Table of Contents

  • BLACK SEA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    an almost entirely landlocked sea (lat 40°55’ to 46°32’ N, long 27°27’ to 41°42’ E). Its surface is more than 423,000 km2, and its maximum depth is 2,244 m. In this article only the Achaemenid period is considered.

  • BLACK SHEEP DYNASTY

    Forthcoming

    Forthcoming online.

  • BLEEDING

    Cross-Reference

    See BLOODLETTING.

  • BLOCHET (Gabriel Joseph) EDGARD

    Francis Richard

    French orientalist (1870-1937). His published works include editions and catalogues of manuscripts in Arabic and Turkish, but his main focus was the Iranian world.

  • BLOCHMANN, HEINRICH FERDINAND

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (also Henry), a German orientalist and scholar of Persian language and literature who spent most of his career in India (1838-1878).

  • BLOOD TRANSFUSION SERVICES IN IRAN

    Ali Ameri

    A centralized, state-funded organization was established in 1974 for the recruitment of safe, voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors and the subsequent collection, testing, processing, and distribution of blood and blood products to hospitals.

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  • BLOODLETTING

    Willem Floor

    (Ar.-Pers. ḥejāmat, faṣd; Pers. ragzanī, ḵūn gereftan), a common medical treatment throughout Iranian history, though applied only in exceptional circumstances by modern medical practi­tioners.

  • BOAR

    Paul Joslin

    (Sus scrofa, Pers. gorāz). The wild boar is found in a broad cross-section of habitats and has a range that extends over much of Europe and Asia.

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  • BOARD GAMES in pre-Islamic Persia

    Ulrich Schädler and Anne-Elizabeth Dunn-Vaturi

    Aside from chess and backgammon, due to the perishable nature of the material, such as textile, leather, and wood, which was used in making the artifacts, as well as because of the fact that often the games were simply drawn on the ground, evidence is lacking in most cases, but many of them are still played nowadays.

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  • BOČĀQČĪ

    Pierre Oberling

    a Turkic tribe of Sīrjān in Kermān province.

  • BODHISATTVA

    Werner Sundermann

    in the Middle Iranian languages. The Sanskrit word Bodhisat(t)va, literally a being (blessed with) understanding, designates someone des­tined for Buddhahood later in life or in a future existence.

  • BŌĒ

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    (Gk. Boēs), the name of two of Kavād’s (r. 488-­96 and 498-531) generals.

  • BOḠĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See BŪQĀ.

  • BOḠRĀ KHAN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    , ABŪ MŪSĀ HĀRŪN, the first Qarakhanid khan to invade the Samanid emirate from the steppes to the north in the 990s.

  • BOHLŪL

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    a weekly comic illustrated paper, published in Tehran from 1911.

  • BOHLŪL, ABŪ WOHAYB

    Ulrich Marzolph

    , b. ʿAmr b. Moḡīra Majnūn Kūfī (d. ca. 805), variously cited in later Persian literature as Bohlūl-e majnūn (Bohlūl the fool) or Bohlūl-e dānā (Bohlūl the wise), the archetype of the "wise fool"  genre.

  • BOHRĀS

    cross-reference

     See ISMAʿILISM xvi. MODERN ISMAʿILI COMMUNITIES.

  • BOḤŪR AL-ALḤĀN

    Taqī Bīneš, Jean During

    (Meters of melodies), a treatise on Persian music and prosody by Sayyed Mīrzā Moḥammad-Naṣīr Forṣat Šīrāzī (1855-1920).

  • BOIR AḤMADĪ

    Reinhold Loeffler, Gernot L. Windfuhr

    the largest of the six tribal groups of Kūhgīlūya, inhabiting the mountainous territory from east of Behbahān and north of Dogonbadān to the Kūh-e Denā range in the northeast, an area of some 2,500 sq miles.

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  • BOJNŪRD

    Eckart Ehlers, C. Edmund Bosworth

    a town and district in Khorasan. i. The town and district. ii. History. The town (1976: 47,719 inhabitants; lat  37°29’ N, long 57°17’ E)  is situated at the foot of the Ālādāḡ.