Table of Contents

  • EʿTEŻĀD-AL-SALṬANA, ʿALĪQOLĪ MĪRZĀ

    Abbas Amanat

    (1822-1880), first minister of sciences (ʿolūm, meaning education) of the Qajar period and a scholar.

  • ETHÉ, CARL HERMANN

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    Initially Ethé worked as an assistant librarian at the Bodleian, on leave of absence from the University of Munich. In 1874 he abandoned his lectureship in Germany and settled down in Great Britain. The motivation for this move may have been political, at least in part, because Ethé is described as “a German radical, . . . a persona ingrata with absolutist governments”

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  • ETHICS

    C.-H. de Fouchıcour

    a body of practical moral doctrine was elaborated as part of the earliest development of Persian literature, at which time considerable reflection was devoted to topics ranging from morals to ethics, from the exhortation not to harm one’s fellow creature to the search for the meaning of life.

  • ETHIOPIA

    E. van Donzel

    Ethiopia (OPers. Kuša-) was located on the western fringe of the Achaemenid empire. The Ethiopians (OPers. Kušiyā; Gr. Aithí-opes “with [sun]burnt faces”) are named among the peoples of the Persian Empire and are included at the end of Herodotus’s satrapy list. 

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  • ETHNOGRAPHY (Text)

    Brian Spooner

    the basic field research method in anthropology. Apart from ancient and medieval travelers such as Herodotus, Marco Polo and Clavijo, the record of close observation by foreigners in the Iranian region begins with the reports of travelers to the Safavid Court in the sixteenth century.

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  • ETHNOGRAPHY (Bibliography)

    Brian Spooner

    For cited works not given in detail, see “Short References.” Priority has been given to coverage of ethnographic data based on long-term participant observation, but other  ethnographically significant sources are also listed, including some based on shorter works, some by travelers from before the emergence of professional ethnography, and some from scholars trained in related fields such as folklore, linguistics and cultural geography.

  • ETIQUETTE

    Nancy H. Dupree

    (Pers. nazākat, ādāb-e moʿāšarat), defined as the observance of conventional decorum particularly among the elite, is itself part of the wider topic of adab.

  • EṮNĀ-ʿAŠARĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya.

  • ʿEṬR

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿAṬR.

  • ETTEFĀQ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of five Persian newspapers.

  • ETTEFĀQ-E ESLĀM

    Nassereddin Parvin

    lit. “Islamic Solidarity"; a weekly government newspaper which began publication in Herat as of 24 August 1920; renamed Faryād in November 1922.

  • ETTEFĀQ-E KĀRGARĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a daily newspaper published by the striking print-workers union in Tehran in 1910, one of the first labor or socialist newspaper published in Persia.

  • ETTEḤĀD

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of eleven Persian language newspapers.

  • ETTEHĀD-E ESLĀM

    Cross-Reference

    See KUČEK KHAN.

  • ETTEHĀDĪYA, ŠERKAT-E

    Mansoureh Ettehadiyeh Nezam-Mafi

    an exchange company (ṣarrāfī) founded in Tabrīz in 1887 by the brothers Ḥājī ʿAlī and Ḥājī Mahdī Kūzakanānī in partnership with two local money changers, Sayed Mortażā and Ḥājī Loṭf-ʿAlī, and other Tabrīzī merchants.

  • EṬṬELĀʿ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of a Persian newspaper and a magazine.

  • EṬṬELĀʿĀT

    Nasserddin Parvin

    lit. “information, knowledge”; the oldest running Tehran afternoon daily newspaper and the oldest running Persian daily in the world. It was first published on 10 July 1926 as the organ of Markaz-e Eṭṭelāʿāt-e Īrān, the first Persian news agency.

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  • ETTINGHAUSEN, RICHARD

    Priscilla P. Soucek

    Although Ettinghausen’s official role at the Berlin Museum ended in early 1933 because of decrees issued by the National Socialist Party, he retained an admiration for the work of his former colleagues, epecially that of F. Sarre.

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  • EUCRATIDES

    Paul Bernard

    name of two Greco-Bactrian kings: (1) Eucratides I (r. 170-145 B.C.E.), one of the last and most powerful of the Greco-Bactrian kings and (2) Eucratides II, another Greco-Bactrian king, (r. 145-140 B.C.E.) known only through his coinage.

  • EUGENIUS

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    or MĀRAWGEN; legendary Christian saint traditionally credited with the introduction of Egyptian monasticism into Mesopotamia and Persia.