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the male cornel tree, a dogwood shrub with edible berries.
A. Shapur Shahbazi
in ancient Iran, the ceremonial act of investing a ruler with a crown.
disposal of, in Zoroastrianism; in Zoroastrianism the corpse of a righteous believer was held to be the greatest source of pollution in the world, as the death of such a one represented a triumph for evil, whose forces were thought to be gathered there in strength.
(C.I.I.), an association devoted to the collection and publication of Iranian inscriptions and documents.
Correspondence i. In pre-Islamic Persia, ii. In Islamic Persia, iii. Forms of opening and closing, address, and signature, and iv. On the subcontinent of India.
There is no information about correspondence in Median times, except for a fictitiously paraphrased letter from Cyrus to Cyaxares that began “Cyrus to Cyaxares, greeting!”
In Islamic Persia letter writing (Ar.-Pers. tarassol < Ar. r-s-l “to send”) developed into a genre of great literary, historical, and social importance.
In this article the parts of the Persian letter are surveyed section by section, with comments on the general features, style, and stock formulas characteristic of each from early Islamic times to the present.
The chancellery of official and diplomatic correspondence was an organ of Indian Muslim political organization. At various times it was known as dīvān-e resālat,dīvānal-enšāʾ, dīvānal-rasāʾel, or dār al-enšāʾ.
(or čortaka, čotka < Russ. schëty “abacus”), an ancient calculation device, a rectangle strung with parallel metal wires along which clay, metal, or wooden beads can be moved.