Table of Contents


    A. Netzer

    (1850-1913), Hungarian scholar of Persian and Judeo-Persian language and literature.



    See NARD.



    See BACTRIA i; BALKH vi.


    P. Leriche, F. Grenet

    Little information has been obtained from Achaemenid sites in Bactria. Bactra is deeply buried under the citadel (bālā-ḥeṣār) of present-day Balḵ. Drapsaca and Aornos, mentioned by the historians of Alexander, are usually identified with Kondūz and Tashkurgan, where excavations have yet to begin.

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    N. Sims-Williams

    The Iranian language of ancient Bactria (northern Afghanistan) of the Kushan period is the only Middle Iranian language whose writing system is based on the Greek alphabet.

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  • BĀD (1)

    X. de Planhol

    “wind.” On the plateau of Iran and Afghanistan winds depend on a general regime of atmospheric pressures characterized, in the course of the year, by the succession of markedly distinct seasons with relatively stable barometric gradients.

  • BĀD (2)

    L. Richter-Bernburg

    (“wind”) in Perso-Islamic medicine: 1. wind as a medically relevant environmental factor; 2. “airiness” as internal physiological and pathological agent.


    M. Morony

    (The book of creation and history), an encyclopedic compilation of religious, historical, and philosophical knowledge written in Arabic by Abū Naṣr Moṭahhar b. al-Moṭahhar (or Ṭāher) Maqdesī in 966.

  • BĀDA

    J. W. Clinton

    one of several terms used in Persian poetry to mean wine, and, by extension, any intoxicating liquor.  

  • BADĀʾ

    W. Madelung

    (Ar. appearance, emergence), as a theological term denotes a change of a divine decision or ruling in response to the emergence of new circumstances.  It is upheld in Imami Shiʿite doctrine.