Table of Contents


    F. Daftary

    “planning.” Among the countries of the Middle East Iran has a relatively long history of economic development planning. By the time of the revolution in 1979, five development plans of various durations had been implemented in ran over a thirty-year period.



    See ČEŠTĪYA.

  • BARQ

    W. Floor and B. Hourcade, D. Balland

    The electrification of individual government build­ings appears to have begun during the reign of Nāṣer-al-­Dīn Shah with the state armory and the shah’s residence in Tehran It was only in 1900 that the first electrical plant (of 6,6 kw) was built in Iran, in the city of Mašhad.

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  • BARQ newspapers

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    (Lightning), the name of three Persian newspapers, 1910-17,  1943, 1950s.


    H. Schützinger

    B. MOḤAMMAD B. AḤMAD B. ḠĀLEB (948-1034), a traditionist (moḥaddeṯ), philologist, and lawyer of the Shafeʿite school.


    J. P. Asmussen

    Danish orientalist (1896-1970). Among his publications are an edition from F. C. Andreas’s papers of the Pahlavi Psalter fragments discovered at Turfan and a collaboration with A. Christensen and W. B. Henning to publish Andreas’s notes on Iranian dialects.


    G. Cardascia

    or bāru, an Iranian loanword designating a tax in Babylonian texts. The word appears nearly seventy times between 442 and 417 B.C. almost exclusively in tax receipts.


    N. Parvīn

    journal of historical studies of Iran, 1966-78. Some of the articles, particularly those bearing on the eighteenth and nineteenth cen­turies and descriptive geography, were well researched and original. The journal also published a number of historical documents.


    N. Sims-Williams

    legendary bishop of Marv and founder of the Christian church in eastern Iran. The only completely preserved versions of the legend are found in Arabic sources.


    A. Vööbus

    a 5th-century bishop of Nisibis. As a convinced Nestorian, he believed that the Persian church should follow this course, as it was in the interest of the Sasanian state to wean the church away from the West.