Table of Contents

  • DUALISM

    Gherardo Gnoli

    feature peculiar to Iranian religion in ancient and medieval times.

  • DUBAI

    Sussan Siavoshi

    (Dobayy), second largest of the seven emirates constituting the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) on the southern shores of the Persian Gulf.

  • DUCK

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    technically any species of the family Anatidae but in Persian popular usage including similar waterfowl from other families, particularly some geese and grebes.

  • DŪḠ

    M. R. Ghanoonparvar

    beverage made of yogurt and plain or carbonated water and often served chilled as a refreshing summer drink or with meals, especially with kebabs or čelow-kabāb.

  • DŪḠ-E WAḤDAT

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    lit. “beverage of unity”; concoction made from adding hashish extract (jowhar-e ḥaīš) to diluted yogurt.

  • DUGDŌW

    D. N. MacKenzie

    the name of Zoroaster’s mother, which appears in several different spellings in the Pahlavi texts, mostly more or less corrupted from an original attempt at representing the Avestan form.

  • ḎU’L-AKTĀF

    Cross-Reference

    See SHAPUR II.

  • ḎU’L-FAQĀR

    Jean Calmard

    lit., “provided with notches, grooves, vertebrae”; the miraculous sword of Imam ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāleb, with two blades or points, which became a symbol of his courage on the battlefield.

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  • ḎU’L-FAQĀR KHAN AFŠĀR

    J. R. PERRY

    governor (ḥākem) of Ḵamsa province (ca. 1763-80) under the Zand dynasty.

  • ḎU’L-FAQĀR ŠĪRVĀNĪ

    Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    MALEK-AL-ŠOʿARĀ QEWĀM-AL-DĪN ḤOSAYN b. Ṣadr-al-Dīn ʿAlī (d. ca. 691/1291), Persian poet and panegyrist of the Il-khanid period. 

  • ḎU’L-JANĀḤ

    Jean Calmard

    Imam Ḥosayn’s winged horse, known from popular literature and rituals.

  • ḎU’L-LESĀNAYN

    Hamid Algar

    lit. “possessor of two tongues”; epithet often bestowed upon bilingual poets.

  • ḎU’L-NŪN MEṢRĪ, ABU’L-FAYŻ ṮAWBĀN

    Gerhard Böwering

    b. Ebrāhīm (b. Aḵmīm in Upper Egypt, ca. 791, d. Jīza [Giza], between 859 and 862), early Sufi master.

  • ḎU’L-QADR

    Pierre Oberling

    (arabicized form of Turk. Dulgadır), a Ḡozz tribe that became established mainly in southeastern Anatolia under the Saljuqs.

  • DU’L-QARNAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

  • ḎU’L-RĪĀSATAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See FAŻL B. SAHL.

  • ḎU’L-RĪĀSATAYN

    Hamid Algar

    (b. Shiraz, 1873, d. Tehran, 15 June 1953), for thirty years qoṭb (leader) of a principal branch of the Neʿmatallāhī Sufi order. 

  • ḎU’L-ŠAHĀDATAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See AŠRAF ḠAZNAVĪ.

  • DULAFIDS

    Cross-Reference

    See DOLAFIDS.

  • DUMAQU

    Gerd Gropp

    or Domoko; administrative center of the eastern region of the Khotan oasis in Chinese Turkestan.

  • DUMÉZIL, Georges

    Bruce Lincoln

     (1898-1986), French comparatist philologist and religious studies scholar. Among the most significant later modifications in Dumézil's views was his decision to abandon the claim that Indo-European society was originally divided into three functional groupings, whose defining characteristics were then inscribed in myth, ritual, and the structure of the pantheon. Rather, he came to regard the tripartite system as an “ideology,” a collective ideal.

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  • DUNG

    Willem Floor

    human and animal excrement, widely used in Persia and Afghanistan for fuel and fertilizer.

  • DUNHUANG

    Gunner Mikkelsen

    an oasis town situated in the northwest of the Chinese province of Gansu, is famous for its Mogao Caves (Mogaoku) or Caves of One Thousand Buddhas (Qianfodong).

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  • DŪNQEŠLĀQ

    Klaus Fischer

    or Dong Qešlaq; group of pre-Islamic and Islamic archeological sites on the Emām Ṣāḥeb plain in the Qondūz province of Afghanistan, about 10 km south of the Oxus.

  • DUPREE, LOUIS

    David B. Edwards

    Following the completion of his Ph.D. degree, Dupree taught at the Air University at Maxwell Air Force Base and Pennsylvania State University. Between 1959 and 1983 he was affiliated with the American Universities Field Staff (A.U.F.S.) as its expert on Afghanistan and Pakistan.

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  • DURA EUROPOS

    Pierre Leriche, D. N. MacKenzie

    ruined city on the right bank of the Euphrates between Antioch and Seleucia on the Tigris, founded in 303 BCE by Nicanor, a general of Seleucus I. Its military function of the Greek period was abandoned under the Parthians, but at that time it was an administrative and economic center.

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  • DURAND, HENRY MORTIMER

    Rose L. Greaves

    (b. Sehore, Bhopal State, India, 14 February 1850, d. Polden, Somerset, England, 8 June 1924), British diplomat and envoy to Tehran at the end of the 19th century.

  • DŪRAOŠA

    Jean Kellens

    Avestan word, attested once in the Older Avesta, in the Younger Avesta the preferred and exclusive epithet of haoma, the ritual liquid.

  • DŪRĀSRAW

    D. N. MacKenzie

    according to the Pahlavi tradition the name of two legendary personages in the history of Zoroastrianism.

  • DURIS OF SAMOS

    RÜDIGER SCHMITT

    (Gk. Doûris), (ca. 340-281/270 B.C.E.), Greek historiographer of the early Hellenistic period.

  • DŪRMEŠ, KHAN

    Roger M. Savory

    or Dormeš; b. ʿAbdī Beg TAVĀČĪ ŠĀMLŪ, powerful Qezelbāš amir, brother-in-law and confidant of Shah Esmāʿīl I.

  • DŪRNEMĀ-YE ĪRĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    weekly of politics and culture edited and published by the Persian writer, scholar, and filmmaker ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Sepantā in Bombay from 30 November 1928 to March 1929.

  • DÜRRI EFENDI, AḤMAD

    Tahsin Yazici

    (or Dorrī Afandī; (b. Van, date unknown, d. Istanbul, 1722), Ottoman poet, civil servant, and diplomat who served as ambassador to Tehran and wrote Sefārat-nāma, the first Turkish account of Safavid Persia.

  • DUSHANBE

    Muriel Atkin

    capital and most populous city of Tajikistan.

  • DŪST MOḤAMMAD KHAN BĀRAKZĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See DŌST MOḤAMMAD KHAN.

  • DŪST-ʿALĪ MOʿAYYER

    Cross-Reference

    See MOʿAYYER-AL-MAMĀLEK.

  • DŪST-MOḤAMMAD HERAVĪ

    Chahryar Adle

    (d. probably Qazvīn, shortly after 1564), master calligrapher, the only artist whom Shah Ṭahmāsb I kept with him after having gradually dismissed all the others from his direct service.

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  • DŪST-MOḤAMMAD MOṢAWWER

    Chahryar Adle

    (d. ca. 1560), master painter, known in the Indo-Persian world and even among the Ottomans as a painter (moṣawwer), paper cutter (qāṭeʿ), calligraphic tracer/outliner (moḥarrer), and perhaps binder (saḥḥāf) and gilder (moḏahheb).

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  • DUTCH-PERSIAN RELATIONS

    Willem Floor

    , from the 16th century to the present. Until the 16th century the Dutch knew little of Persia and nothing of its language. Franciscus Raphelengius (1539-97), a professor at Leiden University, drew up a short list of Persian words based on the first Persian text ever printed, the translation of the Pentateuch published in Hebrew characters in Istanbul in 1546.

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  • DŪZAḴ

    Mansour Shaki

    hell.

  • DUŽYĀIRYA

    Antonio Panaino

    bad year or bad harvest.

  • DVIN

    Erich Kettenhofen

    city in Armenia located north of Artaxata on the left bank of the Azat, about 35 km south of the present Armenian capital at Yerevan. It remained a significant center from the Sasanian period to the 13th century, and its pleasant climate was mentioned by many authors.

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  • DYAKONOV, MIKHAIL MIKHAĬLOVICH

    Boris Litvinsky

    (b. St. Petersburg, 26 June 1907, d. Moscow, 8 June 1954), Russian scholar of Iranian studies.

  • DYES

    Cross-Reference

    See CARPETS ii.

  • Dašti

    music sample

  • D~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter D entries.