Table of Contents


    Bāqer ʿĀqelī

    (1886-1951), Major General (sar-laškar), military officer, mayor of Tehran, and minister of Public Welfare. 


    Multiple Authors

    Among Iranian peoples. This series of articles covers Buddhism in Iran and Iranian lands: i.  In pre-Islamic times. ii.  InIslamic times. iii. Buddhist Literature in Khotanese and Tumshuqese. iv. Buddhist Sites in Afghanistan and Central Asia.

  • BUDDHISM i. In Pre-Islamic Times

    Ronald E. Emmerick

    Origin and early spread of Buddhism. Buddhism arose in northeast India in the sixth century b.c. as the result of the teaching of the historical Buddha Śākyamuni, who died about 483 b.c.

  • BUDDHISM ii. In Islamic Times

    Asadullah Souren Melikian-Chirvani

    The Muslim conquerors of eastern Iran, Afghanistan, and Transoxania in the mid-8th century found Buddhism flourishing in a series of prosperous trading communities along the old caravan routes to India and China.

  • BUDDHISM iii. Buddhist Literature in Khotanese and Tumshuqese

    Ronald F. Emmerick and Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Khotan played an important role in the transmission of Buddhism during the period represented by the extant material (probably from around 700 to the end of the kingdom of Khotan ca. 1000). 

  • BUDDHISM iv. Buddhist Sites in Afghanistan and Central Asia

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    The spread of Buddhism beyond the Indian subcontinent accelerated under the Mauryan king Aśoka (r. 265–238 BCE). An active proponent of Buddhism, he sent out religious missions.

  • BŪF

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    owl, commonly called joḡd. Eleven species, from two families, occur in Iran.


    Michael C. Hillmann

    (The blind owl), the chef d’œuvre of Ṣādeq Hedāyat (1903-51) and one of the first major modernist Persian novels. 


    Amir Hassanpour

    (Kurd. Bōkān), name of a town, a baḵš (district), and a river in the šahrestān (county) of Mahābād, West Azerbaijan.


    Multiple Authors

    i. In pre-Islamic times. ii. From the Arab invasions to the Mongols. iii. After the Mongol invasion. iv. The khanate of Bukhara and Khorasan. v. Archeology and monuments. vi. The Bukharan school of miniature painting. vii. Bukharan Jews.