Table of Contents

  • BĀBIRUŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See BABYLON.

  • BABISM

    D. M. MacEoin

    a 19th-century messianic movement in Iran and Iraq under the overall charismatic leadership of Sayyed ʿAlī-Moḥammad Šīrāzī, the Bāb (1819-1850). Babism was the only significant millenarian movement in Shiʿite Islam during the 19th century.

  • BĀBŌĒ

    A. Vööbus

    catholicos (d. 481 or 484), orthodox leader of the Christian church in Iran under Pērōz, one of Barṣaumā’s chief opponents. 

  • BĀBOL

    X. de Planhol, S. Blair

    town in Māzandarān, occupying a central position in the coastal plain. i. The town.  ii. Islamic monuments.

  • BĀBOLSAR

    X. de Planhol

    town on the Caspian coast in the province of Māzandarān.

  • BĀBOR

    M. E. Subtelny

    Timurid prince (1422-1457), the youngest son of Bāysonqor and a great-grandson of the conqueror Tīmūr.

  • BĀBOR, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    F. Lehmann

    (1483-1530), Timurid prince, military genius, and literary craftsman, founder of the Mughal Empire in India.

  • BĀBORĪ

    D. Balland

    (or Bābor, Bābar; sing. Bāboray), a Paṧtūn tribe originally from the Solaymān mountains, now widely dispersed.

  • BABR

    P. Joslin

    “tiger.” The little evidence suggests only tentative differences between the Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) and the Indian tiger (P. t. tigris) or the Siberian tiger (P. t. altaica).

  • BABR-E BAYĀN

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (or babr, also called palangīna), in the traditional history, the name of the coat which Rostam wore in combat.

  • BABYLON

    G. Cardascia

    :  under the Achaemenids. The economic and cultural history of Babylon under Persian rule matched the vicissitudes of its political life.

  • BABYLONIA

    Multiple Authors

    ancient state in southern Mesopotamia, present-day Iraq.

  • BABYLONIA i. History of Babylonia in the Median and Achaemenid periods

    M. A. Dandamayev

    The Medes, under their king Cyaxares, first seized the Assyrian province of Arrapha in 614 B.C. Then, in the autumn of the same year, and after a fierce battle, they gained control of Assyria’s ancient capital, Assur. Nabopolassar brought his Babylonian army and joined the Medes after Assur had fallen.

  • BABYLONIA ii. Babylonian Influences on Iran

    G. Gnoli

    In the Achaemenid period, the influence of Babylonia was strong in the fields of the arts, science, religion, and religious policies, even affecting the concept of kingship.

  • BABYLONIAN CHRONICLES

    M. Dandamayev

    as sources for Iranian history. In a number of cases Babylonian chronicles provide valuable information about the political history of Iran. They began with the reign of Nabu-nāṣir (747-734 BCE) and continued as far as the reign of Seleucus II (245-226 BCE).

  • BAČČA-YE SAQQĀ

    D. Balland

    “the water-carrier’s child,” the derogatory name given to the leader of a peasants’ revolt which succeeded in placing him on the throne of Afghanistan in 1929.

  • BACHER, WILHELM

    A. Netzer

    (1850-1913), Hungarian scholar of Persian and Judeo-Persian language and literature.

  • BACKGAMMON

    Cross-Reference

    See NARD.

  • BACTRA

    Cross-Reference

    See BACTRIA i; BALKH vi.

  • BACTRIA

    P. Leriche, F. Grenet

    Little information has been obtained from Achaemenid sites in Bactria. Bactra is deeply buried under the citadel (bālā-ḥeṣār) of present-day Balḵ. Drapsaca and Aornos, mentioned by the historians of Alexander, are usually identified with Kondūz and Tashkurgan, where excavations have yet to begin.

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