Table of Contents

  • DIAKONOFF, Igor’ Mikhaĭlovich

    Muhammad Dandamayev

    Diakonoff established international contacts and participated in organizing important scholarly projects. In particular, he took an active part in the organization of the 25th International Congress of Orientalists held in Moscow in 1960 (he was the Executive Secretary of the Organizing Committee).

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  • DĪĀLA

    Cross-Reference

    river. See ARVAND-RŪD.

  • DIALECTOLOGY

    GERNOT L. WINDFUHR

    the terms dialect and language overlap; in general, language refers to the more or less unified system of the phonology, grammar, and lexicon that is shared by the speakers of a country, or geographic region, or a socially defined group, whereas dialect (Pers. lahja, gūyeš) focuses on varieties of a language.

  • DĪĀRBAKR

    Cross-Reference

    See AMIDA.

  • DIASPORA

    Mary Boyce, Fariba Zarrinbaf-Shahr, H. Hakimian, Yitzhak Nakash, Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh, Mehdi Bozorgmehr, Grant Farr, Čangīz Pahlavān

    Iranian. i. In Pre-Islamic times. ii. Persians in India. iii. Persians in Southeast Asia. iv. Persians in Ottoman Turkey. v. Persians in the Caucasus and Central Asia in the late 19th and early 20th century. vi. Persians in Iraq. vii. Persians in Southern ports of the Persian Gulf. viii. In the Post-revolutionary period. ix. Afghan refugees in Pakistan. x. Afghan refugees in Persia.

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  • DIATESSERON

    Cross-reference

    Persian translation of the four Gospels, based on a Syriac original. See BIBLE vii. Persian Translations.

  • DĪBĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABRĪŠAM.

  • DĪBĀ, MAḤMŪD KHAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALĀʾ-al-MOLK.

  • DIBĪR

    Cross-Reference

    See DABĪR.

  • DICHŌR

    Erich Kettenhofen

    city conquered by Šāpūr I (240-70) during his second campaign against Rome in 253, as recorded in his inscription at Kaʿba-ye Zardošt.

  • DICKSON, MARTIN BERNARD

    Kathryn Babayan

    (b. Brooklyn, 22 March 1924, d. Princeton, 14 May 1991), Iranist and Central Asianist who specialized in Safavid history.

  • DICTIONARIES

    ʿAlī Ašraf Ṣādeqī, John R. Perry, Ḥosayn Sāmeʿī

    The first extant Persian dictionary is Lōḡat-e fors of the poet Asadī Ṭūsī (q.v.). Entries are arranged according to their final letters and illustrated by examples from poetry. Over ten manuscripts are known to have reached us, all of which differ in the number of entries and verses as well as the entry definitions.

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  • DIDYMA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. tà Dídyma, probably of Carian origin), district ca. 20 km south of the Ionian Miletus and site of a pre-Greek sanctuary of Apollo, to which a famous oracle was attached.

  • DIEU, LOUIS (LUDOVICUS) DE

    J.T.P. de Bruijn

    (b. Vlissingen, Flushing, April 7, 1590; d. Leiden, Dec. 23, 1642), Dutch orientalist.

  • DIEULAFOY, JANE HENRIETTE MAGRE

    Jean Calmard

    (b. Toulouse, 29 June 1851, d. Château de Langlade, Haute-Garonne, 25 May 1916), French archeologist, explorer, folklorist, novelist, playwright, and journalist.

  • DIEULAFOY, MARCEL-AUGUSTE

    Pierre Amiet

    (b. Toulouse, 3 August 1844, d. Paris, 25 February 1920), French archeologist.

  • DIEZ, ERNST

    Jens Kröger

    (b. 27 January 1878, d. 8 July 1961), Austrian historian of Iranian and Islamic art.

  • DIGOR

    F. Thordarson

    Ossetic tribal name.

  • DILL

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    Anethum graveolens L. (fam. Umbellifera), an herb widely cultivated in Persia.

  • DIMDIM

    Amir Hassanpour

    name of a mountain and a fortress where an important battle between the Kurds and the Safavid army took place in the early 17th century.