Table of Contents

  • COPPER i. In Islamic Persia

    James W. Allan and Willem Floor

    the metallic element Cu.

  • Copper ii. Copper resources in Iran

    Manṣur Qorbāni and Anuširavān Kani

    With the advancement of the knowledge of metallurgy in the Achaemenid era, finely crafted copper and bronze objects were created, continuing on through ancient times. The medieval Arab traveler Abu Dolaf wrote about the Nišāpur copper mine, but the extent of the deposits in Iran became known only from accounts of European travelers from the Safavid period onwards.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.


    See ĀB-E DEZ.


    Aloïs van Tongerloo

    primary source text fragments, written in previously undeciphered or little-known languages and scripts which considerably changed the interpretation and apprecia­tion of Manicheism.


    Karīm Emāmī

    (ḥaqq-e moʾallef), a direct translatof the French droit d'auteur; the exclusive right to reproduce, publish, and sell the matter or form of a created work, for example, a novel or musical compo­sition.


    Hūšang Aʿlam

    the skeletal deposit of marine polyps, often treated as a gem material.


    Robert D. McChesney

    b. Mīrzā Fāżel, historian of the 17th-century Chaghatay khanate in Moḡūlestān and hagiographer and staunch supporter of the “Black Mountain” khojas.


    Daryush Shayegan

    (b. Paris 14 April 1903, d. Paris 7 October 1978), French philosopher and orientalist best known as a major interpreter of the Persian role in the development of Islamic thought.


    Hūšang Aʿlam

    an herb indigenous to the Mediterranean area, the Caucasus, and Persia and valued for its aromatic leaves and seeds.


    Peter Jackson

    Mongol general and military gov­ernor in Persia, d. ca. 639/1242.