Table of Contents


    James R. Russell

    Pahl. burdār “carrier, sustainer,  bringer,” attested in Armenian as a proper name. 


    Nisar Ahmed Faruqi

    (Borhānpūr), city in Madhya Pradesh (formerly Central Provinces and Berar), India, on the Tapti river, 275 miles northeast of Bombay.


    Multiple Authors

    This series of articles covers burial practices in Iran and Iranian lands.

  • BURIAL i. Pre-Historic Burial Sites

    Ezzatollah Negahban

    The earliest human skeletal remains found in Persia date from before the 8th millennium B.C. They have been excavated at several cave dwelling sites: Hotu Cave (Angel) and Belt Cave, both on the south­eastern shore of the Caspian Sea; Behistun (Bīsotūn) Cave near Kermānšāh; and Konjī and Arjana Caves in Luristan.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BURIAL ii. Remnants of Burial Practices in Ancient Iran

    Frantz Grenet

    The burial practices of pre-Islamic Iran are known partly from archeological evidence, partly from the Zoroastrian scriptures, namely the Avesta and the later Pahlavi and Persian literature.

  • BURIAL iii. In Zoroastrianism

    James R. Russell

    Death being regarded as an evil brought about by Aŋra Mainyu, the Destructive Spirit, the corpse of a holy creature, particularly man or dog, is considered to be greatly infested by the druj Nasu.

  • BURIAL iv. In Islam

    Hamid Algar

    In the handbooks of feqh that the detailed procedures for washing, enshrouding, praying over, and burying the dead are expounded, with little variation among the different schools of Islamic law.

  • BURIAL v. In Bahai Communities

    Vahid Rafati

    Bahai laws on burial are limited to a few basic principles that are binding on all Bahai communities around the world.


    Malcolm E. Yapp

    (1805-41), author of Travels into Bukhara (published in 1834), an account of his exploratory mission to Afghani­stan, Turkestan, and Iran.


    Clarisse Herrenschmidt

    (1801-52), virtually the founder of Iranian linguistics, as well as of the study of the history of Buddhism.