Table of Contents

  • CASARTELLI, LOUIS CHARLES

    Antonio Panaino

    (1852-1925), scholar of ancient Iranian languages and religions and particularly of Pahlavi literature.

  • CASES

    Gernot L. Windfuhr

    their forms and uses in Iranian languages and dialects. The term "case" is used on at least three linguistic levels: 1. the semantic role of a noun (phrase), such as agent, patient, experiencer, and possessor; 2. the syntactic function, such as subject, direct object, and indirect object; 3. the morphological means, such as nominative, accusative, dative, and genitive.

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  • ČAŠM-PEZEŠKĪ

    Ṣādeq Sajjādī

    ophthalmology.

  • ČAŠM-ZAḴM

    Ebrāhīm Šakūrzāda and Mahmoud Omidsalar

    (lit. “a blow by the eye”), the evil eye: the supposed power of an individual to cause harm, even illness or death, to another person (or animals and other possessions) merely by looking at him or complimenting him.

  • ČAŠMA

    Eckart Ehlers

    “spring.”  Iran and Afghanistan, as well as wide parts of Central Asia, have a great variety of natural springs, especially in mountainous areas and along tectonic thrusts. A very general classification divides all springs into (1) those produced by gravity acting on the groundwater and (2) those that have their origins in tectonic volcanic forces within the earth’s crust.

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  • ČAŠMA(-YE) ʿALĪ

    Abbas Alizadeh

    lit. “fountain of ʿAlī,” the name for various natural springs in Iran, the two best-known of which are located near Dāmḡān and Ray respectively.

  • ČAŠMHĀYAŠ

    Mohammad Reza Ghanoonparvar

    (1952; tr. by John O’Kane as Her Eyes, 1989), a novel considered by many critics as the most important contribution of the noted Persian novelist Bozorg Alavi.

  • ČĀŠNĪGĪR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    literally “taster” (Pers. čāšnī “taste”), the official who at the court of Turkish dynasties in Iran and elsewhere, from the Saljuq period onwards, had the responsibility of tasting the ruler’s food and drink in order to ensure that it was not poisoned.

  • CASPIAN DIALECTS

    cross-reference

    Iranian dialects spoken along the Caspian littoral, including Ṭāleši, Gīlakī, Māzandarāni, and related subdialects, and the extinct dialect of Ṭabarestān. See individual entries.

  • CASPIAN GATES

    John H. Hansman

    an ancient toponym identifying a ground-level pass that runs east and west through a southern spur of the Alborz Mountains in north central Iran.

  • CASPIAN SEA

    Multiple Authors

    actually a lake, the largest in the world (estimated surface area in 1986: 378,400 km², volume 78,600 km³; approx. between lat 37° and 47° N, long 46° and 54° E); it is bounded on the south by Persia.

  • CASPIAN SEA i. GEOGRAPHY

    Xavier de Planhol

    The Caspian “sea” consists of three distinct basins, each characterized by different features. hese differences are reflected in the levels of salinity. 

  • CASPIAN SEA ii. DIPLOMATIC HISTORY IN MODERN TIMES

    Guive Mirfendereski

    A new area of sub-systemic studies in international relations, which encompasses the Caspian basin and its immediate surroundings, emerged in the post-Soviet Union era.

  • CASPIAN SEAL

    Eskandar Firouz

    (Phoca caspica), the only mammal in the Caspian Sea. It is a relict species, endemic to the Caspian Sea and the deltas of rivers that discharge into it—the region where its ancestors lived when the sea was still connected to the oceans.

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  • CASPIANS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    name of an ancient people dwelling along the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea, whether north or south of the river Kura is not clear.

  • CASSANDANE

    Muhammad Dandamayev

    wife of Cyrus II, an Achaemenian, sister of Otanes and daughter of Pharnaspes.

  • CASSIA

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    a genus of shrubs and trees of the family Leguminosae (or Caesalpiniaceae in some classifications).

  • CASSIODORUS, Magnus Aurelius

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    (b. ca. 485, d. after A.D. 580), Latin author of three historical works containing material on Iran.

  • CASTLES

    Wolfram Kleiss

    primarily fortified country manors but also permanently inhabited defensive installations, maintained by the authorities along important land routes, and urban citadels, which functioned as administrative centers and places of refuge for inhabitants under siege, particularly in prehistoric and early historic times.

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  • CASTOLUS

    Michael Weiskopf

    a plain east of Sardis, site of the mustering of troops from the satrapy of Sparda (Lydia) during Achaemenid times.