Table of Contents

  • CABBAGE

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    (Pers. kalam).Many medicinal properties and uses have been attributed in the Islamic period to the leaves and seeds of the karanb, most of which can be traced to the writings of the Greek masters Dioscorides, Galen,snd others.

  • ČĀČ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (Ar. Šāš), the name of a district and of a town in medieval Transoxania; the name of the town was gradually supplanted by that of Tashkent from late Saljuq and Mongol times onwards.

  • ČAČ-NĀMA

    D. N. MacLean

    Persian translation of an early anonymous Arabic history of Sind compiled at Arōr in the 3rd/9th century.

  • CADMAN, JOHN

    Kamran Eqbal

    Director and later chairman of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) during the reign of Reżā Shah (b. Silverdale, Staffordshire, England, 7 September 1877, d. Bletchley, Buckingham, 31 May 1941).

  • ČĀDOR (1)

    Cross-Reference

    A portable dwelling characteristic of certain nomad groups. It consists of a canopy of cloth or skin supported by upright posts and anchored to the ground by means of pegs and ropes. See TENTS.

  • ČĀDOR (2)

    Bijan Gheiby, James R. Russell, Hamid Algar

    A loose female garment covering the body, sometimes also the face.

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  • CADUSII

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    an Iranian tribe settled between the Caspian and the Black sea.

  • ČAGĀD Ī DĀITĪ

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    (or Dāityā), lit. “summit of the law," a peak of the mythical mountain Harburz, located in Ērānwēǰ in the middle of the world.

  • ČAḠADĀY

    Cross-reference

    second son of Čengīz Khan. See CHAGHATAYID DYNASTY.

  • ČAḠĀNA

    Ḥosayn ʿAlī Mallāḥ

    the name given to four types of musical instruments. This spelling is found in most dictionaries. Sachs’ Real-Lexikon has čaqāna, and other forms are also found: čaḡān, čaḡana, and čaḡba; in Arabic jaḡāna or jafāna.

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  • ČAḠANĪ, ṬĀHER

    Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    b. Abi’l-ʿAbbās Fażl b. Abī Bakr Moḥammad b. Abī Saʿd Moẓaffar b. Moḥtāj, prince and poet of the ancient Iranian Āl-e Moḥtāj, ruler of Čaḡānīān (Čaḡān Ḵodāt).

  • ČAḠĀNĪĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Middle Pers. form Čagīnīgān, Arabic rendering Ṣaḡānīān, with the common rendering of Iranian č as ṣ.

  • ČAḠĀNĪĀN, Chaghanids

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E MOḤTĀJ.

  • ČAḠĀNRŪD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Čaḡānīrūd in Farroḵī, the seventh and last right-bank tributary of the Oxus or Amu Darya.

  • ČAḠATĀY

    Cross-Reference

    See CHAGHATAY LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE and CHAGHATAYID DYNASTY.

  • ČAḠČARĀN

    Daniel Balland

    Principal town and administrative capital of the province of Ḡōr, in the mountains of central Afghanistan.

  • ČAḠRĪ BEG DĀWŪD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Mīḵāʾīl b. Saljūq, Abū Solaymān, a member of the Saljuqs, the leading family of the Oghuz Turks, who with his brother Ṭoḡrel (Ṭoḡrïl) Beg founded the Great Saljuq dynasty in Persia in the 5th/11th century.

  • ČAḠRĪ KHAN ʿALĪ

    Cross-reference

    See ILAK-KHANIDS.

  • ČĀH

    Marcel Bazin

    Well. Together with the well-known qanāt (subterranean water canals), wells (čāh) play a great part in the mobilization of the groundwater resources of Persia.

  • ČĀH-BAHĀR

    Eckart Ehlers

    Name of a town and bay on the Makrān coast of Persian Baluchistan facing the coast of Oman.

  • ČAHĀR AYMĀQ

    Cross-Reference

    See AYMĀQ.

  • ČAHĀR BĀḠ

    Cross-Reference

    See ČAHĀRBĀḠ.

  • ČAHĀR DOWLĪ

    Pierre Oberling

    (Davālī), or ČĀR DOWLĪ, a tribe of western Iran.

  • ČAHĀR LANG

    cross-reference

    (ČĀR LANG). See BAḴTĪĀRĪ TRIBE i.

  • ČAHĀR MAḤĀ(L) WA BAḴTĪĀRĪ

    Eckart Ehlers and Hūšang Kešāvarz

    second smallest province (ostān) of Persia in area, located in the Zagros mountains of southwestern Persia.

  • ČAHĀR MAQĀLA

    Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī

    persian prose work written in the 6th/12th century by Abu’l-Ḥasan Neẓām-al-­Dīn (or Najm-al-Dīn) Aḥmad b. ʿOmar b. ʿAlī Neẓāmī ʿArūżī Samarqandī, originally entitled Majmaʿ al-nawāder.

  • ČAHĀR ONṢOR

    Sharif Husain Qasemi

    (Four elements), an autobiographical work in prose by the poet and Sufi Abu’l-Maʿānī Mīrzā ʿAbd-al-Qāder Bīdel.

  • ČAHĀR-BAYTI

    Cross-Reference

    See DO-BAYTI.

  • ČAHĀRBĀḠ

    David Stronach

    lit. “four gardens,” a rectangular garden divided by paths or waterways into four symmetrical sections.

  • ČAHĀRBĀḠ-E EṢFAHĀN

    Roger M. Savory

    the name of a broad avenue which was a key feature of the city of Isfahan as replanned by Shah ʿAbbās I after he had designated the city the new capital of the Safavid state in 1006/1597-98.

  • ČAHĀRBĀḠ-E GARRŪS

    Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    (ČĀRBĀḠ-E GARRŪS), a park no longer in existence in the south of the town of Bījār, center of Garrūs šahrestān in Persian Kurdistan.

  • ČAHĀRBĀḠ-E MAŠHAD

    Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī

    name of a royal garden and palace at Mašhad; under the Qajars and up to the present time it has been the name of an old quarter in the city.

  • ČAHĀRDAH MAʿṢŪM

    Hamid Algar

    the fourteen inerrant or immaculate personages venerated by Twelver Shiʿites, i.e., the Prophet Moḥammad, his daughter Fāṭema, and the twelve imams.

  • ČAHĀRGĀH

    Bruno Nettl

    the name of one of the twelve dastgāhs (modes) of traditional Persian music in the 14th/20th century.

  • ČAHĀRJŪY

    Cross-reference

    See ĀMOL.

  • ČAHĀRMEŻRĀB

    Jean During

    a genre of traditional rhythmic instrumental music.

  • ČAHĀRŠANBA-SŪRĪ

    Manouchehr Kasheff and ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    (usually pronounced Čāršamba-sūrī), the last Wednesday of the Persian solar year, the eve of which is marked by special customs and rituals, most notably jumping over fire.

  • ČAHĀRṬĀQ

    Dietrich Huff, Bernard O’Kane

    literally “four arches,” a modern term for an equilateral architectural unit consisting of four arches or short barrel vaults between four corner piers, with a dome on squinches over the central square. this unit became the most prominent element in traditional Iranian architecture after the ayvān.

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  • ČAHĀRTĀR

    Jean During

    (lit. four-strings), a musical instrument belonging to the family of long-necked lutes.

  • ČAHRĪQ

    Amir Hassanpour, Juan R. I. Cole

    a dehestān, village, and fortress in Salmās (Šāhpūr in the Pahlavi period) šahrestān in Azerbaijan between Ḵᵛoy and Urmia.

  • ČAIŠPIŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See ČIŠPIŠ.

  • CAITYAPRADAKṢIṆĀGĀTHĀ

    Ronald E. Emmerick

    lit. “the song (Skt. gāthā) about circumambulating (Skt. pradakṣiṇā) a holy place (Skt. caitya),” the title of a Buddhist text, a Khotanese version of which is extant.

  • ČAK

    Willem Floor

    legal document, testament, money draft, check.

  • ČAḴĀNSŪR

    Daniel Balland

    principal town of the large Ḵāšrūd delta oasis in northeastern Sīstān.

  • ČĀKAR

    Etienne de la Vaissiere

    personal soldier-retainer of the nobility in pre-Islamic Central Asia.

  • ČAKAR

    Mansour Shaki

    a Middle Persian legal term denoting a widow who at the death of her “authorized” (pādixšāyīhā) husband without issue was obliged to enter into a levirate marriage (čakarīh) in order to provide him with male offspring (frazand).

  • ČAKĀVAK

    Hūšang Aʿlam, Hūšang Aʿlam

    (Mid. Pers. čakōk). i. The lark. ii. A melody in Persian music.

  • ČAKZĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ACƎKZĪ.

  • ČĀL

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Like most Persian villages, Čāl had several quarters (maḥallas), but the major division was between Upper and Lower Čāl (locally Gali-kiá and Jarina-ma:la, respectively), with some local variation between the dialects, for instance, Upper Čāli berbinden “to cut,” veškenja “sparrow,” nāngun “pinch” versus Lower Čāli bervinden, meškenja, and nāngur.

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  • ČĀL TARḴĀN

    Jens Kröger

    (Čāl Tarḵān-ʿEšqābād), a site about 20 km southeast of Ray with remains from the late Sasanian and early Islamic periods.