Table of Contents


    Wilferd Madelung

    the second Ismaʿili ruler of Alamūt (1124-38). He was of Deylami origin from the region of Rūdbār.


    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    the third class-rank of the four or five divisions of the early Sasanian aristocracy, namely šahryār “landholders,” wispuhr “princes” or members of the royal house, wuzurg “grandees,” āzād “nobles,”  and kadag-xwadāy “householders.”


    Djalal Khaleghi Motlagh

    identified in literature and legend as a vizier of Ḵosrow I Anōšīravān (r. 531-78). According to Persian and Arabic sources, he was characterized by ex­ceptional wisdom and sage counsels.


    Louis Vanden Berghe

    a valley situated about 100 km southwest of Kāzerūn and 11 km by donkey path through the mountains from Sar Mašhad, Fārs. The most important ruin in the Bozpār valley is the building known locally as Gūr-e Doḵtar.

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    James R. Russell

    Middle Persian name, attested only in Armenian, of a Zoroastrian school or body of religious teaching in the Sasanian period.


    Werner Sundermann

    “manner, fashion, costume,” Middle Persian word used in connection with human beings, referring either to mode of behavior or to outward appearance.


    Douglas A. Hitch

    Indian script used for a variety of languages in Chinese Turkestan, including Iranian languages. From the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang, China) we have first-millennium documents in Brāhmī script in several Iranian languages.


    Josef Elfenbein

    As “long-distance cattle-herders” in 1880 no fewer than 80 percent of these tribesmen were tent-dwelling nomads; fewer than 20 percent were described as settled. In 1975 the proportions were almost exactly the reverse, and Brahui settlement in large towns has been increas­ing ever more rapidly.

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    See BERENJ.


    Asadullah Souren Melikian-Chirvani, Jaʿfar Šahrī

    two distinct types of utensil traditionally used in Iran. One type is a closed container on legs, a kind of stove that holds slowly burning coals for heating.