Table of Contents

  • EUNUCHS

    Multiple Authors

    castrated males who were in charge of the concubines of royal harems, served in the daily life of the court, and sometimes carried out administrative functions.

  • EUPHRATES

    Samuel N. C. Lieu

    together with the Tigris, historically and geographically constituting one of the most important river-systems in the Near East.

  • EUROPE, PERSIAN IMAGE OF

    Rudi Matthee

    To Persians, as to other Muslim peoples, Europe was long synonymous with Christendom and was thus closely associated with Rūm, the realm of Byzantium or eastern Christianity.

  • EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA

    Philip Huyse

    (260-339), Greek ecclesiastical historian and theologian.

  • EUSTATHIUS, ACTS of

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    Christian martyrological text, of which versions survive in many languages, including Greek, Latin, Syriac, and Armenian.

  • EUTHYDEMUS

    A. D. H. Bivar

    name of two Greek kings of Bactria: (1) Euthydemus I (ca. 230-200 B.C.E.), considered the real founder of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom and (2) Euthydemus II (ca. 190-185 B.C.E.), presumably the second son of Euthydemus I, or less probably eldest son of Demetrius I.

  • EUTROPIUS

    Samuel N. C. Lieu

    Roman administrator and historian, probably from Bordeaux, who accompanied the emperor Julian the Apostate on his ill-fated Persian expedition in 363.

  • EUTYCHIUS of Alexandria

    Sidney H. Griffith and EIr

    (877-940), Christian physician and historian whose Annales (written in Arabic and called Ketāb al-tārīḵ al-majmūʿ ʿalā’l-taḥqīq wa’l-taṣdīq or Naẓm al-jawhar) is a rich repository of much otherwise unobtainable information about the history of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, especially in the periods of Persian occupation in the seventh century and in Islamic times up to the early tenth century.

  • EV-OḠLĪ family

    Kathryn Babayan

    (or Īv-ōḡlī), name of a family that served three Safavid kings (ʿAbbās I, Ṣafī, and ʿAbbās II) as ešīk-āqāsī-bāšī of the harem, for a period of twenty-seven years (1617-43).

  • EV-OḠLĪ, ḤAYDAR BEG

    K. Allin Luther

    or Īv-ōḡlī, b. Abu’l-Qāsem, a court official of the later Safavid period.

  • EVAGRIUS PONTICUS

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    (346-399 C.E.), prolific author of Christian literature in Greek.

  • EVANGELICAL CHURCH OF IRAN

    Cross-Reference

    See CHRISTIANITY viii. Christian Missions in Persia.

  • EVANGELION

    Cross-Reference

    See ANGALYŪN; MĀNĪ; MANICHEISM.

  • EVIL

    Etan Kohlberg

    wickedness, harm, ill fortune.

  • EVIL EYE

    Cross-Reference

    See ČAŠM-ZAḴM.

  • EVIL MIND

    Cross-Reference

    See AKŌMAN.

  • EVĪN PRISON

    Forthcoming

    See Supplement.

  • EVOLUTION

    based on a longer article by ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn ZarrĪnkūb

    (takāmol, taḥawwol), a family of ideas embodying the belief that the physical universe and living organisms have developed in a process of continuous change from a lower, simpler to a higher, more complex state.

  • EWEN NĀMAG

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀʾĪN-NĀMA.

  • ĒWĒNBED

    Philippe Gignoux

    lit. "master of manners"; Pahlavi title attested from the 3rd century C.E.