Table of Contents

  • CURTIUS RUFUS, QUINTUS

    Philip Huyse

    (probably fl. 1st century c.e.), author of the only extant Latin mono­graph on Alexander the Great, usually called Historiae Alexandri Magni, in many respects the most complete and liveliest account of Alexander’s exploits in Asia.

  • CURZON, GEORGE NATHANIEL

    Denis Wright

    (1859-1925), 1st Marquess of Kedleston, British statesman, traveler, and writer.

  • CUSTOMS DUTIES

    Willem Floor

    a tax levied on the movement of trade. A new law ensuring Persian autonomy in establishing tariffs (ḥoqūq-e gomrokī) was enacted on 1 May 1928; it provided for an ad valorem tariff on most goods, with special rates for certain luxuries like gold, silver, and tobacco.

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  • CUT PAPER

    Barbara Schmitz

    (qeṭʿa “decoupage,” also monabbat-kārī “filigree work”), a type of applied ornament documented in Persian manuscripts and sometimes on bookbindings from the approximate period 895-1060/1490-1650.

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  • CYAXARES

    I. M. Diakonoff

    (Gk. Kyaxárēs) king of Media in the 6th century B.C.E.

  • CYLINDER SEALS

    Edith Porada

    CYLINDER SEALS. The seals of ancient Persia correspond in their types and use to those of Mesopotamia, beginning with amuletic pendants, which could also be used as seals, and developing into elaborately engraved seal stones, with a change in the Uruk period from stamp to cylinder seals.

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  • CYPRESS

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    (sarv), Cupressus (Tourn.) L. The genus Cupressus is represented in Persia by one spe­cies (sempervirens L.), with three varieties: the cereiform (cereiformis Rehd.), called sarv-e nāz in Shiraz; the more common pyramidal or fastigiate, variously called sarv-e šīrāzī (Shiraz cypress) and sarv-e kāšī (Kāšān cypress); and the horizontal, known popularly by several names but usually referred to as zarbīn by modern Persian botanists.

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  • CYPRUS

    Michael Weiskopf

    The historical tradition, preserved for the most part by Diodorys Siculus, was much influenced by Isocrates’ erroneous perception of the Achaemenid empire as in a state of decline, seething with discontent and secret disloyalty to the great king.

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  • CYPRUS in the Achaemenid Period

    Antigone Zournatzi

    ,in the Achaemenid period. The kings of the southeastern Mediterranean island of Cyprus reportedly submitted willingly to Cyrus II and offered military assistance to the Persians in their campaigns against Caria and Babylon (539 BCE).

  • CYRIACUS AND JULITTA, ACTS OF

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    Chris­tian martyrological text.