Table of Contents


    Multiple Authors

    This series of articles covers burial practices in Iran and Iranian lands.

  • BURIAL i. Pre-Historic Burial Sites

    Ezzatollah Negahban

    The earliest human skeletal remains found in Persia date from before the 8th millennium B.C. They have been excavated at several cave dwelling sites: Hotu Cave (Angel) and Belt Cave, both on the south­eastern shore of the Caspian Sea; Behistun (Bīsotūn) Cave near Kermānšāh; and Konjī and Arjana Caves in Luristan.

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  • BURIAL ii. Remnants of Burial Practices in Ancient Iran

    Frantz Grenet

    The burial practices of pre-Islamic Iran are known partly from archeological evidence, partly from the Zoroastrian scriptures, namely the Avesta and the later Pahlavi and Persian literature.

  • BURIAL iii. In Zoroastrianism

    James R. Russell

    Death being regarded as an evil brought about by Aŋra Mainyu, the Destructive Spirit, the corpse of a holy creature, particularly man or dog, is considered to be greatly infested by the druj Nasu.

  • BURIAL iv. In Islam

    Hamid Algar

    In the handbooks of feqh that the detailed procedures for washing, enshrouding, praying over, and burying the dead are expounded, with little variation among the different schools of Islamic law.

  • BURIAL v. In Bahai Communities

    Vahid Rafati

    Bahai laws on burial are limited to a few basic principles that are binding on all Bahai communities around the world.


    Malcolm E. Yapp

    (1805-41), author of Travels into Bukhara (published in 1834), an account of his exploratory mission to Afghani­stan, Turkestan, and Iran.


    Clarisse Herrenschmidt

    (1801-52), virtually the founder of Iranian linguistics, as well as of the study of the history of Buddhism.


    Hermann Berger

    language spoken in Hunza-Karakorum, North Pakistan, containing some Iranian loanwords of various origins.





    Hormoz Farhat

    Būsalīk has remained a maqām in Arabian, Turkish, and Persian musical traditions to this day. As is often the case, however, the contemporary form of the maqām of Būsalīk differs from that which is given by the classical scholars. In Turkish music Būsalīk, or Puselik, defines a mode comparable to the aeolian of ecclesiastic modes.

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    Allan V. Williams

    demon of slothfulness and procrastination in Zoroastrianism.


    Jean Richard

    Genoese merchant and diplomat who served the il-khan Arḡūn (r. 1284-91). Buscarello belonged to a great family of Genoa that played an important role in the maritime trade of the city.  


    Xavier de Planhol, Moḥammad-Taqī Masʿūdīya

    (Ar. Būšahr, European spellings Bushire, Busheer, Bouchir), port city in southern Iran on the Persian Gulf. i. The city. ii. Music of Būšehr. 


    Bāqer ʿĀqelī

    MOʿĪN-AL-TOJJĀR (1859-1933), a merchant active in the Constitutional Revolution.  


    G. Michael Wickens

    in early sources referred to as Saʿdī-nāma, a moralistic and anecdotal verse work consisting of some 4,100 maṯnawī couplets by Shaikh Moṣleḥ-al-Dīn Saʿdī, completed in 1257. 


    Yuri Bregel

    ʿABD-AL-ʿAẒĪM SĀMĪ, poet and historian of Bukhara (b. ca. 1840, d. after 1914).


    Hūšang Aʿlam and Derek A. Scott

    any of a family (Otididae) of game birds of which three species, generally called hūbar(r)a in contemporary Persian, occur in Iran.


    Tilman Nagel

    (also Bowayhids, Buwaihids, etc.; Pers. Āl-e Būya), dynasty of Daylamite origin ruling over the southern and western part of Iran and over Iraq from the middle of the 4th/10th to the middle of the 5th/11th centuries.


    Maḥmūd Omīdsālār

    monkeys. Other names: meymūn (common), ʿantar (vulgar), kappī (Mid. Pers. kabīg, from Indian kapi). Two myths of the creation of monkeys exist in the Zoroastrian literature.