Table of Contents



    See BĀQELĀ.



    See BĀQELĀ.



    See QEŠM.


    Rudolph Sellheim

    German orientalist (1868-1956).During a long and serene life as a scholar Brock­elmann produced a wealth of fundamental publications. His monumental output represents the unity of Oriental studies in his time.


    Multiple Authors

    an alloy of two metals, copper and tin. When tin is alloyed with copper, it decreases the temperature at which the two metals will melt, increases fluidity during casting, and acts as a deoxidant. Although copper deposits occur with reasonable frequency throughout the highland zones of south­western, sources of tin are far less common.

  • BRONZE i. In pre-Islamic Iran

    Vincent C. Pigott

    Current understanding of early developments in copper-base metallurgy on the Iranian plateau is based largely on archeological excavations, archeometallurgical field surveys conducted by Theodore A. Wertime and colleagues and a team led by Thierry Berthoud, and from independent research by such scholars as D. L. Heskel, P. R. S. Moorey, J. D. Muhly, and A. R. Vatandoost-Haghighi.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BRONZE ii. In Islamic Iran

    James W. Allan

    The most common copper alloys in use in Iran were brass and a quaternary alloy of copper, lead, zinc, and tin. As for bronze, two alloys should be differentiated: low-tin bronze, with a tin content of 10 percent or less, and high-tin bronze, with a tin content of about 20 percent.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Robert H. Dyson, Jr., and Mary M. Voigt

    in Iranian archeology a term used informally for the period from the rise of trading towns in Iran, ca. 3400-3300 B.C., to the beginning of the Iron Age, ca. 1400-1300 B.C. It has long since lost any precise meaning in relation to technology.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Oscar White Muscarella

    The British Museum had acquired the first of its Luristan bronzes in 1854, followed by others in 1885, 1900, 1914, and 1920. Until the late 1920s such objects continued to appear sporadi­cally, but mass plundering of Luristan tombs seems to have begun in that decade.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    G. Michael Wickens, Juan Cole, Kamran Ekbal

    eminent British Iranologist (1862-1926). i. Browne’s life and academic career. ii. Browne on Babism and Bahaism. iii. Browne and the Persian Constitutional movement.