Table of Contents

  • DA AFḠĀNESTĀN TĀRĪḴ ṬŌLANA

    Cross-Reference

    See Anjoman-e Tāriḵ-e Afḡānestān.

  • DĀ O DOḴTAR

    Hubertus Von Gall

    (lit. “Mother and daughter”), an important rock-cut tomb, probably of the early Hellenistic period, at the northwestern corner of the Mamasanī region of Fārs. Among all the rock-cut tombs of the former territory of Media and of Fārs, it most closely resembles the royal Achaemenid tombs.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DABBĀḠĪ

    ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    tanning, the process by which animal skins are made into leather.

  • DABESTĀN

    Cross-Reference

    (elementary school). See EDUCATION.

  • DABESTĀN JOURNAL

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (“school”), Persian monthly cultural journal published in Mašhad, 1922-27. 

  • DABESTĀN-E MAḎĀHEB

    Fatḥ-Allāh Mojtabāʾī

    (school of religious doctrines), an important text of the Āḏar Kayvānī pseudo-Zoroastrian sect, written between 1645 and 1658.

  • DABĪR

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī, Hashem Rajabzadeh

    "secretary, scribe." i. In the pre-Islamic period. ii. In the Islamic period.

  • DABĪR-AL-MOLK FARĀHĀNĪ

    Guity Nashat

    or Mīrzā Moḥammad-Ḥosayn (1810-80), director of the private royal secretariat under Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah.

  • DABĪR-E AʿẒAM

    Cross-Reference

    See BAHRAMĪ, FARAJ-ALLĀH.

  • DABĪRE, DABĪRĪ

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    a term designating the “seven scripts” supposedly used in the Sasanian period.

  • DABĪRESTĀN

    Cross-Reference

    secondary school. See EDUCA­TION x. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

  • DABĪRESTĀN-E NEẒĀM

    Cross-Reference

    military secondary school. See pending entry MILITARY.

  • DĀBŪYA DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E DĀBŪYA.

  • DABUYIDS

    Wilfred Madelung

    the dynasty of espahbads ruling Ṭabarestān until its conquest by the Muslims in 144/761.

  • DĀD (1)

    Mansour Shaki

    (Av. dāta- “law, right, rule, regulation, statute, command, institution, decision”), in the Zoroastrian tradition the most general term for law.

  • DĀD (2)

    Jean During

    a vocal and instrumental gūša (motif), in reality more of a melodic type than a modal structure.  

  • DĀD (3)

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (lit., “justice”), a Tehran afternoon newspaper, 1942-61.

  • DĀD NASK

    Mansour Shaki

    (law book), one of the three divisions of the Avesta, comprising seven nasks, subdi­vided into the five strictly legal (dādīg) nasks (Nikātum, Duzd-sar-nizad, Huspāram, Sakātum, and Vidēvdād) and the two disparate nasks, Čihrdād and Bagān Yašt.

  • DADA ʿOMAR ROŠENĪ

    Cross-Reference

    cofounder of the Ḵalwatī Sufi order. See DEDE ÖMER RUŞENĪ

  • DADARSIS

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    Old Persian name derived from darš “to dare”; three men with this name are known.

  • DADESTAN

    Mansour Shaki

    (dād “law,” with the formative suffix -stān), a Middle Persian term used with denota­tions and connotations that vary with the legal, reli­gious, philosophical, and social context.

  • DĀDESTĀN Ī DĒNĪG

    Mansour Shaki

    (Religious judgements), Pahlavi work by Manūščihr, high priest of the Persian Zoroastrian community in the 9th century.

  • DADESTAN Ī MENOG Ī XRAD

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    (Judgments of the Spirit of Wisdom), a Zoroastrian Pahlavi book in sixty-three chapters (a preamble and sixty-two ques­tions and answers).

  • DĀDGĀH "COURT"

    Cross-Reference

    court of law. See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS v. JUDICIAL SYSTEM IN THE 20TH CENTURY.

  • DĀDGĀH "TEMPLE FIRE"

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀTAŠ.

  • DĀDGAR, ḤOSAYN

    Bāqer ʿĀqelī

    ʿAdl-al-Molk (b. Tehran ca. 1299/1881, d. 1349 Š./1970), at various times president of the Persian Majles, cabi­net minister, and senator under the Qajar and Pahlavi dynasties.

  • DĀDGOSTARĪ, WEZĀRAT-E

    Cross-Reference

    See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS.

  • DĀDĪŠOʿ

    Erica C. D. Hunter

    (Syr. “beloved of Jesus”; Payne Smith, col. 824, s.v.; Pers. “given by Jesus”), catholicus of the Sasanian “Nestorian” church in 420/21-455/56.

  • DADISOʿ QATRAYA

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    (late 7th century), Nestorian author of ascetic literature in Syriac.

  • DĀḎMEHR b. FARROḴĀN

    Cross-Reference

    espahbad of Ṭabarestān. See Dabuyids.

  • DADWAR, DADWARIH

    Mansour Shaki

    respectively judge, administrator of justice, lawgiver, lit., “bearer of law.”

  • DADYSETH AGIARY

    Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal

    in 1771 C.E. Dadibhai Noshirwanji Dadyseth established an agiary with an Ādarān fire for the sake of the soul of his first wife, Kunverbai, in the Fort district of Bombay.

  • DADYSETH ATAS BAHRAM

    Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal

    the oldest Ātaš Bahrām of Bombay, consecrated and installed according to Kadmi rites in the district of Fanaswadi on the day of Sarōš, month of Farvardīn 1153 A.Y./29 September 1783.

  • DADYSETH, Dadibhai Noshirwanji

    Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal

    (1734-99), a distinguished Parsi philanthropist.

  • DAĒNA

    Cross-Reference

    See DĒN.

  • DAF(F) AND DAYERA

    Jean During, Veronica Doubleday

    terms applied to types of frame drum common in both the art music and popular traditions of Persia. Such drums have long been known throughout Asia in various forms and under different names.  The term dāyera originally referred to the flat, circular drums of pre-­Islamic Arabia.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DAFTAR

    Hashem Rajabzadeh

    an administrative office, as well as a notebook or booklet, more especially an account book or correspondence regis­ter, used in such an office.

  • DAFTAR-E ASNĀD-E RASMĪ

    Aḥmad Mahdawī Dāmḡānī

    (Registry of official documents), a government department where documents and records of transactions, contracts, marriages, divorces, and the like are kept and signa­tures verified.

  • DAFTAR-ḴĀNA-YE HOMĀYŪN

    Hashem Rajabzadeh

    royal sec­retariat; a Safavid administrative unit headed by the daftardār, or chief secretary.

  • DĀḠ

    Ṣādeq Sajjādī

    “brand.”  According to Rašīd-al-Dīn Fażl-Allāh, “The tamḡā was a special emblem or mark that the Turkish and Mongol peoples stamped on decrees and also branded on their flocks.”   Each of the twenty-four tribes of the Oḡuz Turkmen had its own tamḡā, with which it branded its flocks.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DĀḠESTĀN

    Gadzhi Gamzatovich Gamzatov, Fridrik Thordarson

    (Daghestan). The many-faceted relationship between Dāḡestān (ancient Albania), a region in the eastern Caucasus, and Persia since antiquity has yet to be studied as a whole, though there is considerable historical, linguis­tic, folkloric, literary, and art-historical evidence bear­ing on it.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DĀḠESTĀNĪ, FATḤ ʿALĪ KHAN

    Roger M. Savory

    b. Alqāṣ Mīrzā b. Ildirim Khan Šamḵāl, grand vizier (wazīr-e aʿẓam, eʿtemād-al-dawla) under Shah Solṭān-Ḥosayn I Ṣafawī (1105-35/1694-1722).

  • DAGUERREOTYPE

    Chahryar Adle

    the first practical photo­graphic process, introduced into Persia in the early 1840s, shortly after its official presentation to the French Académie de Science in Paris in 1839. Acceptance of the medium of photography in Persia reflected the cultural value attached to painting in general and portraiture in particular.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ḎAHABĪYA

    Hamid Algar

    a Sufi order of Shiʿite allegiance, ultimately derived from the Kobrawīya order.

  • DAHAE

    François de Blois, Willem Vogelsang

    i. The name. ii. The people.

  • DAHAN-E ḠOLĀMĀN

    Gherardo Gnoli

    “Gateway of the slaves,” site  ca. 30 km southeast of Zābol in Sīstān. It is the sole large provincial capital surviving from the Achaemenid empire; excavations there have brought to light a combination of “imperial” elements, identified in the public buildings, and local elements.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DAHBĪDĪYA

    Hamid Algar

    a hereditary line of Naqšbandī Sufis centered on the shrine at Dahbīd, a village about 11 km. from Samarqand.

  • DAHM YAZAD

    Mary Boyce

    the Middle Persian name of the Zoroastrian divinity (also known as Dahmān Āfrīn and Dahmān) who is the spirit or force inherent in the Avestan benediction called Dahma Vaŋuhi Āfriti, or Dahma Āfriti.

  • DAHRĪ

    Mansour Shaki, Daniel Gimaret

    (< Ar.-Pers. dahr “time, eternity”), a theological term referring either to an atheist or to an adherent of the doctrine that the universe had no beginning in time.

  • DAHYU

    Gherardo Gnoli

    country (often with reference to the people inhabiting it).

  • DAʿĪ

    Farhad Daftary

    he who summons; a term used by several Muslim groups, especially the Ismaʿilis, to designate their propagandists or missionaries.

  • DĀʿĪ

    Tahsin Yazici

    the pen name of Aḥmad b. Ebrāhīm b. Moḥammad, Turkish scholar and poet who wrote in both Persian and Turkish.

  • DĀʿĪ BOḴĀRĪ

    Cathérine Poujol

    (d. 1885), poet from Bukhara, probably born during the reign of Amir Naṣr-Allāh (1827-60).

  • DĀʿĪ ELAʾL-ḤAQQ, ABŪ ʿABD ALLĀH MOḤAMMAD

    Wilfred Madelung

    b. Zayd b. Moḥammad b. Esmāʿīl b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāleb (d. 287/900), brother and successor of Ḥasan b. Zayd, founder of Zaydī rule in Rūyān and Ṭabarestān.

  • DĀʿĪ JĀN NĀPELʾON

    Nasrin Rahimiyeh

    lit., “Uncle Napoleon”, a satirical novel written in 1348-49 Š./1969-70 by Īraj Pezeškzād, who was already known in Persia for writing such satirical novels.

  • DĀʿĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā

    AL-DĀʿĪ ELAʾLLĀH SAYYED NEẒĀM AL DĪN MAḤMŪD(1407-65), poet, preacher, and leader of the Neʿmat-Allāhī Sufi order in Fārs.

  • DĀʿĪ-AL-ESLĀM, SAYYED MOḤAMMAD ʿALĪ

    M. Saleem Akhtar

    Per­sian scholar, preacher, and lexicographer, born 1295/1878 at Lārījān.

  • DĀʿĪ-E KABĪR

    Cross-Reference

    See ḤASAN b. ZAYD.

  • DĀʿĪ-E ṢAḠĪR

    Cross-Reference

    See ḤASAN b. QĀSEM ʿALAWĪ.

  • DĀITYĀ, VAŊHVĪ

    Gherardo Gnoli

    the name of a river connected with the religious law, frequently identified in scholarly literature with the Oxus or with rivers of the northeastern region.

  • DAIUKKU

    Cross-Reference

    See DEIOCES.

  • DAIVA

    Clarisse Herrenschmidt and Jean Kelllens

    Old Iranian noun (Av. daēuua-, OPers. daiva-) corresponding to the title devá- of the Indian gods and thus reflecting the Indo-European heritage (*deiu̯ó-).

  • DAIVADANA

    Gherardo Gnoli

    lit., "temple of the daivas," Old Persian term that appears in the “daiva inscrip­tion” of Xerxes at Persepolis.

  • DAJJĀL

    Hamid Algar

    lit. "the great deceiver"; in Islamic tradition the maleficent figure gifted with supernatural powers whose advent and brief, though quasi-universal, rule will be among the signs heralding the approach of the resurrection.

  • ḎAKAʾ-AL-MOLK

    Cross-Reference

    See FORŪḠĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ; FORŪḠĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN.

  • DAKANĪ, REŻĀ ʿALĪŠĀH

    Javad Nurbakhsh

    also known as Shah ʿAlī-Reżā (1683-1799), leader (qoṭb, lit., “pole”) in the years 1741-99 of the Neʿmat-­Allāhī Sufi order in Hyderabad (Deccan), India.

  • DAKANĪ, SAYYED MĪR ʿABD AL ḤAMĪD MAʿSḭŪM ʿALISĀH

    Hamid Algar

    (ca. 1738-97), the “renewer” (mojadded) of the Neʿmat-Allāhī Sufi order in Persia and thus the initiatory ancestor of all present­-day Neʿmat-Allāhīs.

  • DAḴĪL

    Ḥosayn-ʿAlī Beyhaqī

    lit. “interceder”; a piece of rag or cord or a lock fastened (daḵīl bastan) on a sacred place or object, for example, the railing around a saint’s tomb or grave or a public fountain (saqqā-ḵāna), the branch of a tree considered sacred, or another plant, in order to obtain a desired benefit.

  • ḎAḴĪRA-YE ḴᵛĀRAZMŠĀHĪ

    ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    early 13th-century Persian ency­clopedia of medical knowledge compiled by Sayyed Esmāʿīl b. Ḥosayn Jorjānī.

  • DAḴMA

    Cross-Reference

    See CORPSE.

  • DALMĀ TEPE

    Robert H. Dyson, Jr.

    The excavations revealed a mass of handmade, chaff-­tempered pottery with fine grit inclusions, fired to orange or pink, frequently with a gray core. A few sherds have smoothed, undecorated surfaces and have been labeled “Dalma plain ware.”

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DALQAK

    Farrokh Gaffary

    buffoon, court jester, also sometimes known as masḵara.

  • DAL’VERZIN TEPE

    G. A. Pugachenkova

    a large site in southern Uzbekistan located not far from the bank of the Surkhan­darya river near Denau, a small city approximately 60 km northeast of Termez; it has yielded valuable data on the civilization and arts of northern Bactria and Tokharistan.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DAM (1)

    Cross-Reference

    See BAND.

  • DAM (2)

    Klaus Fischer

    archeological site in Afghanistan, 30°55’ N, 62°01’ E, located approximately 20 km east of the Helmand delta.

  • DĀM PEZEŠKĪ

    Mansour Shaki, Ḥasan Tājbaḵš, and Ṣādeq Sajjādī

    veterinary medicine.

  • DĀM-DĀRĪ

    Jean-Pierre Digard

    animal husbandry. In gen­eral, livestock raising in the Persian-speaking world is dominated by small animals, with a large proportion of goats, which in certain provinces of Persia itself are even more numerous than sheep. Cattle and equines, especially donkeys, are far less important.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DĀMĀD, MĪR(-E), SAYYED MOḤAMMAD BĀQER

    Andrew J. Newman

    b. Mīr Šams-al-Dīn Moḥammad Ḥosaynī Astarābādī (d. 1041/1631), leading Twelver Shiʿite theologian, philosopher, jurist, and poet of 17th-century Persia.

  • DAMASCUS, Zoroastrians at

    Mary Boyce

    The earliest evi­dence for the presence of Zoroastrians at Damascus is provided by Berossus, who stated that this was one of the cities of the Achaemenid empire at which Artaxerxes II (404-358 b.c.e.) had a statue set up for “Anaitis”

  • DAMASPIA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    name of a Persian queen, wife of Artaxerxes I and mother of his legal heir, Xerxes II (424/3 B.C.E.).

  • DAMĀVAND

    Bernard Hourcade, Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    mountain, town, and administrative district (šahrestān) in the central Alborz region.

  • DĀMDĀD NASK

    D. N. MacKenzie

    the Middle Persian (Pahlavi) name of one of the lost nasks of the Avesta. 

  • DAMELĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See DARDESTĀN.

  • DĀMḠĀN

    Chahryar Adle

    (Damghan) Persian town located on a plain south of the Alborz range, 342 km east of Tehran. Situated on the main highway from Tehran to Nīšāpūr, Mašhad, and Herat, it  also dominates less important roads north to Sārī and Gorgān, as well as tracks leading south to Yazd and Isfahan via Jandaq.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DĀMḠĀNĪ (1)

    EIr

    nesba of a leading family of jurists of Persian origin, descendants of Abū ʿAbd-Allāh Moḥammad Kabīr (b. Dāmḡān 1007, d. Baghdad 1085), a well-known exponent of Hanafite law, who served as the chief magistrate (qāżī al-qożāt) of Baghdad.

  • DĀMḠĀNĪ (2)

    Sheila S. Blair

    nesba of a father and two sons from Dāmḡān who worked as engineers, builders, and stucco carvers in the early 14th century.

  • DĀMḠĀNĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ ʿALĪ DĀMḠĀNĪ.

  • DĀMI

    Jean Kellens

    Avestan word, probably the noun of agency connected with Old Avestan dāman- “stake," thus “the one who drives the stake.”

  • DAMIRI, MOḤAMMAD

    G. A. Russell

    b. Musā b. ʿIsā Kamāl al-Din Ebn Elyās b. ʿAbd-Allāh al-Damiri (b. Cairo, A.H. 745/A.D. 1342, d. Cairo, A.H. 808/ A.D. 1405), a tailor turned Shāfiʿi theologian, is best known for his Ḥayātal-ḥayawān (Animal Life).

  • DAMPOḴT(AK)

    Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar

    or DAMĪ, terms referring to rice cooked in a single pot.

  • DANCE

    A. Shapur Shahbazi, Robyn C. Friend

    (raqṣ). Single dancers or groups of dancers represented on pottery from prehistoric Iranian sites (e.g., Tepe Siyalk, Tepe Mūsīān) attest the antiquity of this art in Iran. According to Duris of Samos (apud Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae), the Achaemenid Persians learned to dance, just as they learned to ride horseback.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DANDĀN ÖILÏQ (“ivory houses”)

    Gerd Gropp

    lit. “ivory houses”; ruined city located about 50 km north of the Domoko oasis in the eastern portion of the oasis complex of Khotan, in Chinese Turkestan.

  • DANDĀNQĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a small town of medieval Khorasan, in the Qara Qum, or sandy desert, between Marv and Saraḵs, 10 farsaḵs from the former, on which it was administratively dependent.

  • DĀNEŠ (1)

    ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    pen name of MOʿĪN-AL-WEZĀRA MĪRZĀ REŻĀ KHAN ARFAʿ (Arfaʿ-al-Dawla; ca. 1846-1937), also known as Prince Reżā Arfaʿ, diplomat and poet of the late Qajar period.

  • DĀNEŠ (2)

    Nassereddin Parvin

    lit., “knowledge”; title of seven newspa­pers and journals published in Persia and the Indian subcontinent, presented here in chronological order.

  • DĀNEŠ, AḤMAD MAḴDŪM

    Vincent Fourniau

    b. Mīr b. Yūsof ḤANAFĪ ṢEDDĪQĪ BOḴĀRĪ (1242-1314/1827-97), known as Aḥmad Kallā and Mohandes (lit., “engineer”), a historian and progressive Tajik writer of Bukhara.

  • DĀNEŠ, ḤOSAYN

    Peter J. Chelkowski

    (b. Istanbul 1870, d. Ankara 1943), a leading Turco-Persian poet, journalist, and scholar who wrote on literary, political, and social issues for many Persian newspapers.

  • DĀNEŠ, TAQĪ

    Īraj Afšār

    (b. Tabrīz, 1861, d. Tehran 24 February 1948), poet and govern­ment official.

  • DĀNEŠ-NĀMA YE ʿALĀʾĪ

    Hamid Dabashi

    Persian philosophical treatise written by Avicenna (980-1037).

  • DĀNEŠ-NĀMA-YE ĪRĀN WA ESLĀM

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Encyclopedia of Iran and Islam.

  • DĀNEŠ-NĀMA-YE QADAR KHAN

    Solomon Bayevsky

    (Book of knowledge [dedicated to] Qadar Khan), a Persian dictionary compiled by Ašrāf b. Šaraf Moḏakker Fārūḡī primarily in Malwa, India, and completed in 1405.

  • DĀNEŠ-SARĀ-YE ʿĀLĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See EDUCATION; TEACHERS' TRAINING.

  • DĀNEŠ-SARĀ-YE MOQADDAMĀTĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See EDUCATION.

  • DĀNESF(AH)ĀN

    Ehsan Yarshater

    locally Donesbon, a village located at 49°45′ E, 35°47′ N in the southern part of the Rāmand district of Qazvīn province, 30 km west and slightly north of Būyīn; it has a population of a little over 3,000.

  • DĀNEŠGĀH

    Cross-Reference

    See EDUCATION; entries on indi­vidual universities.

  • DĀNEŠGĀH-E JANG

    Cross-Reference

    See MILITARY.

  • DĀNEŠKADA

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a monthly literary journal published from April 1918 to April 1919 in Tehran by the distinguished poet, literary critic, and scholar Moḥammad-Taqi Malek-al-Šoʿarāʾ Bahār, considered the leading Persian literary figure of his time.

  • DĀNEŠKĀDA

    Cross-Reference

    See EDUCATION; FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN.

  • DĀNEŠKĀDA-YE AFSARĪ

    Cross-reference

    See MILITARY.

  • DĀNEŠKADA-YE EṢFAHĀN

    N. Parvin

    a monthly literary journal and the organ of a society of the same name, published in two series in Isfahan by the poet and calligrapher Mirzā ʿAbbās Khan Dehkordi Šeydā (1882-1949).

  • DĀNEŠMAND

    Tahsin Yazici

    , Amir Ḡāzī Taylu Gümüš tigin Aḥmad (or Moḥammad) (d. 1104), founder of a Turkman dynasty in northern Cappadocia toward the end of the 11th century.

  • DĀNEŠMAND BAHĀDOR

    Peter Jackson

    Mongol com­mander (d. 1306).

  • DĀNEŠMAND-E ḤĀJEB

    Peter Jackson

    Muslim officer in Mongol service in the first half of the 13th century.

  • DANESTAMA

    Klaus Fischer

    a mud-brick structure on diaper masonry foundations located on the left bank of the Sorḵāb river, 34 km north of Doāb-e Mīḵzarīn on the road to Došī.

  • DĀNG

    Cross-Reference

    See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

  • DĀNĪĀL B. MOŠEH QŪMESĪ

    Amnon Netzer

    Persian Jewish scholar and exegete of the Karaite sect, the members of which rejected rabbinical writings later than the Bible itself.

  • DĀNĪĀL-E NABĪ

    Amnon Netzer, Nicholas Sims-Williams, Parvīz Varjāvand, Amnon Netzer

    Dānīāl is not mentioned in the Koran but is venerated as a prophet in Muslim tradition. Eschatological statements and the prophecy recounted in Daniel 12:12 (supposedly concerning the year 1335) have been interpreted by Jews as referring to the coming of the Messiah.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DANISH-IRANIAN RELATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    See DENMARK.

  • DAQĀYEQĪ MARVAZĪ, ŠAMS-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    b. ʿAlī, the supposed author of a version of the Baḵtīār­nāma, who lived from the late 12th to the 13th century.

  • DAQĪQĪ, ABŪ MANṢŪR AḤMAD

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

     b. Aḥmad, one of the famous poets of the last years of the Samanid (819-1005) dynasty.

  • DAQQĀQ, ABŪ ʿALĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ ʿALĪ DAQQĀQ.

  • ḎARʿ

    cross-reference

    See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

  • DĀR AL- ḤARB

    Hamid Algar

    “the realm of war”; lands not under Islamic rule, a juridical term for certain non-­Muslim territory, though often construed, especially by Western writers, as a geopolitical concept implying the necessity for perpetual, even if generally latent, warfare between the Muslim state and its non-Muslim neighbors.

  • DĀR AL-FONŪN

    John Gurney and Negin Nabavi

    lit., “polytechnic college”; a college founded in Tehran in 1268/1851 by Mīrzā Ṭāqī Khan Amīr-e Kabīr, which marked the begin­ning of modern education in Persia.

  • DĀR AL-ŠŪRĀ-YE KOBRĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See WEZĀRAT.

  • DĀR AL-ŻARB

    Cross-Reference

    See ŻARRĀB-ḴĀNA.

  • DĀR(- E) TANHĀ

    Ernie Haerinck

    lit., “the lonely tree”; an ar­cheological site in the district of Badr, near the village of Jabar, ca. 70 km east-southeast of Īlām, in the province of Pošt-e Kūh.

  • DAR-E MEHR

    Mary Boyce

    a Zoroastrian term first recorded in the Persian Rivāyats and Parsi Gujarati writings.

  • DĀRĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E BĀVAND.

  • DĀRA, MIRZĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABDALLĀH MĪRZĀ DĀRĀ.

  • DĀRĀ (City)

    Michael Weiskopf

    the name of a Parthian city and of a Byzan­tine garrison town of the Sasanian period.

  • DĀRĀ ŠOKŌH

    Annemarie Schimmel

    (b. near Ajmer, 20 March 1615, d. Delhi, 12 August 1659), first son of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān and his wife Momtāz Maḥall, religious thinker, mystic, poet, and author of a number of works in Persian.

  • DĀRĀ(B) (1)

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    or DĀRĀB, the name of two kings of the legendary Kayanid dynasty.

  • DĀRĀB (2)

    Massoud Kheirabadi, Dietrich Huff, Georgina Herrmann

    the name Dārāb refers both to a šahrestān (subprovince) of Fārs province and to its chief city.

  • DĀRĀB-NĀMA

    William L. Hanaway

    prose romance of the 12th century, by Abū Ṭāher Moḥammad b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Mūsā Ṭārsūsī (or Ṭarṭūsī), in which the adventures of the legendary Kayanid king Dārāb, son of Bahman (also called Ardašīr) and Homāy, variously identified as the daughter of king Sām Čāraš of Egypt or of Ardašīr (=Bahman), are recounted.

  • DĀRĀBGERD

    Cross-Reference

    See Dārā(b) II.

  • DĀRĀBĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See CITRUS FRUITS.

  • DĀRĀBĪ SAYYED JAʿFAR

    Andrew J. Newman

    b. Abī Esḥāq Mūsawī Borūjerdī Kašfī (b. Eṣṭahbānāt in Fārs, 1775, d. Borūjerd 1851), religious scholar, nephew of the Aḵbārī Yūsuf b. Aḥmad Baḥrānī and father of Sayyed Yaḥyā Waḥīd Dārābī.

  • DĀRĀBĪ SAYYED YAḤYĀ

    Moojan Momen

    (b. Yazd, ca. 1811, d. Neyrīz, 1850), Babi leader usually known as Waḥīd (unique), a title given him by the Bāb; the eldest son of Sayyed Jaʿfar Kašfī Eṣṭah-bānātī, he received a Muslim religious education and, like his father, was associated with the Qajar court.

  • DARABPAHLAN, DASTUR

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    Zoroastrian priest and author (b. Navsari, Gujarat, 1668, d. Navsari, 1 September 1734), eldest son of Pahlan Fredoon, who was accorded the title “dastur” (high priest) and the privilege of occupying the second chair in the Zoroastrian assembly of the small port of Navsari in 1670 or perhaps earlier.

  • DARAFŠ -E KĀVĪĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See DERĀFŠ-E KĀVĪĀN.

  • DĀRĀʾĪ, WEZĀRAT

    Cross-Reference

    See FINANCE MINISTRY.

  • DARĀMAD

    Jean During

    lit., “introduction”; an episode in the course of a musical performance, the nature and length of which vary with the material introduced.

  • DARARIĀN, Vigen

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi

    (1929-2003) renowned pop singer and performer on the guitar.

  • DARĀZ-DAST

    Cross-Reference

    See DERĀZ-DAST; ARDAŠĪR; BAHMAN (2).

  • DARB -E EMĀM

    Parvīz Varjāvand

    large shrine complex in the old Sonbolestān quarter of Isfahan. The main structure, consisting of entrance portal (sar-dar), vestibule, and tomb, was built in 1453 and expanded and modified several times during the Safavid period.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DARBĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀR; COURTS AND COURTIERS.

  • DARBAND (1)

    Erich Kettenhofen

    (Ar. Bāb al-Abwāb), ancient city in Dāḡestān on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, located at the entrance to the narrow pass between the Caucasus foothills and the sea.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DARBAND (2)

    Bernard Hourcade

    a former village in the summer resort (yeylāq) of Šamīrān, situated at an elevation of 1,700 m on the extreme northern edge of the capital, where the Alborz foothills begin.

  • DARBANDĪ, MULLA ĀQĀ

    Hamid Algar

    b. ʿĀbed b. Ramażān, commonly known as Fāżel Darbandī (d. Tehran, 1869-70), Shiʿite scholar and preacher of the Qajar period, renowned for his disputatious and irascible character.

  • DARBĀR -E AʿẒAM

    Guity Nashat

    lit., “the great court”; a council of ministers established in October 1872 as one of several experiments undertaken in the reign of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah (1848-96) to reorganize and rationalize the Persian administration on the model of Western cabinet government.

  • DĀRČĪNĪ

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    lit., “Chinese tree/wood."

  • D'ARCY, JOSEPH

    Kambiz Eslami

    (Pers. “Mester Bārūt,” “Qūlūnel Khan,” “Qonsūl Khan”; b. Portsmouth, England, 14 March 1780, d. Lymington, England, 17 February 1848), major (later lieutenant colonel) in the British Royal Artillery who arrived in Persia in 1226/1811 with the ambassador Sir Gore Ouseley; he was one of a group of British officers and enlisted men who were to reform and equip the Persian army.

  • D'ARCY, WILLIAM KNOX

    Fuad Rouhani

    (b. Newton Abbot, Devonshire, England, 11 October 1849, d. Stanmore, Middlesex, England, 1 May 1917), petroleum entrepreneur and founder of the oil industry in Persia and the Middle East.

  • DARD, ḴᵛĀJA MĪR

    Annemarie Schimmel

    (b. Delhi, 13 September 1721; d. 11 January 1785), poet and author of prose works on mystical theology.

  • DARDESTĀN

    NIGEL J. R. ALLAN, D. I. EDEL’MAN

    The toponym Dardestān is a social and political construct. Its currency toward the end of the 19th century in many ways reflected an attempt by supporters of imperial India to link the Indian northwestern frontier tracts to Kashmir, with which the British had treaties.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DĀREMĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ʿOṮMĀN

    Josef van Ess

    b. Saʿīd b. Ḵāled SEJESTĀNĪ, Persian traditionist and jurist (b. ca. 816, d. February 894).

  • DARGĀHĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Bāqer ʿĀqelī

    (b. Zanjān, 1899, d. Tehran, 1952), first chief of the state police under Reżā Shah.

  • DARGĀHQOLĪ KHAN ḎU’L-QADR

    M. Saleem Akhtar

    also known as Moʿtaman-al-Dawla Moʿtaman-al-Molk Sālār-Jang Ḵān-e Dawrān Nawwāb (b. Sangamnēr, Deccan, 1710, d. Awrangābād, 22 October 1766), Persian official at Hyderabad and Awrangābād, best known for his description of Delhi.

  • DARGAZĪNĪ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    nesba (attributive name) for Dargazīn (or Darjazīn), borne by several viziers of the Great Saljuqs in the 12th century.

  • DARĪ

    GILBERT LAZARD

    name given to the New Persian literary language at a very early date and widely attested in Arabic and Persian texts since the 10th century.

  • DARĪ IN AFGHANISTAN

    Cross-Reference

    See AFGHANISTAN v. LANGUAGES

  • ḎARĪʿA elā TAṢĀNĪF al-ŠĪʿA

    Etan Kohlberg

    a comprehensive bibliography of Imami Shiʿite works in twenty-five volumes compiled by Shaikh Moḥammad-Moḥsen Āqā Bozorg Ṭehrānī (1876-1970); it contains about 55,000 entries for works written up to 1950-51.

  • DARIC

    Michael Alram

    (Gk. dareikós statḗr), Achaemenid gold coin of ca. 8.4 gr, which was introduced by Darius I (r. 522-486 BCE) toward the end of the 6th century. The daric and the similar silver coin, the siglos (Gk. síglos medikós), represented the bimetallic monetary standard that the Achaemenids developed from that of the Lydians.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DARĪGBED

    Richard N. Frye

    title of a low-ranking official at the Sasanian court.

  • DARIUS

    Multiple Authors

    (NPers. Darīūš, Dārā), name of several Achaemenid and Parthian rulers and princes.

  • DARIUS i. The Name

    Rudiger Schmitt

    the common Latin form of Greek Dareîos, itself a shortened rendering of Old Persian five-syllable Dārayavauš, the throne name of Darius the Great and two other kings of the Achaemenid dynasty, which thus enjoyed considerable popularity among noblemen in later periods

  • DARIUS ii. Darius the Mede

    Richard N. Frye

    In the Old Testament Book of Daniel Darius the Mede is mentioned (5:30-31) as ruler after the slaying of the “Chaldean king” Belshazzar.

  • DARIUS iii. Darius I the Great

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    third Achaemenid king of kings (r. 29 September 522-October 486 BCE). Once he gained power, Darius placed the empire on foundations that lasted for nearly two centuries and influenced the organization of subsequent states, including the Seleucid and Roman empires.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DARIUS iv. Darius II

    Heleen Sanchisi-Weerdenburg

    the sixth Achaemenid king of kings (r. February 423- March 403 B.C.E.). He had been satrap of Hyrcania. Darius was his throne name; his given name is reported in classical sources as Ochus.

  • DARIUS v. Darius III

    EIr.

    (b. ca. 380 BCE, d. mid-330), the last Achaemenid king. The lack of sources is especially severe for his life and reign. There are no Persian royal texts or monuments, and what is known comes almost solely from the Greek historians, who depicted his career mainly as a contrast to the brilliant first few years of Alexander the Great.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DARIUS vi. Achaemenid Princes

    Rudiger Schmitt

    the name of two Achaemenid princes in addition to the emperors who bore it.

  • DARIUS vii. Parthian Princes

    Rudiger Schmitt

    In 64 B.C.E. while his father, Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus (ca. 121/20-63 B.C.E.), was fighting his last, losing campaign against the troops of the Roman general Pompey (106-48 B.C.E.), the child Darius was taken prisoner, along with several brothers and his sister Eupatra, in Phanagoria

  • DARIUS viii. Darius Son of Artabanus

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    A son of the Parthian king Artabanus II named Darius was sent as a hostage to Rome shortly after an interview between Artabanus and the Roman legate for Syria, Vitellius, in 37 C.E.

  • DARJAZĪN

    Parviz Aḏkāʾī

    (or Dargazīn), name of two rural subdistricts (dehestāns) and a village in the Razan district (baḵš) of Hamadān province.

  • DARKE, Hubert Seymour Garland

    John Perry

    In 1961 Darke was appointed University Lecturer in Persian at Cambridge, where he taught language and literature for the next twenty years. His particular interests were Early New Persian and Persian prosody. His major research achievement was the definitive edition and translation of the Siar al-moluk, a manual of government by the celebrated Saljuq vizier Neẓām-al-Molk.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DARMESTETER, JAMES

    Mary Boyce and D. N. MacKenzie

    (b. Château-Salins, Alsace, 12 March 1849, d. Paris, 19 October 1894), the great Iranist, was the son of a Jewish bookbinder, who in 1852 moved to Paris to improve his children’s educational opportunities.

  • DARRA-YE BARRA

    Remy Boucharlat

    lit. "Valley of the lamb", a locality in Fārs province, 2.5 km east-northeast of the Achaemenid royal tombs at Naqš-e Rostam. Several rock-cut monuments are scattered on steep scree and in the cliff on the north side of the valley. The most outstanding feature is the tallest fire altar so far found in Fārs.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DARRA-YE NŪR

    Daniel Balland

    name of a small tributary valley on the right bank of the Konar river in eastern Afghanistan and the corresponding subdistrict of Nangrahār province.

  • DARRA-YE ṢŪF

    Daniel Balland

    name of a valley in northern Afghanistan, drained by a tributary of the right bank of the Balḵāb, and of the adjoining mountain district and its administrative center in Samangān province.

  • DARRAGAZ

    Massoud Kheirabadi, Philip Kohl

    or DARGAZ (Valley of the tamarisks), a fertile valley about 50-55 km east-west and 30-35 km north-south in the Kopet Dagh range in northern Khorasan, at about 450 m above sea level, in which are located a šahrestān (subprovince) and a town of the same name.

  • DARRAŠŪRĪ

    Pierre Oberling

    one of the five major tribes of the Qašqāʾī tribal confederation.

  • DARRŪS

    Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd, JOHN CURTIS

    district in northern Tehran east of Qol-hak and south of Qayṭarīya, all former suburbs of the city; it is located about 8 km from the center of the modern city.

  • DĀRŪ

    Cross-Reference

     See DRUGS.

  • DĀRŪḠA

    Cross-Reference

    See CITIES iii.

  • DARVĀZ

    Jan-Heeren Grevemeyer

    a largely autonomous principality with territory on both sides of the upper course of the Āmū Daryā, known as the Panj, until the partition between czarist Russia and the Afghan kingdom in the last quarter of the 19th century.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DARVĀZA

    Wolfram Kleiss

    (gateway), generally an entrance opening wide enough to permit passage of vehicles, in contrast to doorways, which are smaller openings to permit passage through a wall or fence. 

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DARVĀZA TEPE

    Linda K. Jacobs

    (or Tall-e Darvāza), a village site in the southeastern Kor river basin, in Fārs province, occupied in three stages from 1800 B.C.E. to 800 B.C.E., according to radiocarbon dates of the finds, and characterized by an essential continuity in both architecture and other aspects of material culture.

  • DARVĪŠ

    Mansour Shaki, Hamid Algar

    a poor, indigent, ascetic, and abstemious person or recluse.

  • DARVĪŠ AḤMAD QĀBEŻ

    M. E. Subtelny

    (d. 1507), Timurid vizier.

  • DARVĪŠ ʿALĪ BŪZJĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See BŪZJĀNĪ.

  • DARVĪŠ ʿALĪ, AMĪR NEẒĀM-AL-DĪN KüKäLTĀŠ KETĀBDĀR

    M. E. Subtelny

    Timurid amir under Solṭān-Ḥosayn Bāyqarā (1469-1506) and younger brother of ʿAlī-Šīr Navāʾ.

  • DARVĪŠ KHAN, ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN

    Margaret Caton

    (b. Tehran, 1872, d. Tehran, 23 November 1926), master musician, renowned teacher, and innovative composer of Persian classical music.

  • DARVĪŠ REŻĀ

    Kathryn Babayan

    (d. 1040/1631), a qezelbāš functionary who claimed to be the awaited Mahdī.

  • DARVĪŠ, ʿABD-AL-MAJĪD ṬĀLAQĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-MAJĪD ṬĀLAQĀNĪ.

  • DARYĀ

    Xavier de Planhol

    sea or river.

  • DĀRYĀ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a Tehran morning daily of news and politics, published with a number of interruptions from May 1944 to March 1951.

  • DARYĀ-YE ḴAZAR

    Cross-Reference

    See CASPIAN SEA.

  • DARYĀ-YE MĀZANDARĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See CASPIAN SEA.

  • DARYĀ-YE NŪR

    Yaḥyā Ḏokāʾ

    lit., “sea of light”; one of the largest diamonds in the world, kept and exhibited in the Jewel museum of the Central bank of Persia (Bānk-e markazī-e Īrān).

  • DARYĀ-YE ʿOMĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿOMĀN, SEA OF.

  • DARYĀ-YE SĪĀH

    Cross-Reference

    See BLACK SEA.

  • DARYĀBEYGĪ

    Guity Nashat

    lit. "sea lord"; originally an Ottoman naval title dating from the 15th century.

  • DARYĀČA

    Cross-Reference

    For individual lakes, see entries under the respective names.

  • DĀRZĪN

    Mehrdad Shokoohy

    village on the road between Kermān and Bam on the site of a large, early medieval town. Ruins of  buildings of different periods still stand. The earliest are probably three small forts of similar form, built of straw-tempered rectangular mud bricks, which may date from the 8th or 9th century.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DĀŠ ĀKOL

    SOHILA SAREMI

    a story in the first collection of short stories by Sadeq Hedayat.

  • DASĀTĪN

    Jean During

    the term for modes in early musical theory, translated into Arabic as aṣābeʿ (fingers) and sometimes also as mawājeb “obligations, laws.”

  • DASĀTĪR

    Fatḥ-Allāh Mojtabaʾī

    the most important tract of the Āḏar Kayvānī sect, almost certainly the work of its founder, Āḏar Kayvān.

  • DASCYLIUM

    Michael Weiskopf

    Achaemenid satrapy in northwestern Anatolia, part of the Persian empire until the 330s BCE. The borders varied, extending as far south as the Mysian plain and the southern Troad and east into the land of the Bithynian peoples; some satraps controlled both sides of the Hellespont.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DASKARA(T AL- MALEK)

    Cross-reference

    or DASKARAT AL-MALEK. See DASTGERD.

  • DAŠLĪ

    Pierre Amiet

    or Dashly; oasis situated south of the Āmū Daryā, on the desert plain of northern Afghanistan, ancient Bactria, now in the province of Jūzjān ca 35 km northeast of Āqča.

  • DAŠNAK

    ARAM ARKUN

    short name for Hay Yełapʿoxakan Dašnakcʿutʿiwn (Armenian revolutionary federation [A.R.F.]) or its members.

  • DAŠT

    Eckart Ehlers

    lit. "plain, open ground"; Persian term for a very specific type of landscape, the extended gravel piedmonts and plains that are almost ubiquitous in arid central Persia.

  • DAŠT-E ARŽAN

    Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd

    (also Arjan, Arzan, lit., “plain of the mountain or bitter almond”), a mountain basin ca. 14 x 5-6 km situated 1,500 m above sea level on the road from Shiraz to Kāzerūn.

  • DAŠT-E MOḠĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See MOḠĀN.

  • DAŠT-E NĀWOR

    Gérard Fussman

    lit. “plain of the lake”; a depression (average elev. 3,100 m) 60 x 15 km with a brackish lake in the center, located at 33° 41’ N and 67° 46’ E, about 60 km west of Ḡaznī.

  • DAŠT-E QALʿA

    Henri-Paul Francfort

    lit., “plain of the fortress”; small bāzār village on an irrigation canal near the junction of the Kōkča and Āmū Darya rivers in the province of Badaḵšān, northeastern Afghanistan, the site of several earlier settlements.

  • DASTA

    Peter J. Chelkowski

    the most common term for a ritual procession held in the Islamic lunar month of Moḥarram and the following month of Ṣafar, both periods of mourning for Imami Shiʿites. The procession commemorates the tragic death of Ḥosayn, grandson of the prophet Moḥammad and the third imam of the Shiʿites.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DAŠTAKĪ, ʿAṬĀ-ALLĀH

    Andrew J. Newman

    (d. 1506, 1511, or 1520), a scholar of Hadith in Khorasan in the late Timurid and early Safavid periods.

  • DAŠTAKĪ, GĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN

    Andrew J. Newman

    b. Ṣadr-al-Dīn Moḥammad Šīrāzī Ḥosaynī (1462-1541), scholar, philosopher, and motakallem (theologian) of the late Timurid and early Safavid period, and, for a brief interval under Shah Ṭahmāsb, one of two ṣadrs (chief clerical overseers).

  • DASTĀN

    Jean During

    a term used in three different contexts in Persian music- melody, narrative composition, and fingering system.

  • DASTĀN (1)

    Cross-Reference

    See ZĀL.

  • DĀSTĀN (2)

    Cross-Reference

    story, tale, parable. See FICTION.

  • DĀSTĀN-SARĀʾĪ

    William Hanaway

    (storytelling), term used for written and oral genres of fictional narrative.

  • DAŠTESTĀN

    Jamšīd Ṣadāqat-Kīš

    or šahrestān, lit. "subprovince" on the Persian Gulf coast in Būšehr province, bounded on the north and east by Fārs province, on the south by the šahrestān of Daštī, and on the west by the šahrestāns of Būšehr, Tangestān, and Ganāva.

  • DASTGĀH

    Jean During

    modal system in Persian music, representing a level of organization at which a certain number of melodic types (gūšas) are regrouped and ordered in relation to a dominant mode (māya).

  • DASTGERD

    Philippe Gignoux

    lit. “made by hand, handiwork”; a term originally designating a royal or seigneurial estate.

  • DAŠTĪ (musical mode)

    Jean During

    one of the twelve modal systems in the repertoire of traditional music (radīf); it is an āvāz, or auxiliary modal system, derived from or attached to the dastgāh Šūr.

  • DAŠTĪ (subprovince)

    Jamšīd Ṣadāqat-Kīš

    šahrestān (subprovince) on the Persian Gulf in Būšehr province, corresponding approximately to the area referred to as Māndestān and Sīf Āl Moẓaffar in early sources.

  • DAŠTĪ, ʿALĪ

    J. E. KNÖRZER

    (ca. 1894–1982), man of letters, journalist, and politician. Perhaps his innovative and “personal” studies of the principal Persian classical poets will prove the most enduring of his writings; they broke sharply with traditional Persian literary criticism focused on anecdotes, prosody, and explication de textes.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DASTJERDĀNĪ, JAMĀL-AL-DĪN

    David O. Morgan

    Il-khanid bureaucrat.

  • DASTŪR

    Mansour Shaki

    in the Sasanian period dastwar had a wide range of meanings, primarily denoting “one in authority, having power”; from that time, the semantic range was increasingly widened to convey different meanings at different times.

  • DASTŪR AL-AFĀŻEL FĪ LOḠĀT AL-FAŻĀʾEL

    Solomon Baevsky

    lit. "manual of the learned for learned words"; an early Persian-to-Persian dictionary (farhang-nāma), compiled in India in 1342, during the reign of Moḥammad b. Tōḡloq Shah by Ḥājeb Ḵayrāt Rafīʿ, a poet from Delhi, for his patron Šams-al-Dīn Moḥammad Aḥmad b. ʿAlī Jajnīrī.

  • DASTŪR AL-KĀTEB FĪ TAʿYĪN AL-MARĀTEB

    David O. Morgan

    administrative manual written by Moḥammad Naḵjavānī (ca. 1280-after 1366), son of Faḵr-al-Dīn Hendūšāh b. Sanjar Naḵjavānī, author of Tajāreb al-salaf.

  • DASTUR AL-MOLUK

    M. Ismail Marcinkowski

    a manual of administration in Persian from the end of the Safavid period.

  • DASTŪR-E DABĪRĪ

    Hashem Rajabzadeh

    comprehensive manual of letter writing by Moḥammad Meyhanī, consisting of an introduction (dībāča) and two chapters (qeṣm; comp. December 1189-January 1190).

  • ḎĀT-AL-SALĀSEL

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    lit., “provided with chains”; place near Obolla in southern Iraq where in 633 C.E., one of Ṭabarī’s informants, Ḵāled b. Walīd and an Arab force of about 18,000 men defeated a small Sasanian garrison led by a frontier commander named Hormoz.

  • DĀTA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Old Iranian term for “law” attested both in Avestan texts (Old and Younger Av. dāta-) and in Achaemenid royal inscriptions.

  • DĀTABARA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    title of a high official in the Achaemenid legal and juridical system.

  • DATAMES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Iranian personal name, reflecting Old Iranian *Dātama- or *Dātāma-, either a two-stem shortened form *Dāta-m-a- from a compound name like *Dātamiθra- or an unabridged compound *Dātāma-from *Dāta-ama-“to whom force is given.”

  • DĀTAMIΘRA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Iranian personal name resulting from an inversion of Miθra-dāta- “given by Mithra” and continued in the New Persian Dādmehr.

  • DATAPHERNES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    name of an Iranian (perhaps Bactrian) officer in the entourage of Bessos, murderer of Darius III (336-30 B.C.E.).

  • DATE PALM

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    (deraḵt-e ḵormā, naḵl; Phoenix dactylifera L., fam. Palmaceae). It is indigenous to the geobotanical “Sahara-Sind region,” a desert or semidesert belt extending from the Indus valley to North Africa. It is believed by some authorities to be native to the Persian Gulf area and by others to have been derived from the the wild or date-sugar palm of western India.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DATES AND DATING

    D. N. MacKenzie

    in Old and Middle Iranian. The only dating formulas preserved in an Old Iranian language are those found in Old Persian in the Bīsotūn inscriptions of Darius I; by the time of the earliest dated Middle Iranian documents, the Parthian ostraca from Nisa of the 1st century B.C.E., the Zoroastrian (so-called Avestan) calendar was in use.

  • DATIS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Iranian personal name.

  • DAULIER DESLANDES

    ANNE KROELL

    (b. Montoire-sur-le-Loir, 1621, d. Paris, 23 October 1715), author of Les Beautez de la Perse ..., a brief but valuable description of Safavid Persia in the years 1075-76/1664-65.

  • DAURISES

    R. Schmitt

    name of a Persian general during the Ionian revolt, a son-in-law of Darius I (522-486 B.C.E.).

  • DAVĀL-PĀ(Y)

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    or dovāl-pā, an imaginary evil anthropoid creature characterized by flexible legs (pā) resembling leather straps, which he uses as tentacles to grip and enslave human beings, who then have to carry him on their shoulders or backs and labor for him until they die of fatigue.

  • DAVALLU

    Cross-Reference

    See QAJAR TRIBES.

  • DAVĀN

    Hamid Mahamedi

    village located 12 km northeast of Kāzerūn in Fārs; a distinctive dialect is spoken there. Arable land is very limited and located mostly in the foothills; dry farming is the prevailing form of agriculture. Products include barley, wheat, and fruits—grapes, figs, pomegranates, and pears.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DAVĀNĪ, JALĀL-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    Andrew J. Newman

    b. Asʿad Kāzerūnī Ṣeddīqī (b. Davān, q.v., near Kāzerūn in Fārs, 1426-27, d. 1502), often referred to as ʿAllāma Davānī, leading theologian, philosopher, jurist, and poet of late 15th-century Persia.

  • DĀVAR

    Cross-Reference

    See DĀTABARA.

  • DĀVAR, ʿALĪ-AKBAR

    Bāqer ʿĀqelī

    (b. Tehran, 1885, d. Tehran, 10 February 1937), journalist, politician, statesman, and founder of the modern Persian judicial system, as well as of several state enterprises in the time of Reżā Shah.

  • DĀVARĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ, Mīrzā Moḥammad

    ʿAbd-al-Wahhāb Nūrānī Weṣāl

    (b. Shiraz 1822-23, d. Shiraz, 1866), poet, calligrapher, and painter of some renown in Qajar Persia and a contemporary of Moḥammad Shah and Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah.

  • DAVĀZDAH EMĀMĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; IRAN ix. Relgions in Iran (2) Islam in Iran.

  • DAVĀZDAH ROḴ

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    lit. "twelve combats"; designation of a relatively long episode in the Šāh-nāma (2,500 verses), in which a battle takes place on the borders of Tūrān between Iranians under the command of Gūdarz and Turanians under the command of Pīrān.

  • DAVID OF ASHBY

    Peter Jackson

    (fl. 1260-75), Dominican friar and visitor to Il-khanid Persia.

  • DAVID, JACOB

    Eden Naby

    (1873-1967) Assyrian pastor and relief worker.

  • DAWĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See DRUGS.

  • DAWĀMĪ, ʿABD-ALLĀH

    DĀRYŪŠ ṢAFVAT

    (b. Ṭā near Tafreš, 1891; d. Tehran, 10 January 1981), a master of classical Persian vocal music with a perfect command of the radīf (repertoire), as well as a gifted player of the Persian drum (tonbak) and a virtuoso of rhythmic (żarbī) pieces and songs (taṣnīf).

  • DAWĀNUS

    Dariush Kargar

    the name of a man seen in the other world by Ardā Wirāz, as described in both the Middle Persian and the Zoroastrian Persian versions of the Ardā Wirāz-nāmag.

  • DAWĀT

    LINDA KOMAROFF

    lit. "inkwell"; a utilitarian receptacle that also served as a symbol or metaphor for the instrument of state, with a long history in Islamic Persia. Inkwells were characterized in Persian poetry and historical works from the 10th century on as symbols of royal and by extension ministerial office.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DAʿWAT AL-ESLĀM

    Nassereddin Parvin

    A biweekly Persian journal published in Bombay by Ḥājj Sayyed Moḥammad Dāʿī-al-Eslām from 19 October 1906 until the end of 1909.

  • DAʿWAT-E ESLĀMĪ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    lit. "the Islamic call"; a monthly religious journal published in Kermānšāh from November-December 1927 to June 1936.

  • DAWĀTDĀR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    lit. “keeper, bearer of [the royal] inkwell or inkstand”; title of various officials in medieval Islamic states.

  • DAWLATĀBĀD

    Daniel Balland

    name of several localities in Afghanistan that have grown up around civil or military government buildings.

  • DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, SAYYED ʿALĪ-MOḤAM-MAD

    Cyrus Amir-Mokri

    (b. Dawlatābād, 1868, d. Tehran, Šawwāl May-June 1923), prominent politician and deputy of the Persian parliament.

  • DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, SAYYED YAḤYĀ

    Abbas Amanat

    (b. Dawlatābād. near Isfahan, 8 January 1863, d. Tehran, 26 October 1939), celebrated educator, political activist, and memoirist of the constitutional and postconstitutional periods.

  • DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, ṢEDDĪQA

    Mehranguiz Manoutchehrian

    (b. Isfahan, 1883, d. Tehran, 28 July 1961), journalist, educator, and pioneer in the movement to emancipate women in Persia.

  • DAWLATḴĒL

    Daniel Balland

    tribal name common among the eastern Pashtun at various levels of tribal segmentation.

  • DAWLATŠĀH, AMIR

    ḎABĪH-ALLĀH ṢAFĀ

    (b. ca. 1438, d. 1494 or 1507), one of the few authors before the 16th century to have devoted a work entirely to poets, arranged more or less chronologically.

  • DAWLATŠĀH, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ MĪR-ZĀ

    Abbas Amanat

    (1789-1821), eldest son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah and powerful prince-governor of western provinces of Persia.

  • DAWLATZĪ

    Daniel Balland

    (singular Dawlatzay), ethnic name common among the eastern Pashtun on both sides of the Durand Line.

  • DAWR (1)

    Farhad Daftary

    (Ar. and Pers.), period, era, or cycle of history, a term used by Ismaʿilis in connection with their conceptions of time and the religious history of mankind.

  • DAWR (2)

    Jean During

    Lāḏeqī, who represented the Ottoman tradition, first described eighteen cycles “widely current in our days,” then three new and less common rhythmic cycles and nine obsolete cycles, among them four that had been the creations of Marāḡī. Fourteen of these cycles were later cited in Bahjat al-rūḥ, which includes mention of about thirty rhythmic cycles.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DAWRAQ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    or Dawraq al-Fors; name of a district (kūra), also known as Sorraq, and of a town that was sometimes its chef-lieu in medieval Islamic times.

  • DAWTĀNĪ

    Daniel Balland

    Most Dawtānī nomads wintered in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, in either southern Waziristan or Dērajāt. A minority wintered in southern Afghanistan, mainly in the Qandahār oasis, where some owned houses, or in the middle Helmand valley. From a social geographical point of view, four different subgroups can thus be distinguished.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DĀWŪD

    Fatḥ-Allāh Mojtabāʾī

    or DĀʾŪD; the biblical David, mentioned in a number of passages in the Koran as the hero who fought with and killed Jālūt, the prophet who received the Book of Psalms (Zabūr) from God, and the king who was given the power to rule, enforce justice, and distinguish between truth and falsehood.

  • DĀWŪD B. MOʾMEN

    Cross-Reference

    See JEWISH PERSIAN LITERATURE.

  • DĀWŪD KHAN, MOḤAMMAD

    Barnett Rubin

    (b. Kabul, 1909; d. Kabul, 27 April 1978), prime minister (1953-63) and first president of Afghanistan (1973-78). During his tenure as minister (known as “Dāwūd’s decade”),  he transformed the Afghan state.Throughout his career he combined a strong desire to modernize the country with a close identification with the military.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DAY

    W. W. Malandra

    (Av. daδuuah-, Pahl. day “creator”), an epithet of Ahura Mazdā that became the name of the tenth month, as well as of the eighth, fifteenth, and twenty-third days in each month of the Zoroastrian calendar.

  • DĀYA

    Mahmoud Omidsalar and Theresa Omidsalar

    wet nurse.

  • DĀYA, NAJM-AL-DĪN ABŪ BAKR ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Moḥammad-Amīn Rīāḥī

    b. Moḥammad b. Šāhāvar b. Anūšervān Rāzī (1177–1256), mystic and author.

  • DAYEAKUTʿIWN

    Robert G. Bedrosian

    a form of child rearing practiced in Armenia and other parts of the Caucasus.

  • DĀYERAT AL-MAʿĀREF-E FĀRSĪ

    Dāryūš Āšūrī

    the first general encyclopedia in Persian compiled along modern lines.

  • DAYLAMITES

    Cross-Reference

    people inhabiting a shifting region in northern Persia and adjacent territories, including the Deylamān uplands. See DEYLAMITES; BUYIDS.

  • DAYR

    QAMAR ĀRYĀN

    monastery; in early Islamic Arabic and Persian literature usually a building in which Christian monks (rāheb) lived and worshiped.

  • DAYR AL-ʿĀQŪL

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    lit., “the monastery at the bend in the river”; a medieval town in Iraq situated on the Tigris 15 farsangs (= 80 km) southeast of Baghdad.

  • DAYR-E GAČĪN

    Mehrdad Shokoohy

    lit., “gypsum hospice”;  Sasanian caravansary situated in the desert halfway between Ray and Qom, on the ancient route from Ray to Isfahan. It is recorded in most early Muslim geographies. Over time, it underwent major reconstruction at least twice.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DAYSAM

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Ebrāhīm KORDĪ, ABŪ SĀLEM, Kurdish commander who ruled sporadically in Azerbaijan between 938 and 955 after the period of Sajid domination there.

  • DA’TID BAHRANA

    Eden Naby

    (with the Persian title Āyanda-ye rowšan “Bright future”), Assyrian bilingual periodical published in Tehran in 1951.

  • DE BRUIN, CORNELIS

    Willem Floor

    or de Bruyn, also known as Corneille Le Brun or Le Bruyn (b. The Hague 1652, d. Utrecht 1726 or 1727), Dutch painter and author of two accounts of his travels in Persia and other eastern lands.

  • DE GOEJE, MICHAIL JAN

    A. J. M. Vrolijk

    (b. Dronrijp, Friesland, 18 August 1836, d. Leiden, 17 May 1909), Dutch orientalist and chief editor of Ṭabari’s world history, Taʾriḵ al-rosol wa’l-moluk.

  • DE MORGAN, Jacques

    Pierre Amiet

    (1857-1924), French archeologist and prehistorian. He came from an exceptionally gifted family, in which cultivation of humane learning was combined with scientific rigor. It seems clear that he was less interested in Elamite history than in the overall prehistory of the East. In 1902 he declared: "Susa, because of its very early date, provided the possibility of solving the greatest and most important problem, that of our origins."

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DEAD SEA SCROLLS

    Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin

    parchment and papyrus scrolls written in Hebrew, mainly of the 1st centuries B.C.E. and C.E., found in caves around Qomrān on the northwest coast of the Dead Sea and considered to represent a sect of Judaism.

  • DEATH (1)

    Mary Boyce

    AMONG ZOROASTRIANS

  • DEATH (2)

    Cross-Reference

    IN RELIGIONS OTHER THAN ZOROASTRIANISM. See CORPSE and BURIAL.

  • DECCAN

    Carl W. Ernst, Priscilla P. Soucek

    or Dakhan, Pers. Dakan; the south-central plateau of India, bounded on the north by the Narbada river, on the west by the Sea of Oman, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, and on the south by the Tungabhadra river.

  • DECORATION

    Priscilla P. Soucek

    the use of consciously designed patterns to embellish building surfaces and objects for aesthetic effect. Despite progress in identifying or classifying the features of Persian decorative patterns, few scholars have attempted to explain why particular designs were used in specific periods, regions, or circumstances, even though it can be observed that in a given area or epoch the form and character of ornament are often consistent within a particular craft or different media.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DECORATIONS

    Yaḥyā Šahīdī

    , honors granted by the Persian government. In Persia there were no orders in the Western sense, but only decorations and medals. The practice of awarding such honors was initiated by Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah (r. 1797-1834), who introduced the Lion and sun (nešān-e šīr o ḵoršīd) in 1808, apparently inspired by the Red Crescent adopted by the Ottoman sultan Salīm III (r. 1789-1807).

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DEDE BEG ḎU’L-QADAR

    Cross-Reference

    See ABDĀL BEG.

  • DEDE ʿOMAR RŪŠANĪ

    Tahsın Yazici

    (b. Güzel Ḥeṣār, Aydın province, in western Anatolia, at an indeterminate date; d. Tabrīz, 1487), Turkish Sufi who wrote poetry in both Persian and Turkish.

  • DEDE YŪSOF SĪNAČĀK

    Tahsın Yazici

    (b. Yenice on the Vardar in Ottoman Māqadūnīā [modern Macedonia] at an indeterminate date, d. Istanbul, 1546), Mawlawī Sufi shaikh, poet, and author.

  • DĒDMARĪ, ḴᵛĀJA MOḤAMMAD-AʿẒAM

    Shamsuddin Ahmad

    (1691-1765), historian, poet, and Sufi of Kashmir.

  • DEER

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀHŪ, RED DEER.

  • DEFRÉMERY, Charles-François

    Francis Richard

    (b. Cambray, France, 18 December 1822, d. St.-Valéry-en Caux, France, 18 August 1883), French orientalist and scholar.

  • DEH

    Daniel Balland and Marcel Bazin

    village, in Persia and Afghanistan.

  • DEH MORĀSĪ ḠONDAY

    Jim G. Shaffer

    a Bronze Age archeological site located at 34° 90’ N, 65° 30’ E, adjacent to the village of Deh Morāsī, approximately 27 km southwest of Qandahār and 6.5 km east-southeast of Pahjwāʾī in southeastern Afghanistan.

  • DEH-BOKRĪ

    Pierre Oberling

    Kurdish tribe of Kurdistan.

  • DEH-E NOW

    Hubertus von Gall

    site of a group of four rock-cut tombs of the 4th-3rd centuries BCE, located about 25 km south of Bīsotūn in Kermānšāhān. It is possible that at least the two smaller tombs were astōdāns.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DEHBĪD

    Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd

    town in the šahrestān of Ābāda, Fārs (30° 37’ N, 53° 12’ E), situated on the Shiraz-Isfahan road in a plain 191 km northeast of Shiraz.

  • DEHESTĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (in modern Persian administrative usage a rural district consisting of a number of villages), the name of a region in medieval Gorgān and a town in Bādḡīs and another in Kermān.

  • DEHESTĀNĪ , AʿAZZ-AL-MOLKNEẒĀM-AL-DĪN ABU’L-MAḤĀSEN ʿABD-AL-JALĪL

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. ʿAlī, twice vizier to the Saljuq sultan Barkīāroq (1094-1105).

  • DEHESTĀNĪ, ḤOSAYN

    Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    b. Asʿad b. Ḥosayn Moʾayyadī, Persian translator of the Arabic work al-Faraj baʿd al-šedda by Abū ʿAlī Moḥassen (939-94), a collection of poems, anecdotes, sayings, and didactic remarks arranged in thirteen chapters on the general theme of joy following hardship.

  • DEHḴODĀ, MĪRZĀ ʿALĪ-AKBAR QAZVĪNĪ

    ʿA.-A. SAʿĪDĪ SĪRJĀNĪ

    (ca. 1879–1956), scholar, poet, and social critic. In all his writing Dehḵodā was a perfectionist and a meticulous craftsman. He was a nationalist, outspoken in his convictions, indifferent to the wrath of powerful men, and a firm believer in Persian culture.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DEHḴᵛĀRAQĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀẔARŠAHR.

  • DEHLAVĪ, ŠĀH WALĪ-ALLĀH QOṬB-AL-DĪN AḤMAD ABU’L-FAYYĀŻ

    Marcia K. Hermansen

    (1703-62), leading Muslim intellectual of India and writer on a wide range of Islamic topics in Arabic and Persian; more than thirty-five of his works are extant.

  • DEHLĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See DELHI SULTANATE.

  • DEHLORĀN

    Frank Hole

    (Deh Lorān), the name of a šahrestān (subprovince) in Īlām province in southwestern Persia, and of the main town.

  • DEHQĀN

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    arabicized form of Syriac dhgnʾ, borrowed from Pahlavi dehgān (older form dahīgān).

  • DEIOCES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. Dēïókēs), name of a Median king.

  • DEIPNOSOPHISTAÍ

    Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin

    lit. "Banquet of the Sophists"; a miscellany in the form of dialogues ostensibly conducted at table, including approximately one hundred passages pertaining to Persia.

  • DEITY

    Cross-Reference

    See under ACHAEMENID RELIGION; AHRIMAN; AHURA MAZDĀ; MANICHEISM ii. The Manichean Pantheon; ZOROASTRIANISM; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE.

  • DEJLA

    Cross-Reference

    See ARVAND-RŪD; TIGRIS.

  • ḎEKR

    Gerhard Böwering, Moojan Momen

    lit., “remembrance”; the act of reminding oneself of God.

  • ḎEKRĪS

    Cross-Reference

    See BALUCHISTAN i.

  • DELĀRESTĀQ

    Bernard Hourcade

    also Delārostāq, Dīlārostāq; dehestān (administrative district) in the šahrestān of Āmol (Lārījān baḵš), on the northeastern slope of Mount Damāvand in Māzandarān.

  • DELBARJĪN

    Paul Bernard

    urban site 40 km northwest of Balḵ, on the northern limit of an oasis irrigated by the Balḵāb, near a defensive wall built during the Greek period (ca 329-130 BCE) to protect the oasis. The earliest stage of the citadel may date from the Achaemenid period.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DELDĀR,YŪNES MELA RAʾŪF

    Joyce Blau

    (b. in the sanjaq of Ḵoy in the Ottoman empire, 20 February 1918; d. Erbīl, Iraq, 12 October 1948), Kurdish poet and humanist.

  • DELDĀR-ʿALĪ

    Juan R. I. Cole

    b. Moḥammad-Moʿīn NAṢĪRĀBĀDĪ, Sayyed Ḡofrān-maʾāb (b. Naṣīrābād near Lucknow, 1753, d. Lucknow ca. 1820), Shiʿite cleric of northern India who helped to establish the Shiʿite form of Friday prayers and propagated the rationalist Oṣūlī school of jurisprudence in the Avadh region.

  • DÉLÉGATIONS ARCHÉOLOGIQUES FRANÇAISES

    Francine Tissot

    bodies established by the French government to conduct archeological investigations in Persia and Afghanistan respectively.

  • DELHI SULTANATE

    Gavin R. G. Hambly, Catherine B. Asher

    Muslim kingdom established in northern India by Central Asian Turkish warlords at the turn of the 13th century and continuing in an increasingly persianized milieu until its conquest by Bābor in 1526. The political style of the rulers of Delhi reflected traditional concepts of Persian kingship, for Iltutmiš (r. 1211-36) and his successors lacked any other obvious tradition to draw upon.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DELĪKĀNLŪ

    Pierre Oberling

    tribe of the Ḵalḵāl region in eastern Persian Azerbaijan.

  • DELKAŠ

    Erik Nakjavani

    stage name of ʿEṣmat Bāqerpur Panbaforuš (b. Bābol, Māzandarān, 1924; d. Tehran, 2004) popular Persian singer and actress of the mid-20th century.

  • DELKAŠ (1)

    Cathérine Poujol

    (b. Bukhara at an indeterminate date, d. Bukhara, 1902), Tajik poet and musician known and revered for melodies performed on the tanbūr.

  • DELKAŠ (2)

    Jean During

    an important modal unit (šāh gūša) linked to the dastgāh Māhūr, constituting one of its four main modulations, perhaps the most important in expressive function, which contrasts strongly with that of Māhūr itself.

  • DELLA VALLE, PIETRO

    John Gurney

    (b. Rome, 11 April 1586, d. Rome, 21 April 1652), one of the most remarkable travelers of the Renaissance, whose Viaggi is the best contemporary account of the lands between Istanbul and Goa in the early 17th century.

  • DELOUGAZ

    Ezat O. Negahban

    (b. Ukraine, 16 July 1901, d. Čoḡā Mīš, Persia, 29 March 1975), archeologist and excavator of the ancient site of Čoḡā Mīš in Persia.

  • DELŠĀD ḴĀTŪN

    Charles Melville

    eldest daughter of the Chobanid Demašq Ḵᵛāja and Tūrsīn Ḵātūn, granddaughter of the Il-khanid sultan Aḥmad Takūdār.

  • DEMARATUS

    RÜDIGER SCHMITT

    king of Sparta (from at least as early as 510 B.C.E.) who took refuge with Darius I.

  • DEMAŠQ ḴᵛĀJA

    Charles Melville

    third son of the amir Čobān, possibly born in 1300, when his father was on campaign in Damascus.

  • DEMETRIUS

    A. D. H. Bivar

    name of two Greco-Bactrian kings.

  • DEMOCEDES

    RÜDIGER SCHMITT

    (Gk. Dēmokḗdēs), Greek physician attached to the court of Darius I and praised as “the most skillful physician of his time” by Herodotus.

  • DEMOCRACY

    Cross-Reference

    See ANJOMAN; CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION i-v; ELECTIONS.

  • DEMOCRAT PARTY

    Cross-Reference

    See CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION v.

  • DEMOGRAPHY

    Bernard Hourcade, Daniel Balland

    , the statistical study of characteristics of human populations. Since World War II Persia, formerly a rural and tribal country dominated by elderly notables and with low population growth, has come to have a majority of young urban dwellers, mostly literate and multiplying rapidly. In 1979, the proportions of urban dwellers and individuals classified as literate both passed the threshold of 50 percent.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DEMOTIC CHRONICLE

    Edda Bresciani

    Egyptian papyrus document of the early 2nd century B.C.E. in which anti-Persian themes, especially focused on Cambyses, Xerxes, and Artaxerxes III, were elaborated in Ptolemaic Egyptian sacerdotal and intellectual surroundings.

  • DEMOTTE ŠĀH-NĀMA

    Priscilla P. Soucek

    illustrated manuscript, now dispersed, of Ferdowsī’s epic poem, often identified by the name of a former owner, the Paris dealer Georges Demotte (active ca. 1900-23). It is generally believed to have been produced for a patron associated with the Il-khanid court and is renowned for the  quality of its paintings.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DĒN

    Mansour Shaki

    theological and metaphysical term with a variety of meanings:  “the sum of man’s spiritual attributes and individuality, vision, inner self, conscience, religion.”

  • DĒN YAŠT

    Jean Kellens

    a relatively short text, consisting for the most part of repetitive or formulaic sentences.

  • DĒN-DIBĪRĪH

    Cross-Reference

    See DABĪRE, DABĪRĪ.

  • DĒNAG

    Philippe Gignoux

    name of several Sasanian queens; it was not feminine by derivation but was clearly reserved for feminine prosopography.

  • DENIKE

    Anatol Ivanov

    (b. Kazan, 15 January 1885, d. Moscow, 13 October 1941), the first Russian historian of the medieval art of the Near and Far East.

  • DENḴA TEPE

    Oscar White Muscarella

    a Bronze and Iron Age site situated in the Ošnū valley of Azerbaijan, southwest of Lake Urmia, and 15 miles west of the major Iron Age site of Hasanlu (Ḥasanlū) in the Soldūz valley.

  • DĒNKARD

    Philippe Gignoux

    lit., “Acts of the religion”; written in Pahlavi, a summary of 10th-century knowledge of the Mazdean religion; the editor, Ādurbād Ēmēdān, entitled the final version “The Dēnkard of one thousand chapters.”

  • DENMARK

    Fereydun Vahman, Jes P. Asmussen

    : relations with Persia. Danish-Persian relations have been concentrated in three main areas: politics and diplomacy; trade and other economic relations; and Iranian studies in Denmark, including collections of Persian art in Danish museums.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DENŠAPUH

    James Russell

    short form of Vehdenšapuh; Sasanian hambārakapet (quartermaster) involved in the campaign of Yazdagerd II (438-57) to force Christian Armenians to abjure their faith and return to Zoroastrianism; a gem bearing his name is preserved in the British Museum in London.

  • DENTISTRY

    Ṣādeq Sajjādī

    (dandān-pezeškī) in Persia.

  • DEOBAND

    Barbara Daly Metcalf

    country town northeast of Delhi in what is now the Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India, where an influential Dār al-ʿolūm was founded by a group of religious scholars in 1867 as an expression of a major religious reform movement partly inspired by British educational models.

  • DEPORTATIONS

    A. Shapur Shahbazi, Erich Kettenhofen, John R. Perry

    forced transfers of population from one region to another.

  • DERAFŠ

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    lit. “banner, standard, flag, emblem,” in ancient Iran. In the Avesta Bactria “with tall banners,”  a fluttering “bull banner,” and enemy banners are mentioned. In the Achaemenid period each Persian army division had its own standard (Herodotus, 9.59), and “all officers had banners over their tents"  (Xenophon, Cyropaedia 8.5.13). 

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DERAFŠ-E KĀVĪĀN

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    the legendary royal standard of the Sasanian kings.

  • DERAḴT

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    tree, shrub.

  • DERAḴT-E ANJIR-E MAʿĀBED

    LOQMĀN TADAYON-NEŽĀD

    the last and highly acclaimed work of fiction by Ahmad Mahmud.

  • DERĀZ-DAST

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    having long hands.

  • DERBEND

    Cross-Reference

    See DARBAND.

  • DERHAM

    Cross-Reference

    See DIRHAM.

  • DERHAM B. NAŻ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    or Naṣr or Ḥosayn; commander of ʿayyārs or moṭawweʿa, orthodox Sunni vigilantes against the Kharijites in Sīstān during the period immediately preceding the rise of the Saffarid brothers to supreme power there.

  • DEŚANĀ

    Hiroshi Kumamoto

    Khotanese term with two meanings: “showing," that is, “preaching” the law, and “profession” of faith or “confession” of sins.

  • DESERT

    Brian Spooner

    bīābān. As throughout most of the arid zone agriculture and settlement depend upon sustained investment, Persians generally expect to find bīābān where ābādī (settled, irrigated agriculture) ends. The term bīābān covers a broad range of different types of desert, from completely barren expanses to plains with significant percentages of vegetation cover.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DESMAISONS, JEAN-JACQUES-PIERRE

    CATHÉRINE POUJOL

    or Petr Ivanovich Demezon (b. Chambéry, in the kingdom of Sardinia, 1807, d. Paris, 1873) diplomat and compiler of an important Persian-French dictionary.

  • DEUTSCHES ARCHÄOLOGISCHES INSTITUT

    Wolfram Kleiss

    or D.A.I., research institution administered by the German foreign ministry, with a number of branches, including the Abteilung Teheran in Persia.

  • DĒV

    Cross-Reference

    See DAIVA, DĒW, DĪV.

  • DEVECSERI, Gábor

    ANDRÁS BODROGLIGETI

    (1917-1971), Hungarian poet, scholar, and translator. 

  • DEVIL

    Cross-Reference

    See AHRIMAN; DĪV; EBLĪS.

  • DĒW

    A. V. Williams

    lit. "demon" in the Pahlavi books.

  • DĒWĀŠTĪČ

    Boris Marshak

    ruler of Sogdia (706?-22), referred to as “prince of Panč” (Panjīkant) and as “king of Sogdia, ruler of Samarkand” in the portion of his archives discovered at the castle on Mount Mug (Mōḡ), east of Samarkand, on the upper course of the Zarafšān river.

  • DEYHĪM

    Cross-Reference

    See CROWN.

  • DEYLAM, BANDAR-E

    Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd

    a port on the Persian Gulf (30° 3’ N, 50° 9’ E) in the province of Būšehr at an elevation a little above 1 m.

  • DEYLAM, JOHN OF

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    or Yoḥannān Daylomāyā (d. 738), Eastern Syrian saint and founder of monasteries in Fārs.

  • DEYLAMĀN (District)

    Ezat O. Negahban

    or Daylamān, district and town in Gīlān.

  • DEYLAMĀN (Melody)

    Jean During

    melody (gūša) incorporated into the radīf of Āvāz-e Daštī by Abu’l-Ḥasan Ṣabā (1957), who borrowed it from the regional repertoire of northern Persia.

  • DEYLAMĪ, ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD DAYLAMĪ.

  • DEYLAMĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ḤASAN

    Etan Kohlberg

    b. Abi’l-Ḥasan (b.) Moḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd-Allāh (or Moḥammad), Shiʿite author and traditionist.

  • DEYLAMĪ, ABUʾL-ḤASAN ʿALĪ

    Gerhard BÖWERING

    b. Moḥammad (fl. 10th century), an obscure yet important author on the early Persian Sufism prevalent in Fārs.

  • DEYLAMĪ, ABU’L-FATḤ NĀṢER

    Wilferd Madelung

    b. Ḥosayn b. Moḥammad b. ʿĪsā b. Moḥammad b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. ʿAlī b. Ḥasan b. Zayd b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāleb, Zaydī imam with the title Nāṣer le-Dīn Allāh (d. 1052-53).

  • DEYLAMĪ, ŠAMS-AL-DĪN ABŪ ṮĀBET MOḤAMMAD

    Gerhard Böwering

    b. ʿAbd-al-Malek ṬŪSĪ (d. ca. 1197), original though obscure Sufi author of the 12th century.

  • DEYLAMITES

    Wolfgang Felix, Wilferd Madelung

    people inhabiting a shifting region in northern Persia and adjacent territories, including the Deylamān uplands.

  • DEYM

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀBYĀRĪ; AGRICULTURE In Iran; BĀRĀN; FARMING.

  • DEZ

    Cross-Reference

    or DEŽ, (fortress, castle; Mid. Pers. diz; OPers. didā- “wall, fortress”; Av. daēz-; Yidgha lizo“fort”). See BĀRŪ; CASTLES.

  • DEŽ

    Nasseraddin Parvin

    a weekly of news and politics associated with the Tudeh Party that began publication on 27 May 1943 in Tehran and continued with some interruptions until June 1953.

  • DEŽ Ī NEBEŠT

    Mansour Shaki

    (Mid. Pers. diz ī nibišt “fortress of archives,” lit. “writing”), supposedly one of two repositories in which copies of the Avesta and its exegesis (zand) were deposited for safekeeping.

  • DEZ River

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀB-E DEZ.

  • DEŽ-E BAHMAN

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    lit. "fortress of Bahman"; according to legend a fortress in Azerbaijan conquered by the Kayānian king Kay Ḵosrow, son of Sīāvaš and grandson of Kāvūs, king of Iran.

  • DEŽ-E GONBADĀN

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    lit. "fortress of Gonbadān"; a fortress where the Iranian hero Esfandīār, son of the Kayānian king Goštāsb, was imprisoned.

  • DEŽ-E RŪYĪN

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    or Rūyīn-dež, lit. "brazen fortress"; castle belonging to the Turanian king Arjāsb and conquered by Esfandīār, son of the Kayanid king Goštāsb.

  • DEŽ-E SAFĪD

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    lit. "white fortress"; Iranian fortress located near the border with Tūrān and conquered by Sohrāb, son of the Iranian hero Rostam by the Turanian princess Tahmīna.

  • DEZFŪL

    Massoud Kheirabadi, Colin MacKinnon

    or Dez-pol, lit. "fortress bridge"; šahrestān (subprovincial administrative unit) and city in northern Ḵūzestān province.

  • DEZKŪH

    Farhad Daftary

    or Šāhdez; a medieval mountain fortress situated in central Persia on the summit of Mount Ṣoffa, about 8 km south of Isfahan.

  • DHABHAR, BAHMANJI NUSSERWANJI

    Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal

    (b. 1869, Navsari, d. 1952, Bombay), eminent Parsi scholar of Bhagaria stock.

  • DHALLA, DASTUR MANECKJI NUSSERWANJI

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    In 1878 Dhalla came to Karachi with his father, married at the age of nine, and was ordained a priest (navar) in 1890. For a while he abandoned his studies and worked to augment the family’s meagre income, but his scholarly interest never waned.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DHĀR, QĀŻĪ KHAN BADR

    Cross-Reference

    See DHĀRVĀL.

  • DHĀRAṆĪ

    Hiroshi Kumamoto, Yutaka Yoshida

    magic spells in the Buddhist Mahāyānist and Tantric (esoteric) traditions.

  • DHARMAŚARĪRA-SŪTRA

    Hiroshi Kumamoto

    a short Buddhist text belonging to the Mahāyānist tradition.

  • DHĀRVĀL, QĀŻĪ KHAN BADR MOḤAMMAD DEHLAVĪ

    M. Saleem Akhtar

    or DHĀR, 15th-century Persian lexicographer in India, so named because he settled in Dhār (hence his nesba Dhārvāl), capital of the Ghurid principality of Malwa.

  • DHŪTA-SŪTRA

    Yutaka Yoshida

    name of a Buddhist Sogdian text discovered at Tun-huang.

  • DHYĀNA TEXT

    Yutaka Yoshida

    designation of a Buddhist Sogdian text of 405 lines discovered at Tun-huang.

  • DĪA

    Khalid Abu El Fadl

    the prescribed blood money or wergild paid in compensation for a wrongful death or certain other physical injuries.

  • DIAKONOFF, Igor’ Mikhaĭlovich

    Muhammad Dandamayev

    Diakonoff established international contacts and participated in organizing important scholarly projects. In particular, he took an active part in the organization of the 25th International Congress of Orientalists held in Moscow in 1960 (he was the Executive Secretary of the Organizing Committee).

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DĪĀLA

    Cross-Reference

    river. See ARVAND-RŪD.

  • DIALECTOLOGY

    GERNOT L. WINDFUHR

    the terms dialect and language overlap; in general, language refers to the more or less unified system of the phonology, grammar, and lexicon that is shared by the speakers of a country, or geographic region, or a socially defined group, whereas dialect (Pers. lahja, gūyeš) focuses on varieties of a language.

  • DĪĀRBAKR

    Cross-Reference

    See AMIDA.

  • DIASPORA

    Mary Boyce, Fariba Zarrinbaf-Shahr, H. Hakimian, Yitzhak Nakash, Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh, Mehdi Bozorgmehr, Grant Farr, Čangīz Pahlavān

    Iranian. i. In Pre-Islamic times. ii. Persians in India. iii. Persians in Southeast Asia. iv. Persians in Ottomon Turkey. v. Persians in the Caucasus and Central Asia in the late 19th and early 20th century. vi. Persians in Iraq. vii. Persians in Southern ports of the Persian Gulf. viii. In the Post-revolutionary period. ix. Afghan refugees in Pakistan. x. Afghan refugees in Persia.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DIATESSERON

    Cross-reference

    Persian translation of the four Gospels, based on a Syriac original. See BIBLE vii. Persian Translations.

  • DĪBĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABRĪŠAM.

  • DĪBĀ, MAḤMŪD KHAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALĀʾ-al-MOLK.

  • DIBĪR

    Cross-Reference

    See DABĪR.

  • DICHŌR

    Erich Kettenhofen

    city conquered by Šāpūr I (240-70) during his second campaign against Rome in 253, as recorded in his inscription at Kaʿba-ye Zardošt.

  • DICKSON, MARTIN BERNARD

    Kathryn Babayan

    (b. Brooklyn, 22 March 1924, d. Princeton, 14 May 1991), Iranist and Central Asianist who specialized in Safavid history.

  • DICTIONARIES

    ʿAlī Ašraf Ṣādeqī, John R. Perry, Ḥosayn Sāmeʿī

    The first extant Persian dictionary is Lōḡat-e fors of the poet Asadī Ṭūsī (q.v.). Entries are arranged according to their final letters and illustrated by examples from poetry. Over ten manuscripts are known to have reached us, all of which differ in the number of entries and verses as well as the entry definitions.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DIDYMA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. tà Dídyma, probably of Carian origin), district ca. 20 km south of the Ionian Miletus and site of a pre-Greek sanctuary of Apollo, to which a famous oracle was attached.

  • DIEU, LOUIS (LUDOVICUS) DE

    J.T.P. de Bruijn

    (b. Vlissingen, Flushing, April 7, 1590; d. Leiden, Dec. 23, 1642), Dutch orientalist.

  • DIEULAFOY, JANE HENRIETTE MAGRE

    Jean Calmard

    (b. Toulouse, 29 June 1851, d. Château de Langlade, Haute-Garonne, 25 May 1916), French archeologist, explorer, folklorist, novelist, playwright, and journalist.

  • DIEULAFOY, MARCEL-AUGUSTE

    Pierre Amiet

    (b. Toulouse, 3 August 1844, d. Paris, 25 February 1920), French archeologist.

  • DIEZ, ERNST

    Jens Kröger

    (b. 27 January 1878, d. 8 July 1961), Austrian historian of Iranian and Islamic art.

  • DIGOR

    F. Thordarson

    Ossetic tribal name.

  • DILL

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    Anethum graveolens L. (fam. Umbellifera), an herb widely cultivated in Persia.

  • DIMDIM

    Amir Hassanpour

    name of a mountain and a fortress where an important battle between the Kurds and the Safavid army took place in the early 17th century.

  • DIMLĪ

    Garnik S. Asatrian

    or Zāzā; the indigenous name of an Iranian people living mainly in eastern Anatolia, in the Dersim region (present-day Tunceli) between Erzincan in the north and the Muratsu in the south, the far western part of historical Upper Armenia.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DĪN MOḤAMMAD KHAN

    EIr

    b. Olūs Khan, the Uzbek prince who, with his brother ʿAlī Solṭān, joined Shah Ṭahmāsb’s camp in 943/1536-37 during the latter’s campaign in Khorasan against ʿObayd-Allāh Khan, the Uzbek ruler of Bukhara.

  • DĪN WA’L-ḤAYĀT, AL-

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a bi-weekly religious magazine published in Tabrīz, 1928-31, replacing another Tabrīz religious magazine, Taḏakkorāt-e dīnī.

  • DINAR

    Philippe Gignoux, Michael Bates

    a gold coin, in pre-Islamic times struck mainly for purposes of prestige. In Arabic of the classical Islamic period, the word dīnār had the double sense of a gold coin and of a monetary unit which might not be precisely embodied by actual coins.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DĪNĀR, MALEK

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Moḥammad (d. 1195), a leader of the Oghuz Turkmen in Khorasan and, in the latter years of the 12th century, ruler of Kermān.

  • DĪNĀRĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See BAḴTĪĀRĪ.

  • DĪNAVAR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (occasionally vocalized Daynavar), in the first centuries of Islam an important town in Jebāl, now ruined.

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ ḤANĪFA AḤMAD

    Charles Pellat

    b. Dāwūd b. Vanand (d. between 894 and 903), grammarian, lexicographer, astronomer, mathematician, and Islamic traditionist of Persian origin, who lived at Dīnavar and in several cities in Iraq in the 9th century.

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Josef van Ess

    b. Ḥamdān b. Wahb b. Bešr (d. 902), traditionist and ḥāfeẓ (preserver of the Koranic text).

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Josef van Ess

    b. Mobārak (d. first half of the 10th century), author of a tafsīr (koranic exegesis) entitled al-Wāżeḥ fī tafsīr al-Qorʾān, which is preserved in several manuscripts.

  • DĪNĀVARĪYA

    Werner Sundermann

    in Manichean usage originally “the elect.”

  • DINKHA TEPE

    Cross-Reference

    See DENḴĀ TEPE.

  • DINON

    Wolfgang Felix

    (fl. approximately 360-30 B.C.E.), author of a historical work on the Ancient Orient.

  • DĪNŠĀH

    Cross-Reference

    See IRANI, DINSHAH JIJIBHOY.

  • DIO CASSIUS

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    (more correctly, Cassius Dio; b. Nicea, Bithynia, ca. 160, d. Nicea, after 229), Roman official whose Rhomaikē Historia is important for the study of Parthian history.

  • DIO CHRYSOSTOM

    Cross-Reference

    See DIO COCCEIANUS.

  • DIO COCCEIANUS

    Roger Beck

    surnamed Chrysostom ("golden-mouthed"), a traveling scholar who in his 36th Oration (known as the “Borysthenian” or “Olbian” from its dramatic setting), written about 100 C.E., purports to summarize a hymn composed by Zoroaster and sung by the magi in secret rites.

  • DIODORUS SICULUS

    Ernst Badian

    Greek historian from Agyrium in Sicily, hence called Siculus (the Sicilian) who came to Rome in the middle of the first century B.C.E. and there wrote his Bibliotheca Historica, a universal history in forty books, from the origins to the age of Caesar.

  • DIODOTUS

    Osmund Bopearachchi

    satrap of Bactria-Sogdiana, who revolted against his Seleucid soverign Antiochus II and proclaimed himself king, thus laying the foundation of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom. The date of his revolt has been  placed between 256 and 239 B.C., the majority of scholars arguing for about the year 250.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DIOGENES LAERTIUS

    Wolfgang Felix

    author of a biographically arranged history of Greek philosophy in ten books that also deals with the Persian Magi, especially in the first book on the origins of philosophy.

  • DIONYSIUS

    RüDIGER SCHMITT

    (Gk. Dionýsios) of Miletus, Greek historiographer, who may have lived in the 5th century B.C.E. and is said to have written a book about Persian history after the death of Darius I.

  • DIPLOMACY

    Cross-Reference

    See under individual countries; see also FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

  • DĪRAKVAND

    Pierre Oberling

    Lor tribe belonging to the Bālā Garīva group and inhabiting a mountainous area between Ḵorramābād and Dezfūl in the Pīš-Kūh region of Lorestān.

  • DĪRGHANAKHA-SŪTRA

    Yutaka Yoshida

    a Buddhist text in which the Buddha expounds the merits of observing the eight commandments to a parivrājaka named Dīrghanakha.

  • DIRHAM

    Philippe Gignoux, Michael Bates

    a unit of silver coinage and of weight. The dirham retained a stable value of about 4 g throughout the entire pre-Islamic period. The tetradrachm, or stater (> Pahl. stēr), was equivalent to 4 drachmas and was already in circulation in the Achaemenid period at the time of Alexander’s departure for Persia.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DĪV

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    demon, monster, fiend; expresses not only the idea of “demon,” but also that of “ogre,” “giant,” and even “Satan.”

  • DĪV SOLṬĀN

    Roger M. Savory

    title of ʿALĪ BEG RŪMLŪ, a qezelbāš officer first mentioned at the battle of Šarūr (1501), in which the Safavid Esmāʿīl I defeated the Āq Qoyūnlū prince Alvand.

  • DĪVĀL-E ḴODĀYDĀD

    Klaus Fischer

    an extensive area of historic remains in the center of an ancient canal system fed by the rivers Helmand and Ḵāšrūd and located between the eastern border of the Hāmūn-e Aškīnʿām and the lower Ḵāšrūd, about 45 km to the northeast of Zaranj in southwest Afghanistan.

  • DĪVĀN

    François de Blois

    archive, register, chancery, government office; also, collected works, especially of a poet.

  • DĪVĀN-E KEŠVAR

    Cross-Reference

    See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS v. Judicial System in the 20th Century.

  • DĪVĀNA NAQQĀŠ

    Priscilla P. Soucek

    15th-century painter whose work is known primarily from single-page paintings preserved in the Topkapı Sarayı library, Istanbul.

  • DĪVĀNBEGĪ

    Shiro Ando, Roger M. Savory

    originally, the designation for the highest-ranking officer in the Timurid office of finance and justice; in the Safavid administrative system, the dīvānbegī was one of the high-ranking amirs residing at court.

  • DĪVĀNĪ, ḴAṬṬ-E

    Cross-Reference

    See CALLIGRAPHY.

  • DĪVDĀD

    Cross-Reference

    See BANŪ SĀJ.

  • DIVINATION

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    the art or technique of gaining knowledge of future events or distant states by means of observing and interpreting signs.

  • DIVORCE

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev, Mansour Shaki, Sachiko Murata, Akbar Aghajanian, Jenny Rose, Mujan Momen

    legal termination of marriage. In the following series of articles only those communities are taken into consideration which are either Iranian or are focused in Persia. For this reason Jewish and Christian practices have not been included.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DIZK

    Cross-Reference

    See JIZAK.

  • DJANBAZIAN, Sarkis

    Maria Sabaye Moghaddam

    After graduating from high school, Djanbazian went to Leningrad to study dance. He graduated from Vaganova Dance Academy of Leningrad in 1936 and from Lesgaf University with a Masters of Arts degree in 1936. After graduation, he worked as a principal dancer, choreographer, and artistic director in Kirov Theatre.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DJEITUN WARE

    Cross-Reference

    See CERAMICS i.

  • DO-BARĀDARĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See JĀMI.

  • DO-BAYTĪ

    Stephen Blum

    a quatrain of sung poetry in many Persian dialects.

  • DOʿĀ

    Hamid Algar

    the act of offering supplicatory or petitionary prayer, a principal manifestation of Muslim piety.

  • DOʿĀ-NEVĪSĪ

    Aḥmad Mahdawī Dāmḡānī

    the act of writing charms against various evils.

  • DOĀB-E MĪḴZARĪN

    Klaus Fischer

    a group of archeological sites with numerous pre-Islamic mud-brick ruins on either side of the Sorḵāb river, on the road from Bāmīān to Došī, opposite the entrance to the Kahmard valley.

  • DOCUMENTS

    Mansour Shaki, Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    i. In pre-Islamic period. ii. Babylonian and Egyptian documents in the Achaemenid period. iii. In the modern period.

  • DŌDĀ-BĀLĀÇ

    Cross-Reference

    See BALUCHISTAN iii/II.

  • DODDER

    Cross-Reference

    See AFTĪMŪN.

  • DOG

    Mahmoud Omidsalar and Teresa P. Omidsalar, Mary Boyce, Jean-Pierre Digard

    Canis familiaris; i. In literature and folklore. ii. In Zoroastrianism. iii. Ethnography.

  • DOḠLAT, MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD ḤAYDAR

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • DOGONBADAN

    Cross-Reference

    See GAČSARĀN.

  • DOJAYL

    Cross-Reference

    See KĀRŪN.

  • DOḴĀNĪYĀT

    Willem Floor

    tobacco projects; referring to the State tobacco-monopoly law (Qānūn-e enḥeṣār-e dawlatī-e doḵānīyāt) of 20 March 1909 and to the state monopoly of tobacco products itself.

  • DOKKĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀZĀR i.

  • DOKKĀN-E DĀWŪD

    Hubertus von Gall

    lit., “shop of David"; rock-cut tomb of the Achaemenid period in the Zagros range a few kilometers southeast of Sar-e Pol-e Ḏohāb, in the province of Kermānšāhān. The relief of a priest with a barsom bundle probably belongs to the early Hellenistic period.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DOḴTAR-E NŌŠERVĀN

    MARKUS MODE

    lit., “daughter of Nōšervān”; rock-cut architectural complex with important wall paintings in the Ḵolm valley in northern Afghanistan, discovered in 1924. Surrounding the deity’s head is a tripartite nimbus with attached animal protomes. This complex system seems to emphasize the supernatural force of the “king of gods” as ultimate creator of all life.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DOḴTARĀN-E ĪRĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    lit., “Daughters of Iran”; a monthly variety magazine for girls published in Shiraz from 23 July 1931 to November 1932.

  • DOKUZ ḴĀTŪN

    Charles Melville

    (d. 16 June 1265), chief wife of the Il-khan Hülegü and granddaughter of Wang Khan, leader of the Nestorian Christian Kereyit tribe domiciled near present-day Ulan Bator.

  • DOLAFIDS

    Fred M. Donner

    family of Arab origin that became politically prominent in western Persia during the 9th century.

  • DOLDOL

    Aḥmad Mahdawī Dāmḡānī

    or Doldūl, in Ar. lit., “large porcupine”; name of a female mule that Moqawqes, governor of Egypt, sent to the Prophet Moḥammad as a gift.

  • DOLGORUKOV MEMOIRS

    Moojan Momen

    document published under the title Eʿterāfāt-e sīāsī yā yāddāšthā-ye Kenyāz Dolqorūkī (Political confessions or memoirs of Prince Dolgorukov) in the historical portion of the “Khorasan yearbook,” issued in Mašhad in 1943.

  • DOLICHĒ

    Erich Kettenhofen

    city in the Roman province of Syria conquered together with the surrounding area by Šāpūr I  during his second campaign against Rome in 252 or 253.

  • DOLMA

    M. R. Ghanoonparvar

    or dūlma; Turkish term for stuffed vegetable or fruit dishes common in the Middle East and in Mediterranean countries.

  • DOLOMITAE

    Cross-Reference

    See DEYLAMITES i.

  • DOMAN

    Erich Kettenhofen

    city in the Roman province of Cappadocia, conquered along with the surrounding area by the Sasanian Šāpūr I (240-70) during his second campaign against Rome.

  • DOMES

    Bernard O’Kane

    circular vaulted roofs or ceilings. The variety of forms and decoration of Persian domes is unrivaled. Domes on squinches first appeared in Persia in the Sasanian period in the palace at Fīrūzābād in Fārs and at nearby Qalʿa-ye Doḵtar, both erected by Ardašir I (r. 224-40).

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DOMESTIC ANIMALS

    Daniel Balland and Jean-Pierre Digard

    This article is devoted to the principal characteristics of the predominant systems of domestication in Afghanistan and Persia, what they owe to neighboring or preceding systems, how they have departed from them, and whether or not it is possible to speak of a typically Iranian system of domestication.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DONALDSON, BESS ALLEN

    Peter Avery

    (1879-1974) and DWIGHT MARTIN (1884-1976), American Presbyterian missionaries and writers about Persia.

  • DONBA

    M. R. Ghanoonparvar

    the fatty part of the sheep’s tail, traditionally used as a cooking fat, sometimes in melted form, or as an inexpensive meat substitute.

  • DONBAK

    Cross-Reference

    See TONBAK.

  • DONBĀVAND

    Cross-Reference

    See DAMĀVAND.

  • DONBOLĪ

    ʿALĪ ĀL-E DĀWŪD and Pierre Oberling

    name of a turkicized Kurdish tribe in the Ḵoy and Salmās regions of northwestern Azerbaijan and of the leading family of Ḵoy since the 16th century.

  • DONBOLĪ, ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ BEG

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ BEG.

  • DONKEY

    Mahmoud Omidsalar and Teresa P. Omidsalar, Daniel T. Potts

    i. In Persian tradition and folk belief. ii. Domestication in Iran.

  • DONKEY i. In Persian tradition and folk belief

    Mahmoud Omidsalar and Teresa P. Omidsalar

    domesticated species descended from the wild ass, probably first bred in captivity in Egypt and western Asia, where by 2500 B.C.E. the domesticated donkey was in use as a beast of burden.

  • DONKEY ii. Domestication in Iran

    Daniel T. Potts

    Potentially contemporary with or even earlier than the earliest evidence of donkey domestication in Egypt, the Tol-e Nurābād sherd raises many questions about the locus of donkey domestication in the Old World, particularly since the Zagros highlands, where it was discovered, have been considered well to the east of the original range of Equid africanus.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DONYĀ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    lit., “The world”; name of several Persian journals and newspapers.

  • DONYĀ-YE EMRŪZ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    lit. "Today’s world"; name of a weekly magazine published in Tehran and two weekly newspapers founded in Qazvīn and Isfahan, respectively.

  • DOORS AND DOOR FRAMES

    Sheila Blair, Mortażā Momayyez

    in Persian architecture major foci of decoration, varying in size and elaboration with the function and importance of the building and the location of the entrance in relation to the total composition.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DŌRĪ

    Daniel Balland

    river in southern Afghanistan, the main tributary of the Arḡandā.

  • DORN, JOHANNES ALBRECHT BERNHARD

    N. L. Luzhetskaya

    (1805-1881), pioneer in many areas of Iranian studies in Russia. He was particularly interested in the Pashtuns and published annotated editions and translations of texts on tribal history. Dorn never visited Afghanistan, but he nevertheless established the scientific basis for Afghan studies, particularly the first systematic description of Pashto.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DORNĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See CRANE.

  • DORR

    Cross-Reference

    See PEARL i. Pre-Islamic Period and PEARL ii. Islamic Period.

  • DORRĀNĪ

    Daniel Balland

    probably the most numerous Pashtun tribal confederation, from which all Afghan dynasties since 1747 have come. The Dorrānī confederation is a political grouping of ten Pashtun tribes of various sizes, which are further organized in two leagues of five tribes each.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DORRĀNĪ DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See AFGHANISTAN x.

  • DORRĀNĪ, AḤMAD SHAH

    Cross-Reference

    See AFGHANISTAN x.

  • ḎORRAT

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    maize or (Indian) corn, Zea mays L. (fam. Gramineae), with many varieties and hybrids.

  • DORRAT AL-NAJAF

    Nassereddin Parvin

    lit. "Pearl of Najaf"; monthly religious journal published in Persian at Najaf in southern Iraq at the end of the first decade of the 20th century.

  • DORRAT-AL-MAʿĀLĪ

    Afsaneh Najmabadi

    (b. Tehran, 1873, d. Tehran, Šahrīvar 1924), pioneer in female education in Persia.

  • DORRI EFENDI

    Cross-Reference

    See DÜRRI EFENDI.

  • DORŪD

    ʿALĪ ĀL-E DĀWŪD

    a town in Lorestān province, situated at the foot of Oštorānkūh, at an altitude of 1,460 m on the route from Tehran to Ḵorramābād at the confluence of the rivers Tīra and Mārbara.

  • DŌŠĪ

    Daniel Balland

    small town and district on the northern slope of the central Hindu Kush in Afghanistan.

  • DOŠMANZĪĀRĪ

    Pierre Oberling

    name of two Lor tribes in southern Persia, the Došmanzīārī-e Mamasanī and the Došmanzīārī-e Kūhgīlūya.

  • DŌST MOḤAMMAD KHAN

    Amin H. Tarzi

    (b. Qandahār December 1792, d. Herat, 9 June 1863), first ruler of the Bārakzay/Moḥammadzay dynasty of Afghanistan. He was the first to bring the region that today constitutes Afghanistan under the control, occasionally tenuous, of a single central government.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DOTĀR

    Jean During

    long-necked lute of the tanbūr family, usually with two strings (do tār). The principal feature is the pear-shaped sound box attached to a neck that is longer than the box and faced with a wooden soundboard. Dotārs can be classified in several different types.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DOZĀLA

    Jean During

    kind of flute consisting of two parallel pipes pierced with holes and fitted with a removable vibrating mouthpiece made by cutting a U-shaped incision into a thin reed.

  • DOZDĀB

    Cross-Reference

    See ZĀHEDĀN.

  • DOZY, REINHARD PETRUS ANNE

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (b. Leiden, 21 February 1820, d. Leiden, 29 April 1883), Dutch orientalist renowned especially as a lexicographer of Arabic and a historian of Muslim Andalusia.

  • DRAGON

    Cross-Reference

    See AŽDAHĀ.

  • DRAINAGE

    Eckart Ehlers

    ,the carrying away of excess surface water through runoff in permanent or intermittent streams. Persia can be divided into four main drainage regions: the Caspian region, the Lake Urmia region, the Persian Gulf region, and the interior. Most of it is characterized by endorheic basins, that is, by interior drainage.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DRAMA

    M. R. Ghanoonparvar

    in formal Western terms a relatively new art form in Persia, though various types of dramatic performance, including religious plays and humorous satirical skits, have long been a part of Persian religious and folk tradition.

  • DRANGIANA

    R. Schmitt

    or Zarangiana; territory around Lake Hāmūn and the Helmand river in modern Sīstān.

  • DRÁPSAKA

    Frantz Grenet

    Greek name of a Bactrian city in northern Afghanistan, the first town captured by Alexander the Great after crossing the Hindu Kush.

  • DRAWING

    M. L. Swietochowski

    , an art form primarily dependent on expressive line. The high quality of Persian drawings maintained from the late 13th to the early 20th century provides a clear indication that this art form was appreciated by the Persian cultural elite.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DRAXT Ī ĀSŪRĪG

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    lit. "The Babylonian tree"; a versified contest over precedence between a goat and a palm tree, composed in the Parthian language, written in Book Pahlavi script, and consisting of about 120 verses. 

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DREAMS AND DREAM INTERPRETATION

    Hossein Ziai

    i. In pre-Islamic Persia. ii. In the Persian tradition.

  • DRESDEN, MARK JAN

    Hiroshi Kumamoto

    (b. Amsterdam, 26 April 1911; d. Philadelphia, 16 August 1986), professor at the University of Pennsylvania, where he taught Persian, then various Old and Middle Iranian languages from 1949 until his retirement in 1977.  He worked especially on Khotanese literary texts.

  • DREYFUS-BARNEY

    Shapour Rassekh

    joint surname adopted by two leading Bahai figures of the 20th century.

  • DRIWAY

    Jean Kellens

    (or Driβi-), Younger Avestan noun from the Vidēvdād; the word probably referred either to a skin disease or to drooling.

  • DRIYŌŠĀN JĀDAG-GŌW UD DĀDWAR

    Philippe Gignoux

    Middle Persian title of a Sasanian official, “intercessor and judge of the poor.”

  • DṚNABĀJIŠ

    RÜDIGER SCHMITT

    name of the fifth month (July-August) of the Old Persian calendar, equivalent to Akkadian Ābu and Elamite Zillatam.

  • DRŌN

    Jamsheed K. Choksy

    Zoroastrian ritual term originally meaning “sacred portion” and designating a ritual offering to divine beings.

  • DRUGS

    ṢĀDEQ SAJJĀDĪ

    in medieval Muslim literature any vegetable, mineral, or animal substance that acts on the human body, whether as a medicament, a poison, or an antidote.

  • DRUJ-

    Jean Kellens

    Avestan feminine noun defining the concept opposed to that of aṧa-.

  • DRUMS

    Jean During

    large group of percussion instruments.

  • DRUSTBED

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    chief physician in the Sasanian period.

  • DRVĀSPĀ

    Jean Kellens

    or Drwāspā, Druuāspā, lit., “with solid horses”; Avestan goddess.

  • DRYPETIS

    RÜDIGER SCHMITT

    (Gk. Drýpĕtis [Arrian] or Drypêtis [Diodorus]), daughter of Darius III Codomannus and younger sister of Stateira; in the collective wedding arranged by Alexander the Great at Susa in 324 B.C.E. she was given in marriage to Hephaestion.

  • DU MANS, RAPHAEL

    Francis Richard

    , FATHER (b. Jacques Dutertre, Le Mans, France, d. Isfahan, 1 April 1696), author of important descriptions of Persia.

  • ḎŪ QĀR

    Ella Landau-Tasseron

    watering place near Kūfa in Iraq where a battle was fought between Arab tribesmen and Persian forces in the early 7th century.

  • ḎŪ-BAḤRAYN

    Sīrūs Šamīsā

    a term in Persian and Arabic prosody designating a poem that can be scanned according to two or more different meters (baḥr).

  • DUALISM

    Gherardo Gnoli

    feature peculiar to Iranian religion in ancient and medieval times.

  • DUBAI

    Sussan Siavoshi

    (Dobayy), second largest of the seven emirates constituting the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) on the southern shores of the Persian Gulf.

  • DUCK

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    technically any species of the family Anatidae but in Persian popular usage including similar waterfowl from other families, particularly some geese and grebes.

  • DŪḠ

    M. R. Ghanoonparvar

    beverage made of yogurt and plain or carbonated water and often served chilled as a refreshing summer drink or with meals, especially with kebabs or čelow-kabāb.

  • DŪḠ-E WAḤDAT

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    lit. “beverage of unity”; concoction made from adding hashish extract (jowhar-e ḥaīš) to diluted yogurt.

  • DUGDŌW

    D. N. MacKenzie

    the name of Zoroaster’s mother, which appears in several different spellings in the Pahlavi texts, mostly more or less corrupted from an original attempt at representing the Avestan form.

  • ḎU’L-AKTĀF

    Cross-Reference

    See SHAPUR II.

  • ḎU’L-FAQĀR

    Jean Calmard

    lit., “provided with notches, grooves, vertebrae”; the miraculous sword of Imam ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāleb, with two blades or points, which became a symbol of his courage on the battlefield.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ḎU’L-FAQĀR KHAN AFŠĀR

    J. R. PERRY

    governor (ḥākem) of Ḵamsa province (ca. 1763-80) under the Zand dynasty.

  • ḎU’L-FAQĀR ŠĪRVĀNĪ

    Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    MALEK-AL-ŠOʿARĀ QEWĀM-AL-DĪN ḤOSAYN b. Ṣadr-al-Dīn ʿAlī (d. ca. 691/1291), Persian poet and panegyrist of the Il-khanid period. 

  • ḎU’L-JANĀḤ

    Jean Calmard

    Imam Ḥosayn’s winged horse, known from popular literature and rituals.

  • ḎU’L-LESĀNAYN

    Hamid Algar

    lit. “possessor of two tongues”; epithet often bestowed upon bilingual poets.

  • ḎU’L-NŪN MEṢRĪ, ABU’L-FAYŻ ṮAWBĀN

    Gerhard Böwering

    b. Ebrāhīm (b. Aḵmīm in Upper Egypt, ca. 791, d. Jīza [Giza], between 859 and 862), early Sufi master.

  • ḎU’L-QADR

    Pierre Oberling

    (arabicized form of Turk. Dulgadır), a Ḡozz tribe that became established mainly in southeastern Anatolia under the Saljuqs.

  • DU’L-QARNAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

  • ḎU’L-RĪĀSATAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See FAŻL B. SAHL.

  • ḎU’L-RĪĀSATAYN

    Hamid Algar

    (b. Shiraz, 1873, d. Tehran, 15 June 1953), for thirty years qoṭb (leader) of a principal branch of the Neʿmatallāhī Sufi order. 

  • ḎU’L-ŠAHĀDATAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See AŠRAF ḠAZNAVĪ.

  • DULAFIDS

    Cross-Reference

    See DOLAFIDS.

  • DUMAQU

    Gerd Gropp

    or Domoko; administrative center of the eastern region of the Khotan oasis in Chinese Turkestan.

  • DUMÉZIL, Georges

    Bruce Lincoln

     (1898-1986), French comparatist philologist and religious studies scholar. Among the most significant later modifications in Dumézil's views was his decision to abandon the claim that Indo-European society was originally divided into three functional groupings, whose defining characteristics were then inscribed in myth, ritual, and the structure of the pantheon. Rather, he came to regard the tripartite system as an “ideology,” a collective ideal.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DUNG

    Willem Floor

    human and animal excrement, widely used in Persia and Afghanistan for fuel and fertilizer.

  • DUNHUANG

    Gunner Mikkelsen

    an oasis town situated in the northwest of the Chinese province of Gansu, is famous for its Mogao Caves (Mogaoku) or Caves of One Thousand Buddhas (Qianfodong).

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DŪNQEŠLĀQ

    Klaus Fischer

    or Dong Qešlaq; group of pre-Islamic and Islamic archeological sites on the Emām Ṣāḥeb plain in the Qondūz province of Afghanistan, about 10 km south of the Oxus.

  • DUPREE, LOUIS

    David B. Edwards

    Following the completion of his Ph.D. degree, Dupree taught at the Air University at Maxwell Air Force Base and Pennsylvania State University. Between 1959 and 1983 he was affiliated with the American Universities Field Staff (A.U.F.S.) as its expert on Afghanistan and Pakistan.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DURA EUROPOS

    Pierre Leriche, D. N. MacKenzie

    ruined city on the right bank of the Euphrates between Antioch and Seleucia on the Tigris, founded in 303 BCE by Nicanor, a general of Seleucus I. Its military function of the Greek period was abandoned under the Parthians, but at that time it was an administrative and economic center.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DURAND, HENRY MORTIMER

    Rose L. Greaves

    (b. Sehore, Bhopal State, India, 14 February 1850, d. Polden, Somerset, England, 8 June 1924), British diplomat and envoy to Tehran at the end of the 19th century.

  • DŪRAOŠA

    Jean Kellens

    Avestan word, attested once in the Older Avesta, in the Younger Avesta the preferred and exclusive epithet of haoma, the ritual liquid.

  • DŪRĀSRAW

    D. N. MacKenzie

    according to the Pahlavi tradition the name of two legendary personages in the history of Zoroastrianism.

  • DURIS OF SAMOS

    RÜDIGER SCHMITT

    (Gk. Doûris), (ca. 340-281/270 B.C.E.), Greek historiographer of the early Hellenistic period.

  • DŪRMEŠ, KHAN

    Roger M. Savory

    or Dormeš; b. ʿAbdī Beg TAVĀČĪ ŠĀMLŪ, powerful Qezelbāš amir, brother-in-law and confidant of Shah Esmāʿīl I.

  • DŪRNEMĀ-YE ĪRĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    weekly of politics and culture edited and published by the Persian writer, scholar, and filmmaker ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Sepantā in Bombay from 30 November 1928 to March 1929.

  • DÜRRI EFENDI, AḤMAD

    Tahsin Yazici

    (or Dorrī Afandī; (b. Van, date unknown, d. Istanbul, 1722), Ottoman poet, civil servant, and diplomat who served as ambassador to Tehran and wrote Sefārat-nāma, the first Turkish account of Safavid Persia.

  • DUSHANBE

    Muriel Atkin

    capital and most populous city of Tajikistan.

  • DŪST MOḤAMMAD KHAN BĀRAKZĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See DŌST MOḤAMMAD KHAN.

  • DŪST-ʿALĪ MOʿAYYER

    Cross-Reference

    See MOʿAYYER-AL-MAMĀLEK.

  • DŪST-MOḤAMMAD HERAVĪ

    Chahryar Adle

    (d. probably Qazvīn, shortly after 1564), master calligrapher, the only artist whom Shah Ṭahmāsb I kept with him after having gradually dismissed all the others from his direct service.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DŪST-MOḤAMMAD MOṢAWWER

    Chahryar Adle

    (d. ca. 1560), master painter, known in the Indo-Persian world and even among the Ottomans as a painter (moṣawwer), paper cutter (qāṭeʿ), calligraphic tracer/outliner (moḥarrer), and perhaps binder (saḥḥāf) and gilder (moḏahheb).

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DUTCH-PERSIAN RELATIONS

    Willem Floor

    , from the 16th century to the present. Until the 16th century the Dutch knew little of Persia and nothing of its language. Franciscus Raphelengius (1539-97), a professor at Leiden University, drew up a short list of Persian words based on the first Persian text ever printed, the translation of the Pentateuch published in Hebrew characters in Istanbul in 1546.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DŪZAḴ

    Mansour Shaki

    hell.

  • DUŽYĀIRYA

    Antonio Panaino

    bad year or bad harvest.

  • DVIN

    Erich Kettenhofen

    city in Armenia located north of Artaxata on the left bank of the Azat, about 35 km south of the present Armenian capital at Yerevan. It remained a significant center from the Sasanian period to the 13th century, and its pleasant climate was mentioned by many authors.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • DYAKONOV, MIKHAIL MIKHAĬLOVICH

    Boris Litvinsky

    (b. St. Petersburg, 26 June 1907, d. Moscow, 8 June 1954), Russian scholar of Iranian studies.

  • DYES

    Cross-Reference

    See CARPETS ii.

  • D~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter D entries.