Table of Contents

  • BURIAL i. Pre-Historic Burial Sites

    Ezzatollah Negahban

    The earliest human skeletal remains found in Persia date from before the 8th millennium B.C. They have been excavated at several cave dwelling sites: Hotu Cave (Angel) and Belt Cave, both on the south­eastern shore of the Caspian Sea; Behistun (Bīsotūn) Cave near Kermānšāh; and Konjī and Arjana Caves in Luristan.

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  • BURIAL ii. Remnants of Burial Practices in Ancient Iran

    Frantz Grenet

    The burial practices of pre-Islamic Iran are known partly from archeological evidence, partly from the Zoroastrian scriptures, namely the Avesta and the later Pahlavi and Persian literature.

  • BURIAL iii. In Zoroastrianism

    James R. Russell

    Death being regarded as an evil brought about by Aŋra Mainyu, the Destructive Spirit, the corpse of a holy creature, particularly man or dog, is considered to be greatly infested by the druj Nasu.

  • BURIAL iv. In Islam

    Hamid Algar

    In the handbooks of feqh that the detailed procedures for washing, enshrouding, praying over, and burying the dead are expounded, with little variation among the different schools of Islamic law.

  • BURIAL v. In Bahai Communities

    Vahid Rafati

    Bahai laws on burial are limited to a few basic principles that are binding on all Bahai communities around the world.

  • BURNES, ALEXANDER

    Malcolm E. Yapp

    (1805-41), author of Travels into Bukhara (published in 1834), an account of his exploratory mission to Afghani­stan, Turkestan, and Iran.

  • BURNOUF, EUGÈNE

    Clarisse Herrenschmidt

    (1801-52), virtually the founder of Iranian linguistics, as well as of the study of the history of Buddhism.

  • BURUSHASKI

    Hermann Berger

    language spoken in Hunza-Karakorum, North Pakistan, containing some Iranian loanwords of various origins.

  • BURZĒNMIHR

    cross-reference

    See ĀDUR BURZĒNMIHR.

  • BŪSALĪK

    Hormoz Farhat

    Būsalīk has remained a maqām in Arabian, Turkish, and Persian musical traditions to this day. As is often the case, however, the contemporary form of the maqām of Būsalīk differs from that which is given by the classical scholars. In Turkish music Būsalīk, or Puselik, defines a mode comparable to the aeolian of ecclesiastic modes.

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  • BŪŠĀSP

    Allan V. Williams

    demon of slothfulness and procrastination in Zoroastrianism.

  • BUSCARELLO DE GHIZOLFI

    Jean Richard

    Genoese merchant and diplomat who served the il-khan Arḡūn (r. 1284-91). Buscarello belonged to a great family of Genoa that played an important role in the maritime trade of the city.  

  • BŪŠEHR

    Xavier de Planhol, Moḥammad-Taqī Masʿūdīya

    (Ar. Būšahr, European spellings Bushire, Busheer, Bouchir), port city in southern Iran on the Persian Gulf. i. The city. ii. Music of Būšehr. 

  • BŪŠEHRĪ, ḤĀJĪ MOḤAMMAD

    Bāqer ʿĀqelī

    MOʿĪN-AL-TOJJĀR (1859-1933), a merchant active in the Constitutional Revolution.  

  • BŪSTĀN

    G. Michael Wickens

    in early sources referred to as Saʿdī-nāma, a moralistic and anecdotal verse work consisting of some 4,100 maṯnawī couplets by Shaikh Moṣleḥ-al-Dīn Saʿdī, completed in 1257. 

  • BŪSTĀNĪ, MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD

    Yuri Bregel

    ʿABD-AL-ʿAẒĪM SĀMĪ, poet and historian of Bukhara (b. ca. 1840, d. after 1914).

  • BUSTARD

    Hūšang Aʿlam and Derek A. Scott

    any of a family (Otididae) of game birds of which three species, generally called hūbar(r)a in contemporary Persian, occur in Iran.

  • BUYIDS

    Tilman Nagel

    (also Bowayhids, Buwaihids, etc.; Pers. Āl-e Būya), dynasty of Daylamite origin ruling over the southern and western part of Iran and over Iraq from the middle of the 4th/10th to the middle of the 5th/11th centuries.

  • BŪZĪNA

    Maḥmūd Omīdsālār

    monkeys. Other names: meymūn (common), ʿantar (vulgar), kappī (Mid. Pers. kabīg, from Indian kapi). Two myths of the creation of monkeys exist in the Zoroastrian literature.

  • BŪZJĀNĪ, ABU’L-WAFĀʾ

    Cross-reference

    See ABU’L-WAFĀʾ BŪZJĀNĪ.

  • BŪZJĀNĪ, DARWĪŠ ʿALĪ

    Heshmat Moayyad

    (d. after 1522), a Sufi scholar of Khorasan attached to Aḥmad-e Jām.

  • BYRON, ROBERT

    Robert Irwin

    (1905-1941), British travel writer and amateur historian of architecture. 

  • BYZANTINE-IRANIAN RELATIONS

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    From the middle of the 1st century B.C. the Middle East was dominated by the political rivalries of the empires of Rome and Iran.  In 298 a treaty of peace had been signed between the Roman and Sasanian emperors; it lasted until after Constantine’s conversion to Christianity.

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  • BYZANTIUM

    Jack Martin Balcer

    (Byzantion): contact with the Achaemenids (ca. 513-439 BCE). The Greek polis of Byzantium, in the European province of Thrace (OPers. Skudra), played a pivotal role in the Greco-Persian wars.

  • Baktiāri karnā

    music sample

  • Baluchistan Ḏekr

    music sample

  • Banān - Kasi ke dar sar-e u

    music sample

  • Bastenegār

    music sample

  • Bayāt-e Kord

    music sample

  • Bayt Mahmud Kolāhpizah

    music sample

  • Bidād

    music sample

  • Bozorg

    music sample

  • Bayāt-e Tork 2

    music sample

  • B~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter B entries.