Table of Contents

  • BŪQĀ

    Bertold Spuler

    (Būqāy, Boḡā), Mongolian Boḡa, Mongol general who took part in the fighting between the il-khans Aḥmad Takūdār (Tegüder) and Arḡūn in 1284 and then became the vizier.

  • BŪQALAMŪN

    Hūšanḡ Aʿlam

    term applied to a variety of objects or animals exhibiting changing colors, such as (silk) fabrics, the gemstone jasper, the chameleon, and the turkey. 

  • BŪRĀN

    Ihsan Abbas

    (Middle Pers. Bōrān) also called Ḵadīja (807-84), wife of al-Maʾmūn and daughter of Ḥasan b. Sahl, probably so named after the Sasanian queen Bōrān.

  • BŪRĀNĪ

    Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar

    (rarely būlānī), generic term for a category of Iranian dishes, now usually prepared with yogurt and cooked vegetables and served either hot or cold.

  • BURBUR CASTLE

    Dariush Borbor

    The village has changed hands several times between Burbur family members, the Qajar aristocracy, and the central government in the last few centuries. In the 1840s, Esmāʿil Khan Burbur bought back the estate from ʿIsā Khan Biglarbegi Qajar, the governor of Malāyer, Nehāvand, and Tuyserkān, for 36,000 tomans.

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  • BURBUR TRIBE

    Dariush Borbor

    a Lor tribe dispersed throughout Persia, especially in Azerbaijan, Varāmin, northern Khorasan, Fārs, and Kermān.

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  • BURBUR, ʿALI

    Dariush Borbor

    administrative and military official under the Qajars.

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  • BURDAR

    James R. Russell

    Pahl. burdār “carrier, sustainer,  bringer,” attested in Armenian as a proper name. 

  • BURHANPUR

    Nisar Ahmed Faruqi

    (Borhānpūr), city in Madhya Pradesh (formerly Central Provinces and Berar), India, on the Tapti river, 275 miles northeast of Bombay.

  • BURIAL

    Multiple Authors

    This series of articles covers burial practices in Iran and Iranian lands.

  • BURIAL i. Pre-Historic Burial Sites

    Ezzatollah Negahban

    The earliest human skeletal remains found in Persia date from before the 8th millennium B.C. They have been excavated at several cave dwelling sites: Hotu Cave (Angel) and Belt Cave, both on the south­eastern shore of the Caspian Sea; Behistun (Bīsotūn) Cave near Kermānšāh; and Konjī and Arjana Caves in Luristan.

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  • BURIAL ii. Remnants of Burial Practices in Ancient Iran

    Frantz Grenet

    The burial practices of pre-Islamic Iran are known partly from archeological evidence, partly from the Zoroastrian scriptures, namely the Avesta and the later Pahlavi and Persian literature.

  • BURIAL iii. In Zoroastrianism

    James R. Russell

    Death being regarded as an evil brought about by Aŋra Mainyu, the Destructive Spirit, the corpse of a holy creature, particularly man or dog, is considered to be greatly infested by the druj Nasu.

  • BURIAL iv. In Islam

    Hamid Algar

    In the handbooks of feqh that the detailed procedures for washing, enshrouding, praying over, and burying the dead are expounded, with little variation among the different schools of Islamic law.

  • BURIAL v. In Bahai Communities

    Vahid Rafati

    Bahai laws on burial are limited to a few basic principles that are binding on all Bahai communities around the world.

  • BURNES, ALEXANDER

    Malcolm E. Yapp

    (1805-41), author of Travels into Bukhara (published in 1834), an account of his exploratory mission to Afghani­stan, Turkestan, and Iran.

  • BURNOUF, EUGÈNE

    Clarisse Herrenschmidt

    (1801-52), virtually the founder of Iranian linguistics, as well as of the study of the history of Buddhism.

  • BURUSHASKI

    Hermann Berger

    language spoken in Hunza-Karakorum, North Pakistan, containing some Iranian loanwords of various origins.

  • BURZĒNMIHR

    cross-reference

    See ĀDUR BURZĒNMIHR.

  • BŪSALĪK

    Hormoz Farhat

    Būsalīk has remained a maqām in Arabian, Turkish, and Persian musical traditions to this day. As is often the case, however, the contemporary form of the maqām of Būsalīk differs from that which is given by the classical scholars. In Turkish music Būsalīk, or Puselik, defines a mode comparable to the aeolian of ecclesiastic modes.

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