Table of Contents

  • ČALABĪ, ʿĀREF

    Cross-Reference

    See ČELEBĪ, ʿĀREF.

  • ČALABĪĀNLŪ

    Pierre Oberling

    a Turkicized tribe dwelling, for the most part, in the dehestān of Garmādūz in Aras­bārān region of northern Azerbaijan.

  • ČĀLDERĀN

    Michael J. McCaffrey

    battle of, an engagement fought near Ḵᵛoy in northwestern Azerbaijan on 23 August 1514, resulting in a decisive victory for the Ottoman forces under Sultan Salīm I over the Safavids led by Shah Esmāʿīl I. No single event prompted Salīm’s decision to wage war. It was the direct and inevitable result of the establishment of the Safavid state.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • CALENDARS

    Antonio Panaino, Reza Abdollahy, Daniel Balland

    i. Pre-Islamic calendars. ii. In the Islamic period. iii. Afghan calendars. iv. Other modern calendars. Although evidence of calendrical traditions in Iran can be traced back to the 2nd millennium B.C., before the lifetime of Zoroaster, the earliest calendar that is fully preserved dates from the Achaemenid period. The Old Persian calendar was lunisolar, like that of the Babylonians, with twelve months of thirty days each.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ČĀLI

    Cross-Reference

    See ČĀL.

  • CALIPHS AND THE CALIPHATE

    Hamid Algar

    as viewed by the Shiʿites of Persia.

  • CALLIAS, PEACE OF

    Ernst Badian

    peace made by Xerxes and/or Artaxerxes I with Athens and her confederacy in the 5th century B.C.

  • CALLIGRAPHY

    Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī

    (ḵaṭṭāṭī, ḵᵛošnevīsī), the writing system in use in Persia since early Islamic times, which grew out of the Arabic alphabet. Comparison of some of the scripts that developed on Persian ground, particularly Persian-style Kufic, with the Pahlavi and Avestan scripts reveals a number of similarities between them.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • CALLIGRAPHY (continued)

    Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī

    In the handwriting of the various Muslim peoples, three distinct styles are recognizable: Turco-Arab, Persian, and Indo-Afghan. In the style once current in Turkey and the similar styles now prevalent in the Arab countries, most scripts are written with sharp outlines and a downward slope, whereas in the Persian style the outlines are smoother and more regular.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • CALLISTHENES

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    the name of a Greek historian of the period of Alexander the Great.