Table of Contents

  • ESTRĀBĀD

    Cross-Reference

    See ASTARĀBĀD.

  • EʿTEDĀLĪ, ḤEZB-E

    Cross-Reference

    See EJTEMĀʿĪYŪN.

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA

    Cross-Reference

    lit. “Confidant of the State”; an important title given to people in the administration favored by the court.

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA, ĀQĀ KHAN NŪRĪ

    Abbas Amanat

    (1807-1865), MĪRZĀ, prime minister (ṣadr-e aʿẓam) of Persia  under Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah Qajar; though relatively young when he took office, he represented the old school of Qajar statecraft.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA, EBRĀHĪM KALĀNTAR

    Cross-Reference

    See EBRĀHĪM KALĀNTAR.

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA, GĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD BEG TEHRĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    Gīāṯ-al-Dīn Moḥammad Tehrānī (d. 1622), prime minister of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr and father of the emperor’s wife, Nūr Jahān. See GĪĀṮ BEG.

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-SALṬANA, MOḤAMMAD-ḤASAN KHAN MOQADDAM MARĀḠAʾĪ

    Abbas Amanat

    or ṢANĪʿ-AL-DAWLA (1843-1896), Qajar statesman, scholar, and author.

  • EʿTEṢĀMĪ, MĪRZĀ YŪSOF KHAN ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, EʿTEṢĀM-AL-MOLK

    Heshmat Moayyad

    (b. Tabrīz, 1874; d. Tehran, 1938), Persian writer and journalist.

  • EʿTEṢĀMĪ, PARVĪN

    Heshmat Moayyad

    Parvīn was only seven or eight years old when her poetic talent revealed itself. Encouraged by her father, she rendered into verse some literary pieces that her father had translated from Western sources. Her earliest known poems, eleven compositions printed in 1921-22 issues of her father’s monthly magazine, Bahār, display maturity of thought and craft.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • EʿTEŻĀD-AL-DAWLA

    Cross-Reference

    See SOLAYMĀN KHAN QĀJĀR QOVĀNLŪ.

  • EʿTEŻĀD-AL-SALṬANA, ʿALĪQOLĪ MĪRZĀ

    Abbas Amanat

    (1822-1880), first minister of sciences (ʿolūm, meaning education) of the Qajar period and a scholar.

  • ETHÉ, CARL HERMANN

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    Initially Ethé worked as an assistant librarian at the Bodleian, on leave of absence from the University of Munich. In 1874 he abandoned his lectureship in Germany and settled down in Great Britain. The motivation for this move may have been political, at least in part, because Ethé is described as “a German radical, . . . a persona ingrata with absolutist governments”

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ETHICS

    C.-H. de Fouchıcour

    a body of practical moral doctrine was elaborated as part of the earliest development of Persian literature, at which time considerable reflection was devoted to topics ranging from morals to ethics, from the exhortation not to harm one’s fellow creature to the search for the meaning of life.

  • ETHIOPIA

    E. van Donzel

    Ethiopia (OPers. Kuša-) was located on the western fringe of the Achaemenid empire. The Ethiopians (OPers. Kušiyā; Gr. Aithí-opes “with [sun]burnt faces”) are named among the peoples of the Persian Empire and are included at the end of Herodotus’s satrapy list. 

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ETHNOGRAPHY (Text)

    Brian Spooner

    the basic field research method in anthropology. Apart from ancient and medieval travelers such as Herodotus, Marco Polo and Clavijo, the record of close observation by foreigners in the Iranian region begins with the reports of travelers to the Safavid Court in the sixteenth century.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ETHNOGRAPHY (Bibliography)

    Brian Spooner

    For cited works not given in detail, see “Short References.” Priority has been given to coverage of ethnographic data based on long-term participant observation, but other  ethnographically significant sources are also listed, including some based on shorter works, some by travelers from before the emergence of professional ethnography, and some from scholars trained in related fields such as folklore, linguistics and cultural geography.

  • ETIQUETTE

    Nancy H. Dupree

    (Pers. nazākat, ādāb-e moʿāšarat), defined as the observance of conventional decorum particularly among the elite, is itself part of the wider topic of adab.

  • EṮNĀ-ʿAŠARĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya.

  • ʿEṬR

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿAṬR.

  • ETTEFĀQ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of five Persian newspapers.

  • ETTEFĀQ-E ESLĀM

    Nassereddin Parvin

    lit. “Islamic Solidarity"; a weekly government newspaper which began publication in Herat as of 24 August 1920; renamed Faryād in November 1922.

  • ETTEFĀQ-E KĀRGARĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a daily newspaper published by the striking print-workers union in Tehran in 1910, one of the first labor or socialist newspaper published in Persia.

  • ETTEḤĀD

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of eleven Persian language newspapers.

  • ETTEHĀD-E ESLĀM

    Cross-Reference

    See KUČEK KHAN.

  • ETTEHĀDĪYA, ŠERKAT-E

    Mansoureh Ettehadiyeh Nezam-Mafi

    an exchange company (ṣarrāfī) founded in Tabrīz in 1887 by the brothers Ḥājī ʿAlī and Ḥājī Mahdī Kūzakanānī in partnership with two local money changers, Sayed Mortażā and Ḥājī Loṭf-ʿAlī, and other Tabrīzī merchants.

  • EṬṬELĀʿ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of a Persian newspaper and a magazine.

  • EṬṬELĀʿĀT

    Nasserddin Parvin

    lit. “information, knowledge”; the oldest running Tehran afternoon daily newspaper and the oldest running Persian daily in the world. It was first published on 10 July 1926 as the organ of Markaz-e Eṭṭelāʿāt-e Īrān, the first Persian news agency.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ETTINGHAUSEN, RICHARD

    Priscilla P. Soucek

    Although Ettinghausen’s official role at the Berlin Museum ended in early 1933 because of decrees issued by the National Socialist Party, he retained an admiration for the work of his former colleagues, epecially that of F. Sarre.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • EUCRATIDES

    Paul Bernard

    name of two Greco-Bactrian kings: (1) Eucratides I (r. 170-145 B.C.E.), one of the last and most powerful of the Greco-Bactrian kings and (2) Eucratides II, another Greco-Bactrian king, (r. 145-140 B.C.E.) known only through his coinage.

  • EUGENIUS

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    or MĀRAWGEN; legendary Christian saint traditionally credited with the introduction of Egyptian monasticism into Mesopotamia and Persia.

  • EULAEUS RIVER

    Cross-Reference

    See KARḴEH.

  • EUNUCHS

    Multiple Authors

    castrated males who were in charge of the concubines of royal harems, served in the daily life of the court, and sometimes carried out administrative functions.

  • EUPHRATES

    Samuel N. C. Lieu

    together with the Tigris, historically and geographically constituting one of the most important river-systems in the Near East.

  • EUROPE, PERSIAN IMAGE OF

    Rudi Matthee

    To Persians, as to other Muslim peoples, Europe was long synonymous with Christendom and was thus closely associated with Rūm, the realm of Byzantium or eastern Christianity.

  • EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA

    Philip Huyse

    (260-339), Greek ecclesiastical historian and theologian.

  • EUSTATHIUS, ACTS of

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    Christian martyrological text, of which versions survive in many languages, including Greek, Latin, Syriac, and Armenian.

  • EUTHYDEMUS

    A. D. H. Bivar

    name of two Greek kings of Bactria: (1) Euthydemus I (ca. 230-200 B.C.E.), considered the real founder of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom and (2) Euthydemus II (ca. 190-185 B.C.E.), presumably the second son of Euthydemus I, or less probably eldest son of Demetrius I.

  • EUTROPIUS

    Samuel N. C. Lieu

    Roman administrator and historian, probably from Bordeaux, who accompanied the emperor Julian the Apostate on his ill-fated Persian expedition in 363.

  • EUTYCHIUS of Alexandria

    Sidney H. Griffith and EIr

    (877-940), Christian physician and historian whose Annales (written in Arabic and called Ketāb al-tārīḵ al-majmūʿ ʿalā’l-taḥqīq wa’l-taṣdīq or Naẓm al-jawhar) is a rich repository of much otherwise unobtainable information about the history of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, especially in the periods of Persian occupation in the seventh century and in Islamic times up to the early tenth century.

  • EV-OḠLĪ family

    Kathryn Babayan

    (or Īv-ōḡlī), name of a family that served three Safavid kings (ʿAbbās I, Ṣafī, and ʿAbbās II) as ešīk-āqāsī-bāšī of the harem, for a period of twenty-seven years (1617-43).

  • EV-OḠLĪ, ḤAYDAR BEG

    K. Allin Luther

    or Īv-ōḡlī, b. Abu’l-Qāsem, a court official of the later Safavid period.

  • EVAGRIUS PONTICUS

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    (346-399 C.E.), prolific author of Christian literature in Greek. After passing the first part of his career as a preacher in Constantinople, Evagrius took up abode in the Egyptian desert and became one of the most renowned of its many ascetics.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • EVANGELICAL CHURCH OF IRAN

    Cross-Reference

    See CHRISTIANITY viii. Christian Missions in Persia.

  • EVANGELION

    Cross-Reference

    “gospel” (Gk. euangélion). For the Manichean scripture of that name, see ANGALYŪN; MĀNĪ; MANICHEISM.

  • EVIL

    Etan Kohlberg

    wickedness, harm, ill fortune.

  • EVIL EYE

    Cross-Reference

    See ČAŠM-ZAḴM.

  • EVIL MIND

    Cross-Reference

    See AKŌMAN.

  • EVIL SPIRIT

    Cross-Reference

    See AHRIMAN.

  • EVĪN PRISON

    Forthcoming

    See Supplement.

  • EVOLUTION

    based on a longer article by ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn ZarrĪnkūb

    (takāmol, taḥawwol), a family of ideas embodying the belief that the physical universe and living organisms have developed in a process of continuous change from a lower, simpler to a higher, more complex state.