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an alloy of two metals, copper and tin. When tin is alloyed with copper, it decreases the temperature at which the two metals will melt, increases fluidity during casting, and acts as a deoxidant. Although copper deposits occur with reasonable frequency throughout the highland zones of southwestern, sources of tin are far less common.
Vincent C. Pigott
Current understanding of early developments in copper-base metallurgy on the Iranian plateau is based largely on archeological excavations, archeometallurgical field surveys conducted by Theodore A. Wertime and colleagues and a team led by Thierry Berthoud, and from independent research by such scholars as D. L. Heskel, P. R. S. Moorey, J. D. Muhly, and A. R. Vatandoost-Haghighi.This Article Has Images/Tables.
James W. Allan
The most common copper alloys in use in Iran were brass and a quaternary alloy of copper, lead, zinc, and tin. As for bronze, two alloys should be differentiated: low-tin bronze, with a tin content of 10 percent or less, and high-tin bronze, with a tin content of about 20 percent.This Article Has Images/Tables.
Robert H. Dyson, Jr., and Mary M. Voigt
in Iranian archeology a term used informally for the period from the rise of trading towns in Iran, ca. 3400-3300 B.C., to the beginning of the Iron Age, ca. 1400-1300 B.C. It has long since lost any precise meaning in relation to technology.This Article Has Images/Tables.
Oscar White Muscarella
The British Museum had acquired the first of its Luristan bronzes in 1854, followed by others in 1885, 1900, 1914, and 1920. Until the late 1920s such objects continued to appear sporadically, but mass plundering of Luristan tombs seems to have begun in that decade.This Article Has Images/Tables.
G. Michael Wickens, Juan Cole, Kamran Ekbal
eminent British Iranologist (1862-1926). i. Browne’s life and academic career. ii. Browne on Babism and Bahaism. iii. Browne and the Persian Constitutional movement.
, Sir (1764-1847), English diplomat and author, ambassador to the court of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah Qājār from 1807 to 1811.
See ABŪ DOLAF.
C. Edmund Bosworth
(or Bāhalīm), military commanders and governors in northern India under the later Ghaznavid sultans in the late 5th/11th and early 6th/12th centuries.
See ĀL-E BŪ KORD.