Table of Contents

  • ČALABĪ, ʿĀREF

    Cross-Reference

    See ČELEBĪ, ʿĀREF.

  • ČALABĪĀNLŪ

    Pierre Oberling

    a Turkicized tribe dwelling, for the most part, in the dehestān of Garmādūz in Aras­bārān region of northern Azerbaijan.

  • ČĀLDERĀN

    Michael J. McCaffrey

    battle of, an engagement fought near Ḵᵛoy in northwestern Azerbaijan on 23 August 1514, resulting in a decisive victory for the Ottoman forces under Sultan Salīm I over the Safavids led by Shah Esmāʿīl I. No single event prompted Salīm’s decision to wage war. It was the direct and inevitable result of the establishment of the Safavid state.

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  • CALENDARS

    Antonio Panaino, Reza Abdollahy, Daniel Balland

    i. Pre-Islamic calendars. ii. In the Islamic period. iii. Afghan calendars. iv. Other modern calendars. Although evidence of calendrical traditions in Iran can be traced back to the 2nd millennium B.C., before the lifetime of Zoroaster, the earliest calendar that is fully preserved dates from the Achaemenid period. The Old Persian calendar was lunisolar, like that of the Babylonians, with twelve months of thirty days each.

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  • ČĀLI

    Cross-Reference

    See ČĀL.

  • CALIPHS AND THE CALIPHATE

    Hamid Algar

    as viewed by the Shiʿites of Persia.

  • CALLIAS, PEACE OF

    Ernst Badian

    peace made by Xerxes and/or Artaxerxes I with Athens and her confederacy in the 5th century B.C.

  • CALLIGRAPHY

    Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī

    (ḵaṭṭāṭī, ḵᵛošnevīsī), the writing system in use in Persia since early Islamic times, which grew out of the Arabic alphabet. Comparison of some of the scripts that developed on Persian ground, particularly Persian-style Kufic, with the Pahlavi and Avestan scripts reveals a number of similarities between them.

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  • CALLIGRAPHY (continued)

    Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī

    In the handwriting of the various Muslim peoples, three distinct styles are recognizable: Turco-Arab, Persian, and Indo-Afghan. In the style once current in Turkey and the similar styles now prevalent in the Arab countries, most scripts are written with sharp outlines and a downward slope, whereas in the Persian style the outlines are smoother and more regular.

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  • CALLISTHENES

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    the name of a Greek historian of the period of Alexander the Great.

  • CALMEYER, Peter

    W. Kleiss and A. Shapur Shahbazi

    German archaeologist and Iranologist (b. 5 September 1930 in Halle, d. 22 November 1995 in Berlin).

  • ČĀLŪS

    Bernard Hourcade

    a small town in western Māzandarān (šahrestān of Nowšahr, baḵš of Čālūs) located about 8 km from the Caspian coast at an elevation of 7 m.

  • CAMA ORIENTAL INSTITUTE

    M. F. Kanga, Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    (K. R. Cama Oriental Institute), a research institute in Bombay established in memory of the Parsi orientalist, teacher, and social reformer Kharshedji Rustomji Cama, inaugurated 18 December 1916.

  • CAMA, KHARSHEDJI RUSTAMH

    James R. Russell

    (1831-1909), Parsi Zoroastrian scholar and community leader. Cama worked for the organization of Parsi madres­sas (madrasas), and his consultation was sought also in the establishment of Hindu and Muslim schools. He was associated with the University of Bombay and helped establish the courses in Avestan and Pahlavi. He wrote extensively in Gujarati on Zoroastrianism.

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  • CAMBADENE

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    the name of a region (dahyāuš) in ancient Media and present Persian Kurdistan.

  • CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF IRAN

    Hubert S. G. Darke

    a survey of the history and historical geography of the land which is present-day Iran, as well as other territories inhabited by peoples of Iranian descent, from prehistoric times up to the present in seven volumes (vol. III being a double volume), of which the first volume was published in 1968 and the last in 1989.

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  • CAMBYSENE

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    Whether or not Cambysene was part of the Achaemenid Empire is unknown. When the Artaxid dynasty of Armenia was at the peak of its power this region was one of its provinces or districts; it remained so until it was conquered by the Albanians, probably after the defeat of Tigranes the Great in 69 b.c.

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  • CAMBYSES

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    (OPers. Kambūǰiya-, Elamite Kanbuziya, Akkadian Kambuziya, Aram. Knbwzy), the name of two kings of the Achaemenid dynasty.

  • ČAMČAMĀL

    Abdollah Mardukh

    (Kurdish čam “river” and Čamāl/Jamāl, personal name; in the sources also writ­ten Jamjamāl), a fertile dehestān of Ṣaḥna baḵš in Kermānšāhān (Bāḵtarān) province located to the south and west of Ṣaḥna on the Kermānšāh-Hamadān road and watered by Gāmāsb and Dīnavar rivers.

  • CAMEL

    Richard W. Bulliet, Moḥammad-Nāṣer Ḡolāmreżaʾī, Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾī, Mahmoud Omidsalar

    (šotor). Artifacts from ancient Iran indicate that only the Bactrian camel was part of the native fauna of greater Iran, though it was probably not numerous. Possibly the earliest evidence is a painted image on a ceramic shard from Tepe Sialk, probably datable between 3000 and 2500 B.C.

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  • CAMEL THORN

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    (Alhagi Adans. spp.), common name for wild thorny suffrutescent plants of the Papilionaceae family, called šotor-ḵār and ḵār-e šotor (lit. “camel’s thorn”) in Persian.

  • CAMERON, GEORGE GLENN

    Gernot L. Windfuhr

    philologist and his­torian, b. 30 July 1905 in Washington, Pennsylvania, d. 14 September 1979 in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

  • CAMPBELL, JOHN

    Kamran Ekbal

    (1799-1870), British envoy to Persia, 1830-35.

  • CAMPHOR

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    a strong-smelling volatile white solid essential oil obtained from two genera of the camphor tree and used from ancient times in Persia as an aromatic with antiseptic and insect-repelling properties.

  • ČAMRŪŠ

    Alan V. Williams

    a mythical bird that in the Pahlavi books, of all birds of land and sky, is second only to the Sēn bird in worth.

  • CANADA i. Iranian Studies in

    Colin Paul Mitchell

    several factors in the last half-century have led to a rapid expansion of Iranian studies in Canada in the fields of history, literature, language, philosophy, religion, art history, and archaeology.

  • CANADA v. Iranian Community in Canada

    M. Mannani, N. Rahimieh, K. Sheibani

    Canada remains among the most popular destinations for Iranians seeking to emigrate, and Iranian immigrants to Canada are the fifth most numerous of any nationality.

  • ČANDARBHĀN BARAHMAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ČANDRA BHĀN BARAHMAN.

  • CANDLE

    Mahmoud Omidsalar, J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (Pers.-Ar. šamʿ); the Arabic word literally means “beeswax."

  • CANDLESTICKS

    Linda Komaroff

    from the late 6th/12th through the early 10th/16th century one of the most common types of implement produced as a luxury metalware in Iran. Their form, decoration, and epigraphic program reflect contemporary trends in Iranian metalwork.

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  • ČANDRA BHĀN

    Sharif Husain Qāsemī

    (or Čandarbhān Barahman), Indian poet and writer in Persian (b. Lahore, date unknown, d. Lahore 1073/1662-63).

  • ČANDŪ LAʿL ŠĀDĀN

    Sharif Husain Qasemi

    Maharaja, states­man and poet in Persian and Urdu (b. 1175/1761-62, d. 7 Rabīʿ II 1261/15 April 1845 at Hyderabad).

  • CANDYS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    name probably of Iranian origin used by Greek authors for a Persian garment.

  • ČANG

    Ḥosayn-ʿAlī Mallāḥ

    In Persian literature, particularly in poetry, the harp kept an important place. In the Pahlavi text on King Ḵosrow and his page the čang player is listed among the finest of musicians. The harp was also one of the instruments played by the inmates of the harem.

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  • ČANGRANGHĀČA-NĀMA

    Žāla Āmūzgār

    a narrative work in Persian verse by Zartošt or Zarātošt, son of Bahrām-e Paždū, a poet of the 7th/13th century.

  • CANNIZZARO, FRANCESCO ADOLFO

    Antonio Panaino

    (b. Messina, 13 July 1867; d. Rome, 24 April 1914), Italian autodidact of Oriental languages and translator of the Vidēvdād.

  • ČĀP

    Willem Floor

    “print, printing,” a Persian word probably derived from Hindi chāpnā, “to print.”

  • ČĀPĀR

    Willem Floor

    (or čapar < Turk. čapmak “to gallop”), post rider.

  • CAPITAL CITIES

    A. Shapur Shahbazi, C. Edmund Bosworth

    these centers played important diplomatic and administrative roles in Iranian history, closely linked to the fortunes of the ruling families.

  • CAPITALS

    Wolfram Kleiss

    in architectural terminology, tran­sitional elements between weight-bearing supports (see COLUMNS) and the roofs or vaults supported. The development of the capital began in Assyria, when a tree trunk was inserted in the earth with another trunk or branch laid in the fork to carry the roof construction.

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  • CAPPADOCIA

    Michael Weiskopf

    Anatolian Achaemenid satrapy, Hellenistic-era Iranian kingdom, and imperial Roman province. A rolling plateau cut by mountains, Cappadocia in the east contains bare central highlands, in the west a nearly treeless land­scape, and in the north mountainous tracts marked by fertile valleys, especially on the lower Halys river.

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  • CAPUCHINS IN PERSIA

    Francis Richard

    from 1626 onward the French Capuchins established a number of missionary posts in the Near East.

  • ČĀR BAKR

    G. A. Pugachenkova

    (lit. “four Bakrs”), family necropolis of the powerful Jūybāri shaikhs near the village of Sumitan.

  • CARACAL

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    (Felis caracal Schreber = Lynx caracal, Caracal caracal), also called “desert lynx” or “Persian lynx”; in Persian, sīāhgūš, lit. “black-eared.”

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  • CARACALLA

    Erich Kettenhofen

    the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, known as Caracalla because of his hooded robe (b. 188, d. 217), who conducted a campaign against the Parthians.

  • CARAKA

    Ronald E. Emmerick

    the name of an Indian physician associated with one of the major works on Indian medicine (the Carakasaṃhitā), as well as the name of King Kaniṣka’s physician.

  • ČARAND PARAND

    Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī

    (Čarand o parand), literally “fiddle-faddle,” the title of satirical pieces of social and political criticism in the form of short narratives, brief announcements, telegrams, news reports, etc., by ʿAlī-Akbar Dehḵodā.

  • CARAVAN

    Bert G. Fragner

    a form of collective transport of men and goods.

  • CARAVANSARY

    Moḥammad-Yūsuf Kīānī and Wolfram Kleiss

    a building that served as the inn of the Orient, providing accommodation for commercial, pilgrim, postal, and especially official travelers. The term kārvān-sarā was commonly used in Iran and is preserved in several place names. The normal caravansary consisted of a square or rectangular plan centered around a courtyard with only one entrance and arrangements for defense if necessary.

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  • CARD GAMES

    Mahdi Roschanzamir

    (ganjafa-bāzī, waraq-bāzī), card games were invented in China in the 7th-8th centuries and via India were brought to Persia, whence they reached the Arab world and Europe.