Table of Contents

  • COMMUNISM iv. In Afghanistan

    Anthony Arnold

    The Afghan Communist party, Ḥezb-e demōkrātīk-e ḵalq-e Afḡānestān (People’s democratic party of Afghanistan, P.D.P.A.) was officially founded in 1344 Š./1965, at a time when political parties were illegal in Afghanistan. Two other durable Afghan Marxist-Leninist groups were active in the same general period.

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  • COMPUTERS in Persia

    Moḥammad-Reżā Moḥammadīfar

    electronic data-processing equipment, in Persia.

  • CONCESSIONS

    Willem Floor, Mansoureh Ettehadieh [neẓām māfī]

    (emtīāzāt), grants by a state to citizens, aliens, or other states of rights to carry out specific economic activities and of capitulatory rights on its territory.

  • CONCOBAR

    Cross-Reference

    See KANGĀVAR.

  • CONFEDERATION OF IRANIAN STUDENTS, NATIONAL UNION

    Afshin Matin-Asgari

    (Konfederāsīūn-e jahānī-e moḥaṣṣelīn wa dānešjūyān-e īrānī etteḥādīya-ye mellī), an organization purporting to be the political and corporate (ṣenfī) representative of Persian students abroad, as well as in Persia, during the 1960s and 1970s.

  • CONFEDERATIONS, TRIBAL

    Richard Tapper

    tribal groups commonly comprise several levels of organization, from a nomad camp to (sometimes) a nation-state, with different criteria defining membership of groups at each level.

  • CONFESSIONS

    Jes P. Asmussen

    i. In the Zoroastrian faith. ii. In Manicheism.

  • CONGRATULATIONS

    Žāla Āmūzgār

    the custom of conveying congratulations on such happy occasions as the birth of a child, a birthday anniversary, a marriage, a coronation, or a national or religious festival.

  • CONIFERAE

    Cross-Reference

    See DERAḴT.

  • CONJUNCTIONS

    Cross-Reference

    See QERĀN.

  • CONON OF ATHENS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (b. before 444 BCE., d. after 392 BCE),  a leading Athenian admiral during the Peloponnesian and Corinthian wars.

  • CONSERVATION

    Cross-Reference

    See ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.

  • CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION OF PERSIAN MONUMENTS

    Eugenio Galdieri and Kerāmat-Allāh Afsar

    in almost every historical period some restoration of Persian monuments has been undertaken either by state authorities or through the efforts of charitable individuals.

  • CONSPIRACY THEORIES

    Ahmad Ashraf

    a complex of beliefs attributing the course of Persian history and politics to the machinations of hostile foreign powers and secret organizations.

  • CONSTANTIUS II

    Cross-reference

    See SHAPUR II.

  • CONSTELLATIONS

    D. N. MacKenzie

    Nowhere in the Gathas of Zoroaster or the Old Persian inscriptions of the Achaemenids are even individual stars mentioned. The first and only two constellations to be named in Old Iranian sources are Ursa Major and the Pleiades, in the Younger Avesta. The next possible mentions of constellations are of two kinds, both dating from late Middle Persian times but only actually attested in works or manuscripts from the Islamic period.

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  • CONSTITUTION OF THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    Said Amir Arjomand

    After the overthrow of the Pahlavi monarchy in 1979, Persia was declared an Islamic republic. Until that time there had been virtually no discussion, outside religious circles, of the conception of welāyat-e faqīh (lit. “mandate of the jurist”) propounded by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. During the revolutionary turmoil of 1978-79, only the vaguer notion of “Islamic government” was current.

  • CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF AFGHANISTAN

    M. Ḥassan Kākaṛ

    When Amir ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Khan (r. 1297-1319/1880-1901) acceded to power, he established a centralized monarchy in Afghanistan for the first time.

  • CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION

    Multiple Authors

    (Enqelāb-e mašrūṭa) of 1323-29/1905-11, during which a parliament and constitutional monarchy were established in Persia.

  • CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION i. Intellectual background

    Abbas Amanat

    The establishment of a constitutional regime in Persia was the chief objective of the Revolution of 1323-29/1905-11.