Table of Contents

  • ČŪPA

    Cross-Reference

    See DANCE.

  • ČŪPĀN

    Jean-Pierre Digard

    or čōbān “shepherd” (Mid. Pers. and NPers. šobān); even today the shepherd remains a central figure, in both the technological life and consequently the symbolic life, of all systems of animal husbandry.

  • ČUPĀNĪĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See CHOBANIDS; ČOBĀN.

  • CUPBEARER

    James R. Russel

    one who fills and distributes cups of wine, as in a royal household.

  • CUPPING

    Cross-Reference

    See BLOODLETTING.

  • CURTIUS RUFUS, QUINTUS

    Philip Huyse

    (probably fl. 1st century c.e.), author of the only extant Latin mono­graph on Alexander the Great, usually called Historiae Alexandri Magni, in many respects the most complete and liveliest account of Alexander’s exploits in Asia.

  • CURZON, GEORGE NATHANIEL

    Denis Wright

    (1859-1925), 1st Marquess of Kedleston, British statesman, traveler, and writer.

  • CUSTOMS DUTIES

    Willem Floor

    a tax levied on the movement of trade. A new law ensuring Persian autonomy in establishing tariffs (ḥoqūq-e gomrokī) was enacted on 1 May 1928; it provided for an ad valorem tariff on most goods, with special rates for certain luxuries like gold, silver, and tobacco.

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  • CUT PAPER

    Barbara Schmitz

    (qeṭʿa “decoupage,” also monabbat-kārī “filigree work”), a type of applied ornament documented in Persian manuscripts and sometimes on bookbindings from the approximate period 895-1060/1490-1650.

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  • CYAXARES

    I. M. Diakonoff

    (Gk. Kyaxárēs) king of Media in the 6th century B.C.E.