Table of Contents

  • ESCHATOLOGY i. In Zoroastrianism and Zoroastrian Influence

    Shaul Shaked

    Faith in the events beyond life on this earth is attested in the Zoroastrian scriptures from the very first, from the Gāθās. This faith developed and became central to later Zoroastrianism so that it colors almost all aspects of the religious life.

  • ESCHATOLOGY ii. Manichean Eschatology

    Werner Sundermann

    Manichean eschatology, teachings about final things, provided information on what happened during and after the death of a single human being and also on what would happen before and at the end of this world.

  • ESCHATOLOGY iii. Imami Shiʿism

    M. A. Amir-Moezzi

    It is known that among Islamic doctrinal trends and schools of thought that Shiʿism, Imami Shiʿism in particular, has developed eschatological doctrine most fully.

  • ESCHATOLOGY iv. In Babism and Bahaism

    Stephen Lambden

    Individual Babis and Bahais have compiled testimonia and written “demonstrative treatises” (estedlālīya) to show the fulfillment, in their religion, of apocalyptic and eschatological prophecies.

  • EṢFAHĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ISFAHAN.

  • EṢFAHĀN and EṢFAHĀNĀT

    Cross-Reference

    See BAYĀT-E EṢFAHĀN.

  • EṢFAHĀNĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤASAN

    David Pingree

    b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥasan, author of the Ketāb al-bolhān on astrology, magic, divination, and demonology, which he composed around 1400 for Ḥosayn b. Aḥmad b. Moḥammad Erbelī.

  • EṢFAHĀNĪ, ABU’L-ŠAYḴ ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Martin McDermott

    b. Moḥammad b. Jaʿfar b. Ḥayyān ḤĀFEẒ ANṢĀRĪ (887-979), traditionist and Koran commentator, important principally for his Ṭabaqāt al-moḥaddeṯīn.

  • ESFAHANI, Jaleh

    Shadab Vajdi

    (Žāla Eṣfahāni, b. Esfahan, 1921; d. London, 29 November 2007), poet and political activist. Esfahani’s poetry is ensconced in the tradition of Persian prosody. With few exceptions, she adheres to the metrical traditions of classical Persian poetry. She frequently borrows imageries from poets of the classical period and adapts them to the requirements of her politically laden poems.

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  • ESFAHSĀLĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See SEPAHSĀLĀR.

  • ESFAND

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    a common weed found in Persia, Central Asia, and the adjacent areas.

  • ESFANDĪĀR (1)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    son of Goštāsp, Kayanian prince of Iranian legendary history and hero of Zoroastrian holy wars, best known for his tragic combat with with Rostam, the mightiest warrior of Iranian national epic.

  • ESFANDĪĀR (2)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    one of the seven great clans of Parthian and Sasanian times.

  • ESFANDĪĀR KHAN BAḴTĪĀRĪ, ṢAMṢĀM-AL-SALṬANA, SARDĀR(-E) ASʿAD

    G. R. Garthwaite

    (1844-1902), important leader of the Baḵtīārī tribe in southwestern Persia and grandfather of Queen Ṯorayyā.

  • ESFANDĪĀRĪ, ḤĀJJ MOḤTAŠAM-AL-SALṬANA ḤASAN

    Bāqer ʿĀqelī

    (b. 23 April 1867; d. 24 February 1945), politician, governor, and speaker of the Majles.

  • ESFARA

    Habib Borjian

    a district in the Fergana valley south of the Jaxartes which extends to the foothills of the Turkestan range.

  • ESFARĀYEN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    or ESFARĀʾĪN; a district, and in pre-modern Islamic times, a town, of northwestern Khorasan.

  • ESFEZĀRĪ, ABŪ ḤĀTEM

    Cross-Reference

    5th/12th-century astronomer. See ASFEZĀRĪ, ABŪ ḤĀTEM.

  • ESFEZĀRĪ, MOʿĪN-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD ZAMČĪ

    MARIA E. Subtelny

    (ca. 1446-1510), calligrapher specializing in the taʿlīq script, minor poet (pen name Nāmī), and master of the epistolary art who flourished in Herat during the reign of the Timurid Solṭān-Ḥosayn Bāyqarā.

  • ESFĪJĀB

    Cross-Reference

    See ASFĪJĀB.

  • ESḤĀQ

    Mohsen Zakeri

    b. ṬOLAYQ (or Ṭalīq), the secretary responsible for translating the financial dīvāns of Khorasan into Arabic in 741-42.

  • ESḤĀQ AḤMAR NAḴAʿI

    Mushegh Asatryan

    a prominent Shiʿi extremist active in Iraq, founder of the Esḥāqiya ḡolāt sect, and the supposed author of a number of texts.

  • ESḤĀQ KHAN QARĀʾĪ TORBATĪ

    Kambiz Eslami

    (ca. 1743-1816), one of the wealthiest and most powerful chieftains in Khorasan during the reigns of Āḡā Moḥammad Khan and Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah Qājār.

  • ESḤĀQ MAWṢELĪ

    Everett K. Rowson

    (767?-850), prominent musician at the ʿAbbasid court in Baghdad and the successor of his equally famous father Ebrāhīm Mawṣelī as leader of the conservative school of musicians of the time.

  • ESḤĀQ TORK

    ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Zarrīnkūb

    propagandist sent by Abū Moslem Ḵorāsānī (governor of Khorasan and leading figure in the ʿAbbasid revolution) to the Turkish people of Transoxania.

  • ESḤAQĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See ḠOLĀT.

  • ESḤĀQZĪ

    Daniel Balland

    The geographical distribution of the tribe shows the dualism typical to those Pashtun tribes who have massively taken part in the colonization of North Afghanistan, a process in which the Esḥāqzī played a leading role.

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  • EŠĪK-ĀQĀSĪ-BĀŠĪ

    Roger M. Savory

    or Īšīk-āqāsī-bāšī, the title of two officials in the Safavid central administration, namely ešīk-āqāsī-bāšī-e dīvān, and ešīk-āqāsī-bāšī-e ḥaram.

  • ESKĀFI, ABŪ ḤANĪFA

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    11th century Persian poet, mentioned among the court poets of Ḡazna.

  • ESKĀFĪ, ABŪ JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD

    Josef van Ess

    b. ʿAbd-Allāh, Muʿtazilite theologian of the 9th century (d. 854).

  • ESKANDAR

    Cross-Reference

    See ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

  • ESKANDAR

    Cross-Reference

    See QĀBŪS b. VOŠMGĪR.

  • ESKANDAR B. JĀNĪ BEG

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-ALLĀH KHAN b. ESKANDAR.

  • ESKANDAR BEG TORKAMĀN MONŠĪ

    Roger M. Savory

    sixteenth century author of Tārīḵ-e ʿālamārā-ye ʿabbāsī, a history of the reign of Shah ʿAbbās I.

  • ESKANDAR MĪRZĀ

    Cross-Reference

    pro-Persian member of the royal family of Georgia (b. 1770, d. after 1830).See ALEXANDER, PRINCE.

  • ESKANDAR SOLṬĀN

    Priscilla Soucek

    b. ʿOmar Šayḵ b. Tīmūr (1384-1415), Timurid prince who ruled a succession of cities in western Persia between 1403 and 1415 but is remembered mostly for his cultural patronage.

  • ESKANDAR-NĀMA

    William L. Hanaway

    Alexander the Great and the adventure tale about him known generically as the Alexander romance.

  • ESKANDAR-NĀMA OF NEŻĀMĪ

    François de Blois

    the poetical version of the life of Alexander by the great 12th century narrative poet Neẓāmī Ganjavī (1141-1209).

  • ESKANDARĪ, ĪRAJ

    Cosroe Chaqueri

    (1907-1985), prominent leader of the Tudeh Party. He was an architect of the coalition of the Tudeh party with prime minister Aḥmad Qawām in 1946. From 1948 he worked for the Tudeh party in Paris, Vienna, Budapest, Moscow, and finally Leipzig. His lukewarm attitude toward the Islamic Revolution and refusal of a Soviet offer to help turn Persia into another Afghanistan cost him his leadership position in 1979.

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  • ESKANDARĪ, MOḤTARAM

    Mehrangīz Dawlatšāhī

    a pioneer advocate of women’s rights in Persia (1895-1925) and the founder and leader of the first women’s association in Persia, namely Jamʿīyat-e taraqqī-e neswān, later Jamʿīyat-e neswān-e waṭanḵᵛāh (Society of Patriotic Women).

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  • ESKANDARĪ, SOLAYMĀN (MOḤSEN) MĪRZĀ

    Cosroe Chaqueri

    (1875-1944), constitutionalist, civil servant, statesman, founder of the Ejtemāʿīyūn (Socialists) political party in the 1920s. His interest in social justice and egalitarianism was more rooted in Islam than in the European Enlightenment or European socialism. A devout Muslim, he opposed women’s membership in the Tudeh party.

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  • ESKANDARĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See ALEXANDRIA.

  • EŠKĀŠ(E)M

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a settlement in medieval Badaḵšān in northeastern Afghanistan, now in the modern Afghan province of Eškāšem.

  • EŠKĀŠ(E)MĪ

    I. M. Steblin-Kamensky

    or Ishkashmi; one of the so-called “Pamir group” of the Eastern Iranian languages spoken in a few villages of the region of Eškāšem straddling the upper reaches of the Panj river.

  • ESKENĀS

    Ali Shargi

    bank note, paper currency. In 1888 an English-owned New Oriental Bank established branches in Tehran and other cities, and for the first time Persians became acquainted with a bank in the modern sense. in 1889, Baron Julius de Reuter obtained from Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah the concession of establishing the Imperial Bank of Persia and the monopoly of issuing bank notes in Persia.

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  • EṢLĀḤ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of several Persian-language newspapers, especially the major 20th-century Kabul daily.

  • EṢLĀḤĀT-E ARŻĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See LAND REFORM.

  • ESLĀM

    Cross-Reference

    See ISLAM in IRAN.

  • ESLĀMĪYA

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of two Persian newspapers first appearing in Tabrīz in 1906.

  • ESM

    Cross-Reference

    See PERSONAL NAMES; ALQĀB WA ʿANĀWĪN.