Table of Contents


    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (also transcribed Burzōē), a physician of the time of Ḵosrow I (r. 531-79) and responsible for a translation of the Pañcatantra from Sanskrit to Pahlavi, the Persian translation of which is known as the Kalīla wa Demna.


    Heshmat Moayyad

    , FAḴR-AL-DĪN ḤALLĀJ ŠĪRĀZĪ (d. 1420s), satirical poet who used Persian culinary vocabulary and imagery and kitchen terminology to create a novel style of poetry.


    Hamid Algar

    : Persian Influence in Ottoman and post-Ottoman times. The Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina came to assimilate virtually all the cultural habits and interests of the Ottoman Turks. For the learned elite, this included an acquaintance with Persian language and literature.

  • BOŠRŪʾĪ, Mollā Moḥammad-Ḥosayn

    Denis M. MacEoin

    Shaikhi ʿālem who became the first convert to Babism, provincial Babi leader in Khorasan, and organizer of Babi resistance in Māzandarān (1814-49).

  • BOST

    Klaus Fischer, Xavier de Planhol

    archeological site and town located near the confluence of the Helmand and Arḡandāb rivers in southwest Afghanistan.


    ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Šīrjānī

    a descriptive geography book by a mystic writer of the early 19th century, Mast-ʿAlīšāh, Ḥājī Zayn-al-ʿĀbedīn b. Mollā Eskandar Šīrvānī.


    Ahmad Parsa

    amaranth, a medicinal and ornamental plant of the family Amaranthaceae.


    Zabihollah Safa

    NEẒĀM-AL-DĪN ʿAMĪD ʿALĪ b. Moḥammad b. Ḥosayn b. Yūsof Kāteb, a notable bilingual secretary and poet of the 10th century.


    Wilferd Madelung

    ESMĀʿĪL b. Aḥmad JĪLĪ, Muʿtazilite and Zaydī author of the late 10th and early 11th century.

  • BOT

    William L. Hanaway, Jr.

    a term frequent in poetry with meanings ranging from an idol in the literal sense to a metaphor for ideal human beauty. These senses have been used since the earliest surviving Persian poetry.