Table of Contents


    Wolfram Kleiss

    in architectural terminology, tran­sitional elements between weight-bearing supports (see COLUMNS) and the roofs or vaults supported. The development of the capital began in Assyria, when a tree trunk was inserted in the earth with another trunk or branch laid in the fork to carry the roof construction.

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    Michael Weiskopf

    Anatolian Achaemenid satrapy, Hellenistic-era Iranian kingdom, and imperial Roman province. A rolling plateau cut by mountains, Cappadocia in the east contains bare central highlands, in the west a nearly treeless land­scape, and in the north mountainous tracts marked by fertile valleys, especially on the lower Halys river.

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    Francis Richard

    From 1626 onward the French Capuchins established a number of missionary posts in the Near East. Capuchin monks lived solely on the alms that were given to them. The first Capuchins at Isfahan assiduously learned Persian and Turkish.

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    G. A. Pugachenkova

    (lit. “four Bakrs”), family necropolis of the powerful Jūybāri shaikhs near the village of Sumitan.


    Hūšang Aʿlam

    (Felis caracal Schreber = Lynx caracal, Caracal caracal), also called “desert lynx” or “Persian lynx”; in Persian, sīāhgūš, lit. “black-eared.”

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    Erich Kettenhofen

    the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, known as Caracalla because of his hooded robe (b. 188, d. 217), who conducted a campaign against the Parthians.


    Ronald E. Emmerick

    the name of an Indian physician associated with one of the major works on Indian medicine (the Carakasaṃhitā), as well as the name of King Kaniṣka’s physician.


    Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī

    (Čarand o parand), literally “fiddle-faddle,” the title of satirical pieces of social and political criticism in the form of short narratives, brief announcements, telegrams, news reports, etc., by ʿAlī-Akbar Dehḵodā.


    Bert G. Fragner

    a form of collective transport of men and goods.


    Moḥammad-Yūsuf Kīānī and Wolfram Kleiss

    a building that served as the inn of the Orient, providing accommodation for commercial, pilgrim, postal, and especially official travelers. The term kārvān-sarā was commonly used in Iran and is preserved in several place names. The normal caravansary consisted of a square or rectangular plan centered around a courtyard.

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