Table of Contents

  • BOUNDARIES iii. Boundaries of Afghanistan

    Daniel Balland

    None of these boundaries was established before the last third of the 19th century. It was the “great game,” the rivalry between Britain and Russia in Central Asia, that led the latter two states to contemplate creating a buffer state between their dependencies, a kind of defensive barrier.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BOUNDARIES iv. With Iraq

    Joseph A. Kechichian

    Efforts by Algeria to mediate during the summit meeting of OPEC on 6 March 1975 brought the shah together with Ṣaddām Ḥosayn, then vice-president of the Iraqi Revolutionary Council, to redefine their common frontier. In the resulting settlement 593 new border points were designated.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BOUNDARIES v. With Turkey

    Richard N. Schofield

    The Mixed Commission of 1914, on which Britain and Russia were vested with powers to arbitrate, had settled the line of the Perso-Ottoman frontier in detail for almost its whole length from the Persian Gulf to Mount Ararat.



    See BŌĒ; BUYIDS.



    See BUYIDS.


    Hūšang Aʿlam

    Buxus L. spp., šemšād, common name for numerous species of evergreen shrubs or trees of the family Buxaceae. The species B. sempervirens grows wild in lowland or plain forests of the Caspian provinces.


    John Hinnells

    (1920-2006), scholar of Zoroastrianism and its relevant languages, and Professor of Iranian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) of the University of London. In addition to her own contribution, Boyce was an outstanding teacher and supervised the research of many who went on to hold professorships.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    the name of a mec naxarar “great satrap,” defeated and killed at Ṭʿawrēš (Tabrīz) by the Armenian general Vasak under Šāpūr II (r. 309-79).


    Peter Jackson

    (1916-78), British orientalist, will perhaps best remembered for his work on the Mongol period of Iranian history.


    Birgitt Hoffmann

    (lit. royal houses), in the Safavid period (1501-1732) departments and production workshops within the royal household serving primarily the needs of the court.