Table of Contents

  • BOMBAY PARSI PANCHAYAT

    John R. Hinnells

    the largest Zoroastrian institution in modern history, originally founded in the 17th century in order to maintain Zoroastrian family and social values at a time of dramatic change, when Parsis were migrating from rural Gujarat to cosmopolitan Bombay.

  • BONDĀR RĀZĪ

    Zabihollah Safa

    (or Pendār), poet in the 10th-11th centuries, named as the author of a small number of surviving poems, some in literary (Darī) Persian, others in his local dialect.

  • BONDĀRĪ, FATḤ B. ʿALĪ

    Cross-Reference

    b. Moḥammad EṢFAHĀNĪ. See SUPPLEMENT.

  • BONGĀH-E ḤEMĀYAT-E MĀDARĀN O KŪDAKĀN

    EIr

    (Institute for the protection of mothers and infants), founded 16 December 1940 on the order of Reżā Shah, originally funded by charitable contributions.

  • BONGĀH-E MOSTAQELL-E ĀBYĀRĪ

    EIr

    (Inde­pendent irrigation agency), established by the Majles on 19 May 1943 to improve irrigation in Iran.

  • BONGĀH-E TARJOMA WA NAŠR-E KETĀB

    Edward Joseph

    “The [Royal] Institute for Translation and Publication,” founded 1953, since 1986 called the Scientific and Cultural Publication Company (Šerkat-e Entešārāt-e ʿElmī wa Farhangī).

  • BONĪČA

    Willem Floor

    a tax assessed on a group as a single unit and particularly the base on which the tax was calculated—in Iran: a tax on guilds, an agricultural tax on villages and tribes, and a military tax on villages.

  • BONYĀD-E FARHANG-E ĪRĀN

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    The "Iranian Culture Foundation" was established 16 September 1964.

  • BONYĀD-E MOSTAŻʿAFĀN

    cross-reference

    See MOSTAZ­AFAN FOUNDATION.

  • BONYĀD-E PAHLAVĪ

    cross-reference

    See PAHLAVI FOUNDATION.

  • BONYĀD-E ŠĀH-NĀMA-YE FERDOWSĪ

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    a research institute, 1971-78,  intended for preparation of a new critical edition of the Šāh-nāma.

  • BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪD

    EIr

    The Bonyād officially started work on 9 April 1980. A decision taken by the Revolutionary Council on 13 June 1980 attached the Martyrs’ Foundation to the National Health Organization (Sāzmān-e Behzīstī-e Keš­var), itself administered under the supervision of the prime minister.

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  • BOOK OF ZAMBASTA

    Ronald E. Emmerick

    a Khotanese poem on Buddhism. It is the longest indigenous literary compo­sition in the Khotanese language and played a crucial role in the decipherment of the Khotanese language.

  • BOOKBINDING (article 1)

    Duncan Haldane

    (tajlīd, ṣaḥḥāfī) in Iran at first followed the pattern of previous Near Eastern book covers, but subsequently Persian craftsmen developed new types.

  • BOOKBINDING (article 2)

    Iraj Afshar

    (ṣaḥḥāfi, jeld-sāzi), the traditional craft of binding new books and decorating the cover with embossed or painted designs, or of repairing worn out volumes by restoring their cover.

  • BOQʿA

    Hamid Algar

    the mausoleum of a sacred or revered personage, sometimes taken to include additional structures adjoining the tomb or the open space surrounding it.

  • BORAGE

    cross-reference

    See GĀV-ZABĀN.

  • BŌRĀN

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    (Pers. Pōrān, Pūrān), Sasanian queen ca. 630-31, daughter of Ḵosrow II (r. 590, 591-628). There are extant coins of Bōrān dated from the first, second, and third years of her reign.

  • BORĀQ

    Bertold Spuler

    ruler of the Chaghatay khanate in Transoxiana (1266-71), a great-grandson of Jengiz Khan and a son of Yesün-Toʾa.

  • BORĀQ, ḤĀJEB

    cross-reference

    See QOṬLOQḴĀNĪYA (Kermān).