Table of Contents


    ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Šīrjānī

    a descriptive geography book by a mystic writer of the early 19th century, Mast-ʿAlīšāh, Ḥājī Zayn-al-ʿĀbedīn b. Mollā Eskandar Šīrvānī.


    Ahmad Parsa

    amaranth, a medicinal and ornamental plant of the family Amaranthaceae.


    Zabihollah Safa

    NEẒĀM-AL-DĪN ʿAMĪD ʿALĪ b. Moḥammad b. Ḥosayn b. Yūsof Kāteb, a notable bilingual secretary and poet of the 10th century.


    Wilferd Madelung

    ESMĀʿĪL b. Aḥmad JĪLĪ, Muʿtazilite and Zaydī author of the late 10th and early 11th century.

  • BOT

    William L. Hanaway, Jr.

    a term frequent in poetry with meanings ranging from an idol in the literal sense to a metaphor for ideal human beauty. These senses have been used since the earliest surviving Persian poetry.


    Valiolla Mozaffarian

    (Žurnāl-e giāhšenāsi-e Irān), begun in 1976 as an outcome of the National Botanical Garden of Iran. The contributions are in English with brief abstracts in Persian.


    Hūšang Aʿlam, S.-W. Breckle, Hūšang Aʿlam and Aḥmad Qahramān

    ON IRAN i. The Greco-Islamic tradition. ii. The Western tradition. iii. Persian Studies in the Western tradition. In the Islamic period, generally speaking, botany was an ancillary branch of medicine or, more precisely, pharmacology.


    Multiple Authors

    i. With the Ottoman empire. ii. With Russia. iii. Boundaries of Afghanistan. iv. With Iraq. v. With Turkey.

  • BOUNDARIES i. With the Ottoman Empire

    Keith McLachlan

    shaped by conflict over an ill-defined strip of territory with constantly shifting outlines extending from the Caucasus to the Persian Gulf.

  • BOUNDARIES ii. With Russia

    Xavier de Planhol

    West of the Caspian. The problem of drawing a stable territorial boundary between the Russian and Iranian powers must have arisen with the first arrival of the Russians in the Caspian area, after the conquest of Astrakhan in 1556.