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human and animal excrement, widely used in Persia and Afghanistan for fuel and fertilizer.
an oasis town situated in the northwest of the Chinese province of Gansu, is famous for its Mogao Caves (Mogaoku) or Caves of One Thousand Buddhas (Qianfodong).This Article Has Images/Tables.
or Dong Qešlaq; group of pre-Islamic and Islamic archeological sites on the Emām Ṣāḥeb plain in the Qondūz province of Afghanistan, about 10 km south of the Oxus.
David B. Edwards
(b. Greenville, N.C., 23 August 1925, d. Durham, N.C., 21 March 1989), American anthropologist who specialized in Afghan studies.This Article Has Images/Tables.
Pierre Leriche, D. N. MacKenzie
ruined city on the right bank of the Euphrates between Antioch and Seleucia on the Tigris, founded in 303 BCE by Nicanor, a general of Seleucus I. Its military function of the Greek period was abandoned under the Parthians, but at that time it was an administrative and economic center.This Article Has Images/Tables.
Rose L. Greaves
(b. Sehore, Bhopal State, India, 14 February 1850, d. Polden, Somerset, England, 8 June 1924), British diplomat and envoy to Tehran at the end of the 19th century.
Avestan word, attested once in the Older Avesta, in the Younger Avesta the preferred and exclusive epithet of haoma, the ritual liquid.
D. N. MacKenzie
according to the Pahlavi tradition the name of two legendary personages in the history of Zoroastrianism.
(Gk. Doûris), (ca. 340-281/270 B.C.E.), Greek historiographer of the early Hellenistic period.
Roger M. Savory
or Dormeš; b. ʿAbdī Beg TAVĀČĪ ŠĀMLŪ, powerful Qezelbāš amir, brother-in-law and confidant of Shah Esmāʿīl I.