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Anatolian Achaemenid satrapy, Hellenistic-era Iranian kingdom, and imperial Roman province. A rolling plateau cut by mountains, Cappadocia in the east contains bare central highlands, in the west a nearly treeless landscape, and in the north mountainous tracts marked by fertile valleys, especially on the lower Halys river.This Article Has Images/Tables.
from 1626 onward the French Capuchins established a number of missionary posts in the Near East.
G. A. Pugachenkova
(lit. “four Bakrs”), family necropolis of the powerful Jūybāri shaikhs near the village of Sumitan.
(Felis caracal Schreber = Lynx caracal, Caracal caracal), also called “desert lynx” or “Persian lynx”; in Persian, sīāhgūš, lit. “black-eared.”This Article Has Images/Tables.
the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, known as Caracalla because of his hooded robe (b. 188, d. 217), who conducted a campaign against the Parthians.
Ronald E. Emmerick
the name of an Indian physician associated with one of the major works on Indian medicine (the Carakasaṃhitā), as well as the name of King Kaniṣka’s physician.
(Čarand o parand), literally “fiddle-faddle,” the title of satirical pieces of social and political criticism in the form of short narratives, brief announcements, telegrams, news reports, etc., by ʿAlī-Akbar Dehḵodā.
Bert G. Fragner
a form of collective transport of men and goods.
Moḥammad-Yūsuf Kīānī and Wolfram Kleiss
a building that served as the inn of the Orient, providing accommodation for commercial, pilgrim, postal, and especially official travelers. The term kārvān-sarā was commonly used in Iran and is preserved in several place names. The normal caravansary consisted of a square or rectangular plan centered around a courtyard with only one entrance and arrangements for defense if necessary.This Article Has Images/Tables.
(ganjafa-bāzī, waraq-bāzī), card games were invented in China in the 7th-8th centuries and via India were brought to Persia, whence they reached the Arab world and Europe.