Table of Contents
William L. Hanaway, Jr.
a term frequent in poetry with meanings ranging from an idol in the literal sense to a metaphor for ideal human beauty. These senses have been used since the earliest surviving Persian poetry.
(Žurnāl-e giāhšenāsi-e Irān), begun in 1976 as an outcome of the National Botanical Garden of Iran. The contributions are in English with brief abstracts in Persian.
Hūšang Aʿlam, S.-W. Breckle, Hūšang Aʿlam and Aḥmad Qahramān
ON IRAN i. The Greco-Islamic tradition. ii. The Western tradition. iii. Persian Studies in the Western tradition. In the Islamic period, generally speaking, botany was an ancillary branch of medicine or, more precisely, pharmacology.
i. With the Ottoman empire. ii. With Russia. iii. Boundaries of Afghanistan. iv. With Iraq. v. With Turkey.
shaped by conflict over an ill-defined strip of territory with constantly shifting outlines extending from the Caucasus to the Persian Gulf.
Xavier de Planhol
West of the Caspian. The problem of drawing a stable territorial boundary between the Russian and Iranian powers must have arisen with the first arrival of the Russians in the Caspian area, after the conquest of Astrakhan in 1556.
, the seventh largest landlocked country in the world in area, is delineated by a boundary some 5,600 km long, over which it has never exercised more than partial control. None of these boundaries was established before the last third of the 19th century.This Article Has Images/Tables.
Joseph A. Kechichian
iv. With Iraq. In 1921, Iraq became a state under British mandate, inheriting the old Ottoman dispute with Iran over the Šaṭṭ al-ʿArab. Relations between Iran and Iraq were thus strained from the beginning.This Article Has Images/Tables.
Richard N. Schofield
v. With Turkey. The Mixed Commission of 1914, on which Britain and Russia were vested with powers to arbitrate, had settled the line of the Perso-Ottoman frontier in detail for almost its whole length from the Persian Gulf to Mount Ararat.