Table of Contents

  • CARDAMOM

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    hel in modern Persian (from Skt. elā), the aromatic seeds of several plants of the family Zingiberaceae.

  • CARDINAL POINTS

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀḴTAR.

  • CARDUCHI

    Muhammad Dandamayev

    warlike tribes that in antiquity occupied the hilly country along the upper Tigris near the Assyrian and Median borders, in present-day western Kurdistan.

  • ČARḠ

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀZ.

  • CARIA

    Michael Weiskopf

    in the area of southwestern Turkey, under Achaemenid rule first as a part of the satrapy of Sparda (Lydia; 540s-390s B.C.), then as a separate satrapy (390s-30s B.C.) under the Hecatomnid family, whose prominence and self-promotion created a number of mostly Greek epigraphic documents detailing the development of 4th-century Caria.

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  • ČĀRĪKĀR

    Daniel Balland

    main town of Kōhdāman and the administrative capital of the Afghan province of Parwān, located about 63 km north of Kabul. Throughout history there has been an important urban center at the northern end of the long Kōhdāman depression.

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  • ČĀRJŪY

    Cross-reference

    See ĀMOL.

  • ČARḴ

    Daniel Balland

    a common toponym all over the Iranian world.

  • ČARḴ-E ČĀH

    Nāṣer Ḡolām-Reżāʾī

    (lit. “well wheel”),  a device for drawing water from a well or river or for removing soil during the excavation of a well. It is a type of windlass, consisting of a hollow horizontal cylinder around which a rope is coiled or uncoiled to raise or lower a bucket attached to the end. Formerly they were common features of Iranian gardens and courtyards in regions where the absence of qanāts and running water made wells indispensable.

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  • ČARKAS

    Beatrice Manz, Masashi Haneda

    (Cherkes), term used in Persian, Arabic, and Turkic for the Circassian people of the northwest Caucasus who call themselves Adygeĭ and speak a language of the Abazgo-Circassian branch of Caucasian (see caucasian languages).