Table of Contents


    Hūšang Aʿlam

    Buxus L. spp., šemšād, common name for numerous species of evergreen shrubs or trees of the family Buxaceae. The species B. sempervirens grows wild in lowland or plain forests of the Caspian provinces.


    John Hinnells

    (1920-2006), scholar of Zoroastrianism and its relevant languages, and Professor of Iranian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) of the University of London. In addition to her own contribution, Boyce was an outstanding teacher and supervised the research of many who went on to hold professorships.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    the name of a mec naxarar “great satrap,” defeated and killed at Ṭʿawrēš (Tabrīz) by the Armenian general Vasak under Šāpūr II (r. 309-79).


    Peter Jackson

    (1916-78), British orientalist, will perhaps best remembered for his work on the Mongol period of Iranian history.


    Birgitt Hoffmann

    (lit. royal houses), in the Safavid period (1501-1732) departments and production workshops within the royal household serving primarily the needs of the court.

  • BOZ

    Jean-Pierre Digard

    the domestic goat. The earliest evidence for domestication of the goat has been found in Iran (ca. 10,000 B.C.), as have the largest number of prehistoric sites (ca. 7000 B.C.) showing traces of the systematic breeding of this animal.


    Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar

    Azeri Turkish name for an Iranian dish usually called ābgūšt-e sabzī (green vegetable stew).


    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    the traditional reading of the name of a mythical tribe in Māzandarān mentioned in the Šāh-nāma.


    G. Whitney Azoy

    (lit. “goat-dragging”), an equestrian folk game played by Turkic groups in Central Asia. Its origins are obscure; quite probably the game first developed as a recreational extension of livestock raiding.


    Jean During

    one of the modes in traditional Iranian and Arabic music, mentioned for the first time by Ṣafī-al-Dīn ʿOrmavī among the twelve šodūd, later on called maqāmāt.