Table of Contents

  • BREAD

    Hélène Desmet-Grégoire

    Persian nān. In modern Iran bread is the dietary staple food for the population and accounts, on the average, for 70 percent of the daily caloric intake.

  • BRĒLVĪ

    cross-reference

    See BARĒLVĪ.

  • BREST-LITOVSK TREATY

    Joseph A. Kechichian

    treaty signed by the Central Powers and Soviet Russia on 3 March 1918 that was consequential in the history of modern Iran.

  • BRETON, LE

    Cross-Reference

    See LE BRETON.

  • BRICK

    Guitty Azarpay

    blocks of tempered mud, either sun-dried (ḵešt) or baked in a kiln (ājor), the traditional building material in most of Iran. It has customarily been made from a mixture of water-soaked earth (gel-čāl), straw, and chaff.

  • BRICKS AND CERAMICS INDUSTRY

    Willem Floor

    Traditional brick-kilns were and are still found all over the country. Until recently, bricks were only made in small traditional kilns. A European established the first modern brick-kiln around 1905. However, it was only in 1935 that a German engineer constructed the so-called “Hoffman brick-kiln,” with its characteristic high chimney, in south Tehran.

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  • BRIDGES

    Dietrich Huff, Wolfram Kleiss

    (Pers. pol, Mid. Pers. pohl, Av. pərətu-). i. Pre-Islamic bridges. ii. Bridges in the Islamic period. Bridges may have existed in the Iranian highlands as monuments of vernacular architecture since prehistoric times.

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  • BRITAIN

    cross-reference

    See ANGLO-IRANIAN RELATIONS; GREAT BRITAIN.

  • BRỊTʾIATỊ (COPANỊ FỊRT) ELBỊZDỊQO

    Fridrik Thordarson

    (Russian: Elbyzdyko Britaev), playwright regarded as the founder of Ossetic drama(1881-1923). His first plays (two short comedies) were published in 1905.

  • BRITISH COUNCIL

    EIr

    : activities in Iran 1942-79. The first British Council representative was appointed to Iran in 1942. The priority was English language teaching, and by 1944 the Council was teaching over 4,000 students.