Table of Contents


    D. Huff

    (Baz-e Hur), a village and site of some important Sasanian structures on the road from Mašhad to Torbat-e Ḥaydarīya.



    “toilette.” See COSMETICS.


    Multiple Authors

    “market (place),” term which may refer to: a market day, usually once a week, when farmers bring their wares to the market to sell; a fair held at specific times; and the physical establishments, the shops, characterized by specific morphology and architectural design.

  • BAZAR i. General

    Michael E. Bonine

    Large interior courtyard caravanserais are an integral part of most bāzārs, particularly in the larger cities where international trade was once significant. Around the courtyard are single- or two-storied complexes of offices occupied by wholesalers, although the bottom level is more often for storage and even contains shopkeepers or craftsmen.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BĀZĀR ii. Organization and Function

    Willem Floor

    Both weekly market days and regular fairs occurred in pre-Islamic times. Among the latter, for example, was the bāzār of Māḵ in Bukhara.

  • BAZAR iii. Socioeconomic and Political Role

    Ahmad Ashraf

    The bāzār in the Islamic city has been (1) a central marketplace and craft center located in the old quarters of the town; (2) a primary arena, along with the mosque, of extrafamilial sociability; and (3) a sociocultural milieu of a traditional urban life-style.

  • BAZAR iv. In Afghanistan

    E. F. Grötzbach

    In Afghanistan a bāzār is a collection of shops and workshops forming a topographic unit. As regards size and layout, however, there can be great differences.

  • BAZAR v. Temporary Bazars in Iran and Afghanistan

    M. Bazin

    The most firmly established form of periodic bāzār is certainly the one observed in the Caspian lowlands of Iran and especially in the central plain of Gīlān, where weekly bāzārs (bāzār-e haftagī) are part of a particularly long tradition.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Karāmat-Allāh Afsar

    an architectural monument of Shiraz from the reign of Karīm Khan Zand (Wakīl, r. 1750-79) and still an important center of business.


    Bernard Hourcade

    a village on the Turkish-Iranian frontier eighteen kilometers northwest of Mākū,  West Azerbaijan province. The development of this village is very recent and limited, linked with the nearby frontier crossing.