Table of Contents

  • DA AFḠĀNESTĀN TĀRĪḴ ṬŌLANA

    Cross-Reference

    See Anjoman-e Tāriḵ-e Afḡānestān.

  • DĀ O DOḴTAR

    Hubertus Von Gall

    (lit. “Mother and daughter”), an important rock-cut tomb, probably of the early Hellenistic period, at the northwestern corner of the Mamasanī region of Fārs. Among all the rock-cut tombs of the former territory of Media and of Fārs, it most closely resembles the royal Achaemenid tombs.

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  • DABBĀḠĪ

    ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    tanning, the process by which animal skins are made into leather.

  • DABESTĀN

    Cross-Reference

    (elementary school). See EDUCATION.

  • DABESTĀN JOURNAL

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (“school”), Persian monthly cultural journal published in Mašhad, 1922-27. 

  • DABESTĀN-E MAḎĀHEB

    Fatḥ-Allāh Mojtabāʾī

    (school of religious doctrines), an important text of the Āḏar Kayvānī pseudo-Zoroastrian sect, written between 1645 and 1658.

  • DABĪR

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī, Hashem Rajabzadeh

    "secretary, scribe." i. In the pre-Islamic period. ii. In the Islamic period.

  • DABĪR-AL-MOLK FARĀHĀNĪ

    Guity Nashat

    or Mīrzā Moḥammad-Ḥosayn (1810-80), director of the private royal secretariat under Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah.

  • DABĪR-E AʿẒAM

    Cross-Reference

    See BAHRAMĪ, FARAJ-ALLĀH.

  • DABĪRE, DABĪRĪ

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    a term designating the “seven scripts” supposedly used in the Sasanian period.

  • DABĪRESTĀN

    Cross-Reference

    secondary school. See EDUCA­TION x. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

  • DABĪRESTĀN-E NEẒĀM

    Cross-Reference

    military secondary school. See pending entry MILITARY.

  • DĀBŪYA DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E DĀBŪYA.

  • DABUYIDS

    Wilfred Madelung

    the dynasty of espahbads ruling Ṭabarestān until its conquest by the Muslims in 144/761.

  • DĀD (1)

    Mansour Shaki

    (Av. dāta- “law, right, rule, regulation, statute, command, institution, decision”), in the Zoroastrian tradition the most general term for law.

  • DĀD (2)

    Jean During

    a vocal and instrumental gūša (motif), in reality more of a melodic type than a modal structure.  

  • DĀD (3)

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (lit., “justice”), a Tehran afternoon newspaper, 1942-61.

  • DĀD NASK

    Mansour Shaki

    (law book), one of the three divisions of the Avesta, comprising seven nasks, subdi­vided into the five strictly legal (dādīg) nasks (Nikātum, Duzd-sar-nizad, Huspāram, Sakātum, and Vidēvdād) and the two disparate nasks, Čihrdād and Bagān Yašt.

  • DADA ʿOMAR ROŠENĪ

    Cross-Reference

    cofounder of the Ḵalwatī Sufi order. See DEDE ÖMER RUŞENĪ

  • DADARSIS

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    Old Persian name derived from darš “to dare”; three men with this name are known.

  • DADESTAN

    Mansour Shaki

    (dād “law,” with the formative suffix -stān), a Middle Persian term used with denota­tions and connotations that vary with the legal, reli­gious, philosophical, and social context.

  • DĀDESTĀN Ī DĒNĪG

    Mansour Shaki

    (Religious judgements), Pahlavi work by Manūščihr, high priest of the Persian Zoroastrian community in the 9th century.

  • DADESTAN Ī MENOG Ī XRAD

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    (Judgments of the Spirit of Wisdom), a Zoroastrian Pahlavi book in sixty-three chapters (a preamble and sixty-two ques­tions and answers).

  • DĀDGĀH "COURT"

    Cross-Reference

    court of law. See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS v. JUDICIAL SYSTEM IN THE 20TH CENTURY.

  • DĀDGĀH "TEMPLE FIRE"

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀTAŠ.

  • DĀDGAR, ḤOSAYN

    Bāqer ʿĀqelī

    ʿAdl-al-Molk (b. Tehran ca. 1299/1881, d. 1349 Š./1970), at various times president of the Persian Majles, cabi­net minister, and senator under the Qajar and Pahlavi dynasties.

  • DĀDGOSTARĪ, WEZĀRAT-E

    Cross-Reference

    See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS.

  • DĀDĪŠOʿ

    Erica C. D. Hunter

    (Syr. “beloved of Jesus”; Payne Smith, col. 824, s.v.; Pers. “given by Jesus”), catholicus of the Sasanian “Nestorian” church in 420/21-455/56.

  • DADISOʿ QATRAYA

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    (late 7th century), Nestorian author of ascetic literature in Syriac.

  • DĀḎMEHR b. FARROḴĀN

    Cross-Reference

    espahbad of Ṭabarestān. See Dabuyids.

  • DADWAR, DADWARIH

    Mansour Shaki

    respectively judge, administrator of justice, lawgiver, lit., “bearer of law.”

  • DADYSETH AGIARY

    Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal

    in 1771 C.E. Dadibhai Noshirwanji Dadyseth established an agiary with an Ādarān fire for the sake of the soul of his first wife, Kunverbai, in the Fort district of Bombay.

  • DADYSETH ATAS BAHRAM

    Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal

    the oldest Ātaš Bahrām of Bombay, consecrated and installed according to Kadmi rites in the district of Fanaswadi on the day of Sarōš, month of Farvardīn 1153 A.Y./29 September 1783.

  • DADYSETH, Dadibhai Noshirwanji

    Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal

    (1734-99), a distinguished Parsi philanthropist.

  • DAĒNA

    Cross-Reference

    See DĒN.

  • DAF(F) AND DAYERA

    Jean During, Veronica Doubleday

    terms applied to types of frame drum common in both the art music and popular traditions of Persia. Such drums have long been known throughout Asia in various forms and under different names.  The term dāyera originally referred to the flat, circular drums of pre-­Islamic Arabia.

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  • DAFTAR

    Hashem Rajabzadeh

    an administrative office, as well as a notebook or booklet, more especially an account book or correspondence regis­ter, used in such an office.

  • DAFTAR-E ASNĀD-E RASMĪ

    Aḥmad Mahdawī Dāmḡānī

    (Registry of official documents), a government department where documents and records of transactions, contracts, marriages, divorces, and the like are kept and signa­tures verified.

  • DAFTAR-ḴĀNA-YE HOMĀYŪN

    Hashem Rajabzadeh

    royal sec­retariat; a Safavid administrative unit headed by the daftardār, or chief secretary.

  • DĀḠ

    Ṣādeq Sajjādī

    “brand.”  According to Rašīd-al-Dīn Fażl-Allāh, “The tamḡā was a special emblem or mark that the Turkish and Mongol peoples stamped on decrees and also branded on their flocks.”   Each of the twenty-four tribes of the Oḡuz Turkmen had its own tamḡā, with which it branded its flocks.

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  • DĀḠESTĀN

    Gadzhi Gamzatovich Gamzatov, Fridrik Thordarson

    (Daghestan). The many-faceted relationship between Dāḡestān (ancient Albania), a region in the eastern Caucasus, and Persia since antiquity has yet to be studied as a whole, though there is considerable historical, linguis­tic, folkloric, literary, and art-historical evidence bear­ing on it.

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  • DĀḠESTĀNĪ, FATḤ ʿALĪ KHAN

    Roger M. Savory

    b. Alqāṣ Mīrzā b. Ildirim Khan Šamḵāl, grand vizier (wazīr-e aʿẓam, eʿtemād-al-dawla) under Shah Solṭān-Ḥosayn I Ṣafawī (1105-35/1694-1722).

  • DAGUERREOTYPE

    Chahryar Adle

    the first practical photo­graphic process, introduced into Persia in the early 1840s, shortly after its official presentation to the French Académie de Science in Paris in 1839. Acceptance of the medium of photography in Persia reflected the cultural value attached to painting in general and portraiture in particular.

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  • ḎAHABĪYA

    Hamid Algar

    a Sufi order of Shiʿite allegiance, ultimately derived from the Kobrawīya order.

  • DAHAE

    François de Blois, Willem Vogelsang

    i. The name. ii. The people.

  • DAHAN-E ḠOLĀMĀN

    Gherardo Gnoli

    “Gateway of the slaves,” site  ca. 30 km southeast of Zābol in Sīstān. It is the sole large provincial capital surviving from the Achaemenid empire; excavations there have brought to light a combination of “imperial” elements, identified in the public buildings, and local elements.

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  • DAHBĪDĪYA

    Hamid Algar

    a hereditary line of Naqšbandī Sufis centered on the shrine at Dahbīd, a village about 11 km. from Samarqand.

  • DAHM YAZAD

    Mary Boyce

    the Middle Persian name of the Zoroastrian divinity (also known as Dahmān Āfrīn and Dahmān) who is the spirit or force inherent in the Avestan benediction called Dahma Vaŋuhi Āfriti, or Dahma Āfriti.

  • DAHRĪ

    Mansour Shaki, Daniel Gimaret

    (< Ar.-Pers. dahr “time, eternity”), a theological term referring either to an atheist or to an adherent of the doctrine that the universe had no beginning in time.

  • DAHYU

    Gherardo Gnoli

    country (often with reference to the people inhabiting it).