Table of Contents

  • DĪNAVAR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (occasionally vocalized Daynavar), in the first centuries of Islam an important town in Jebāl, now ruined.

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ ḤANĪFA AḤMAD

    Charles Pellat

    b. Dāwūd b. Vanand (d. between 894 and 903), grammarian, lexicographer, astronomer, mathematician, and Islamic traditionist of Persian origin, who lived at Dīnavar and in several cities in Iraq in the 9th century.

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Josef van Ess

    b. Ḥamdān b. Wahb b. Bešr (d. 902), traditionist and ḥāfeẓ (preserver of the Koranic text).

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Josef van Ess

    b. Mobārak (d. first half of the 10th century), author of a tafsīr (koranic exegesis) entitled al-Wāżeḥ fī tafsīr al-Qorʾān, which is preserved in several manuscripts.

  • DĪNĀVARĪYA

    Werner Sundermann

    in Manichean usage originally “the elect.”

  • DINKHA TEPE

    Cross-Reference

    See DENḴĀ TEPE.

  • DINON

    Wolfgang Felix

    (fl. approximately 360-30 B.C.E.), author of a historical work on the Ancient Orient.

  • DĪNŠĀH

    Cross-Reference

    See IRANI, DINSHAH JIJIBHOY.

  • DIO CASSIUS

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    (more correctly, Cassius Dio; b. Nicea, Bithynia, ca. 160, d. Nicea, after 229), Roman official whose Rhomaikē Historia is important for the study of Parthian history.

  • DIO CHRYSOSTOM

    Cross-Reference

    See DIO COCCEIANUS.

  • DIO COCCEIANUS

    Roger Beck

    surnamed Chrysostom ("golden-mouthed"), a traveling scholar who in his 36th Oration (known as the “Borysthenian” or “Olbian” from its dramatic setting), written about 100 C.E., purports to summarize a hymn composed by Zoroaster and sung by the magi in secret rites.

  • DIODORUS SICULUS

    Ernst Badian

    Greek historian from Agyrium in Sicily, hence called Siculus (the Sicilian) who came to Rome in the middle of the first century B.C.E. and there wrote his Bibliotheca Historica, a universal history in forty books, from the origins to the age of Caesar.

  • DIODOTUS

    Osmund Bopearachchi

    satrap of Bactria-Sogdiana, who revolted against his Seleucid soverign Antiochus II and proclaimed himself king, thus laying the foundation of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom. The date of his revolt has been  placed between 256 and 239 B.C., the majority of scholars arguing for about the year 250.

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  • DIOGENES LAERTIUS

    Wolfgang Felix

    author of a biographically arranged history of Greek philosophy in ten books that also deals with the Persian Magi, especially in the first book on the origins of philosophy.

  • DIONYSIUS

    RüDIGER SCHMITT

    (Gk. Dionýsios) of Miletus, Greek historiographer, who may have lived in the 5th century B.C.E. and is said to have written a book about Persian history after the death of Darius I.

  • DIPLOMACY

    Cross-Reference

    See under individual countries; see also FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

  • DĪRAKVAND

    Pierre Oberling

    Lor tribe belonging to the Bālā Garīva group and inhabiting a mountainous area between Ḵorramābād and Dezfūl in the Pīš-Kūh region of Lorestān.

  • DĪRGHANAKHA-SŪTRA

    Yutaka Yoshida

    a Buddhist text in which the Buddha expounds the merits of observing the eight commandments to a parivrājaka named Dīrghanakha.

  • DIRHAM

    Philippe Gignoux, Michael Bates

    a unit of silver coinage and of weight. The dirham retained a stable value of about 4 g throughout the entire pre-Islamic period. The tetradrachm, or stater (> Pahl. stēr), was equivalent to 4 drachmas and was already in circulation in the Achaemenid period at the time of Alexander’s departure for Persia.

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  • DĪV

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    demon, monster, fiend; expresses not only the idea of “demon,” but also that of “ogre,” “giant,” and even “Satan.”