IRANIEN, ASPECTS SPIRITUELS ET PHILOSOPHIQUES

    Daryush Shayegan

    (4 vols., Paris, 1971-73), the magnum opus of Henry Corbin, consisting of essays summarizing most of the major themes that defined his scholarly career and revealing his intellectual grasp of Persian philosophical thought.

  • ENAMEL

    EIr, Layla S. Diba

    a heat-fused glass paste colored by metal oxides and used to decorate metal surfaces. Enamel was associated with lapidary, glassworking, and goldmithing crafts and was probably used primarily in place of precious stones before the 17th century.

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  • ʿENĀYAT, ḤAMĪD

    Ahmad Ashraf

    (1932-82), political scientist and translator.