Table of Contents


    Žāla Āmuzgār

    maṯnawi by Anuširavān b. Marzbān Rāvari (17th century), who wrote poems on several subjects relating to the Zoroastrian religion and uses several Zoroastrian terms here.

  • BOROUGH, Christopher

    Parvin Loloi

    (fl. 1579-1587), English merchant and linguist who traveled to Russia and Persia as an interpreter with the sixth voyage by the Muscovy Company to establish trade with these countries.


    Bo Utas

    (ca. 1770-ca. 1838), Polish officer in the Persian army, said to have been fatally injured by a bullet in the abdomen during the second siege of Herat in 1837-38.


    Hamid Algar

    (Ar. Borqoʿī), AYATOLLAH ʿALĪ-AKBAR (b. 1900), religious leader of the postwar period to whom leftist tendencies were imputed and whose name became embroiled in a significant incident in Qom in January, 1953.



    See BORJ.


    Eckart Ehlers

    (or Barūjerd), town and šahrestān in the province of Lorestān in western Iran. It has always been a road and railway junction of great strategic importance.


    Multiple Authors

    town and sub-province in Lorestan Province in western Iran.

  • BORUJERD ii. Population, 1956-2011

    Mohammad Hossein Nejatian

    This article deals with the following population characteristics of Borujerd: population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Hamid Algar

    b. Moḥammad-Reżā Ḥosaynī, Shiʿite scholar of the Qajar period (d. ca. 1860); his main work was  a collection of chronograms on the deaths of famous transmitters of ḥadīṯ.


    Hamid Algar

    (1875-1961), AYATOLLAH ḤĀJJ ĀQĀ, director (zaʿīm) of the religious teaching institution (ḥawza) at Qom for seventeen years and sole marjaʿ-e taqlīd of the Shiʿite world for fifteen years.

  • Borumand - Daramads of šur

    music sample


    Bruno Nettl

    (1905-1977), one of the foremost authorities on the performance and history of Persian classical music in the 20th century.


    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (Pahlavi, lit. “deep affection”) one of the priests (mōbed) and scribes who served Ḵosrow I (r. 531-79).

  • BORZŪ-NĀMA (article 1)

    William L. Hanaway, Jr.

    an epic poem of ca. 65,000 lines recounting the exploits and adventures of the legendary hero Borzū, son of Sohrāb.

  • BORZU-NĀMA (article 2)

    Gabrielle van den Berg

    an epic poem named after its main hero, Borzu, son of Sohrāb and grandson of Rostam. The Borzu-nāma belongs to the cycle of epics dealing with the dynasty of the princes of Sistān.


    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (also transcribed Burzōē), a physician of the time of Ḵosrow I (r. 531-79) and responsible for a translation of the Pañcatantra from Sanskrit to Pahlavi, the Persian translation of which is known as the Kalīla wa Demna.


    Heshmat Moayyad

    (d. 1420s), FAḴR-AL-DĪN ḤALLĀJ ŠĪRĀZĪ, satirical poet who used Persian culinary vocabulary and imagery and kitchen terminology to create a novel style of poetry.


    Hamid Algar

    The Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina came to assimilate virtually all the cultural habits and interests of the Ottoman Turks; for the learned elite, this included an acquaintance with Persian language and literature.

  • BOŠRŪʾĪ, Mollā Moḥammad-Ḥosayn

    Denis M. MacEoin

    Shaikhi ʿālem who became the first convert to Babism, provincial Babi leader in Khorasan, and organizer of Babi resistance in Māzandarān (1814-49).

  • BOST

    Klaus Fischer, Xavier de Planhol

    archeological site and town located near the confluence of the Helmand and Arḡandāb rivers in southwest Afghanistan.