Table of Contents

  • ḎŪ QĀR

    Ella Landau-Tasseron

    watering place near Kūfa in Iraq where a battle was fought between Arab tribesmen and Persian forces in the early 7th century.


    Sīrūs Šamīsā

    a term in Persian and Arabic prosody designating a poem that can be scanned according to two or more different meters (baḥr).


    Gherardo Gnoli

    feature peculiar to Iranian religion in ancient and medieval times.


    Sussan Siavoshi

    (Dobayy), second largest of the seven emirates constituting the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) on the southern shores of the Persian Gulf.


    Pierre Lecoq

    (1910-2012), distinguished scholar of classical philology and Indo-Iranian studies.

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  • DUCK

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    technically any species of the family Anatidae but in Persian popular usage including similar waterfowl from other families, particularly some geese and grebes.

  • DŪḠ

    M. R. Ghanoonparvar

    beverage made of yogurt and plain or carbonated water and often served chilled as a refreshing summer drink or with meals, especially with kebabs or čelow-kabāb.


    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    lit. “beverage of unity”; concoction made from adding hashish extract (jowhar-e ḥaīš) to diluted yogurt.


    D. N. MacKenzie

    the name of Zoroaster’s mother, which appears in several different spellings in the Pahlavi texts, mostly more or less corrupted from an original attempt at representing the Avestan form.



    See Šāpur II.