Table of Contents

  • BAAT

    N. Sims-Williams, J. Russell

    Middle Iranian personal name, borrowed in Armenian. i. Baat in Iranian sources. ii. Armenian Bat. Baat is the name of a disciple of Mani mentioned several times in the Coptic “crucifixion narrative.”

  • BĀB (1)

    D. M. MacEoin

    “door, gate, entrance,” a term of varied application in Shiʿism and related movements.

  • BĀB (2)

    H. Algar

    Title given to certain Sufi shaikhs of Central Asia.

  • BĀB AL-ABWĀB

    cross-reference

    Ancient city in Dāḡestān on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, located at the entrance to the narrow pass between the Caucasus foothills and the sea. See DARBAND (1).

  • BĀB AL-BĀB

    cross-reference

    Shaikhi ʿālem who became the first convert to Babism, provincial Babi leader in Khorasan, and organizer of Babi resistance in Māzandarān (1814-49). See BOŠRŪʾĪ.

  • BĀB, ʿAli Moḥammad Širāzi

    D. M. MacEoin

    the founder of Babism (1819-1850).

  • BĀB-E FARḠĀNĪ

    cross-reference

    title given to certain Sufi shaikhs of Central Asia. See BĀB (2).

  • BĀB-E HOMĀYŪN

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    Sardar Almāsīya was renamed Bāb-e Homāyūn and rebuilt as a two-storied structure. The lower level was partly dressed with ashlar masonry and partly faced with glazed tiles of brilliant colors. Access was gained through a large gateway crowned by a round arch and flanked by arcades, porticoes and guardrooms.

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  • BĀB-E MĀČĪN

    cross-reference

    title given to certain Sufi shaikhs of Central Asia. See BĀB (2).

  • BĀBĀ AFŠĀR

    cross-reference

    , MĪRZĀ. See ḤAKĪMBĀŠĪ.

  • BĀBĀ AFŻAL-AL-DĪN

    William Chittick

    poet and author of philosophical works in Persian (d. ca. 1213-14).

  • BĀBĀ BEG

    cross-reference

    See JŪYĀ.

  • BĀBĀ FAḠĀNI

    Z. Safa

    Persian poet of the 15th-16th centuries.

  • BĀBĀ FARĪD

    Cross-Reference

    a major Shaikh of the Češtīya mystic order, born in the last quarter of the 12th century in Kahtwāl near Moltān, Punjab. See GANJ-E ŠAKAR, Farid-al-Din Masʿud.

  • BĀBĀ ḤĀTEM

    A. S. Melikian-Chirvani

    11th-century mausoleum in northern Afghanistan, some 40 miles west of Balḵ. It follows the simple plan of the earliest Islamic mausoleums in the Iranian world—a single square room with a cupola resting on squinches.

  • BĀBĀ JĀN ḴORĀSĀNI

    Priscilla Soucek

    16th-century calligrapher, poet, and craftsman.

  • BĀBĀ JĀN TEPE

    R. C. Henrickson

    an archeological site in northeastern Luristan (34° north latitude, 47° 56’ east longitude), on the southern edge of the Delfān plain at approximately 10 km from Nūrābād, important primarily for excavations of first-millennium B.C. levels conducted by C. Goff from 1966-69.

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  • BĀBĀ KUHI

    M. Kasheff

    popular name of Shaikh Abū ʿAbdallāh Moḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh b. ʿObaydallāh Bākūya Šīrāzī, Sufi of the 10th-11th centuries.

  • BĀBĀ ŠAMAL

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    weekly satirical periodical, 1943-45, founded by Reżā Ganjaʾī. It was impartially opposed to all foreign intervention and influence in Iran.

  • BĀBĀ SAMMĀSĪ

    H. Algar

    , ḴᵛĀJA MOḤAMMAD (d. 1354), Central Asian Sufi of the line known as selsela-ye ḵᵛājagān (line of the masters).

  • BĀBĀ SANKŪ

    H. Algar

    ecstatic Central Asian dervish of disorderly habits, contemporary with Timur (d. 1405) and one of several Sufis with whom Timur chose to associate for reasons of state.

  • BĀBĀ SHAH ESFAHĀNI

    Pricilla Soucek

    calligrapher and poet who lived in Isfahan and Baghdad where he died in 1587-88. He was famous as a writer of the nastaʿlīq script.

  • BĀBĀ ṬĀHER ʿORYĀN

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    medieval dervish poet from the area of Hamadān, best known for his do-baytīs, quatrains composed  in a simpler meter still widely used for popular verse.

  • BĀBĀ-YE DEHQĀN

    Anna Krasnowolska

    a mythological and ritual character whose cult has been reported in agrarian communities of mountainous and lowland Tajikistan, northern Afghanistan, and adjacent countries.

  • BĀBĀʾĪ BEN FARHĀD

    Amnon Netzer

    18th-century author of a versified history of the Jews of Kāšān with brief references to the Jews of Isfahan and one or two other towns.

  • BĀBĀʾĪ BEN LOṬF

    Amnon Netzer

    Jewish poet and historian of Kāšān during the first half of the 17th century (d. after 1662).

  • BĀBĀʾĪ BEN NŪRĪʾEL

    Amnon Netzer

    rabbi (ḥāḵām) from Isfahan;  at the behest of Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1736-47), he translated the Pentateuch and the Psalms of David from Hebrew into Persian.

  • BABĀJĀʾĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See KURDISTAN TRIBES.

  • BĀBAK (1)

    R. N. Frye

    (Mid. Pers. Pāpak, Pābag), a ruler of Fārs at the beginning of the third century, father of Ardašīr, the founder of the Sasanian dynasty.  

  • BĀBAK

    Touraj Daryaee

    reformer of the Sasanian military and in charge of the department of the warriors (Diwān al-moqātela) during the reign of Ḵosrow I Anušervān in the 6th century CE. 

  • BĀBAK ḴORRAMI

    Ḡ. -Ḥ. Yūsofī

    leader of the Ḵorramdīnī or Ḵorramī uprising in Azerbaijan in the early 9th century (d. 838), which engaged the forces of the caliph for 20 years before it was crushed in 837.

  • BĀBAKĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See ḴORRAMĪS.

  • BABAN

    C. E. Bosworth

    (or Bavan), a small town in the medieval Islamic province of Bāḏḡīs, to the north and west of Herat.

  • BĀBĀN

    W. Behn

    (or Baban), Kurdish princely family in Solaymānīya, ruling an area in Iraqi Kurdistan and western Iran (17th—19th centuries) and actively involved in the Perso-Ottoman struggles.

  • BĀBĀN DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E BĀBĀN.

  • BĀBAY

    A. Vööbus

    catholicos of the Persian Church elected at the synod at Seleucia in 497 (d. 502).

  • BĀBAY OF NISIBIS

    N. Sims-Williams

    Christian Syriac writer who flourished about the beginning of the seventh century CE; a homily of his is attested in Sogdian.

  • BĀBAY THE GREAT

    A. Vööbus

    (d. 628), abbot and prominent leader in the Nestorian church in Iran under Ḵosrow II.

  • BĀBEL

    Cross-Reference

    See BABYLON.

  • BABILLA, ASHUR BANIPAL IBRAHIM

    Khosro Shayesteh

    In acting also, just as did Artaud, Bani placed heavy emphasis on invoking deeply rooted feelings of the actors and argued that “while actors are wearing masks in their daily lives, in theater, these masks are torn off and we are facing the inner self of the actor.”

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  • BĀBIRUŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See BABYLON.

  • BABISM

    D. M. MacEoin

    a 19th-century messianic movement in Iran and Iraq under the overall charismatic leadership of Sayyed ʿAlī-Moḥammad Šīrāzī, the Bāb (1819-1850). Babism was the only significant millenarian movement in Shiʿite Islam during the 19th century.

  • BĀBŌĒ

    A. Vööbus

    catholicos (d. 481 or 484), orthodox leader of the Christian church in Iran under Pērōz, one of Barṣaumā’s chief opponents. 

  • BĀBOL

    X. de Planhol, S. Blair

    town in Māzandarān, occupying a central position in the coastal plain. i. The town.  ii. Islamic monuments.

  • BĀBOLSAR

    X. de Planhol

    town on the Caspian coast in the province of Māzandarān.

  • BĀBOR

    M. E. Subtelny

    Timurid prince (1422-1457), the youngest son of Bāysonqor and a great-grandson of the conqueror Tīmūr.

  • BĀBOR, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    F. Lehmann

    (1483-1530), Timurid prince, military genius, and literary craftsman, founder of the Mughal Empire in India.

  • BĀBORĪ

    D. Balland

    (or Bābor, Bābar; sing. Bāboray), a Paṧtūn tribe originally from the Solaymān mountains, now widely dispersed.

  • BABR

    P. Joslin

    “tiger.” The little evidence suggests only tentative differences between the Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) and the Indian tiger (P. t. tigris) or the Siberian tiger (P. t. altaica).

  • BABR-E BAYĀN

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (or babr, also called palangīna), in the traditional history, the name of the coat which Rostam wore in combat.

  • BABYLON

    G. Cardascia

    :  under the Achaemenids. The economic and cultural history of Babylon under Persian rule matched the vicissitudes of its political life.

  • BABYLONIA

    Multiple Authors

    ancient state in southern Mesopotamia, present-day Iraq.

  • BABYLONIA i. History of Babylonia in the Median and Achaemenid periods

    M. A. Dandamayev

    The Medes, under their king Cyaxares, first seized the Assyrian province of Arrapha in 614 B.C. Then, in the autumn of the same year, and after a fierce battle, they gained control of Assyria’s ancient capital, Assur. Nabopolassar brought his Babylonian army and joined the Medes after Assur had fallen.

  • BABYLONIA ii. Babylonian Influences on Iran

    G. Gnoli

    In the Achaemenid period, the influence of Babylonia was strong in the fields of the arts, science, religion, and religious policies, even affecting the concept of kingship.

  • BABYLONIAN CHRONICLES

    M. Dandamayev

    as sources for Iranian history. In a number of cases Babylonian chronicles provide valuable information about the political history of Iran. They began with the reign of Nabu-nāṣir (747-734 BCE) and continued as far as the reign of Seleucus II (245-226 BCE).

  • BAČČA-YE SAQQĀ

    D. Balland

    “the water-carrier’s child,” the derogatory name given to the leader of a peasants’ revolt which succeeded in placing him on the throne of Afghanistan in 1929.

  • BACHER, WILHELM

    A. Netzer

    (1850-1913), Hungarian scholar of Persian and Judeo-Persian language and literature.

  • BACKGAMMON

    Cross-Reference

    See NARD.

  • BACTRA

    Cross-Reference

    See BACTRIA i; BALKH vi.

  • BACTRIA

    P. Leriche, F. Grenet

    Little information has been obtained from Achaemenid sites in Bactria. Bactra is deeply buried under the citadel (bālā-ḥeṣār) of present-day Balḵ. Drapsaca and Aornos, mentioned by the historians of Alexander, are usually identified with Kondūz and Tashkurgan, where excavations have yet to begin.

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  • BACTRIAN LANGUAGE

    N. Sims-Williams

    the Iranian language of ancient Bactria (northern Afghanistan), attested by coins, seals, and inscriptions of the Kushan period (first to third centuries A.D.) and the following centuries and by a few later manuscript fragments. Bactrian is the only Middle Iranian language whose writing system is based on the Greek alphabet, a fact ultimately attributable to Alexander’s conquest of Bactria and to the maintenance of Greek rule for some 200 years after his death (323 B.C.).

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  • BĀD (1)

    X. de Planhol

    “wind.” On the plateau of Iran and Afghanistan winds depend on a general regime of atmospheric pressures characterized, in the course of the year, by the succession of markedly distinct seasons with relatively stable barometric gradients.

  • BĀD (2)

    L. Richter-Bernburg

    (“wind”) in Perso-Islamic medicine: 1. wind as a medically relevant environmental factor; 2. “airiness” as internal physiological and pathological agent.

  • BADʾ WAʾL-TAʾRĪḴ

    M. Morony

    (The book of creation and history), an encyclopedic compilation of religious, historical, and philosophical knowledge written in Arabic by Abū Naṣr Moṭahhar b. al-Moṭahhar (or Ṭāher) Maqdesī in 966.

  • BĀDA

    J. W. Clinton

    one of several terms used in Persian poetry to mean wine, and, by extension, any intoxicating liquor.  

  • BADĀʾ

    W. Madelung

    (Ar. appearance, emergence), as a theological term denotes a change of a divine decision or ruling in response to the emergence of new circumstances.  It is upheld in Imami Shiʿite doctrine.

  • BADAḴŠĀN

    X. de Planhol, D. Balland, W. Eilers

    This highland has an extremely harsh climate. The annual rainfall, which can be as much as 800 to 1,500 mm on west-facing and northwest-facing massifs, falls to less than 200 mm on sheltered plateaus in the Pamir and less than 100 mm in the Oksu basin, with the result that these areas are highland deserts.

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  • BADAḴŠĪ SAMARQANDĪ

    Z. Safa

    the poet laureate (malek-al-šoʿarāʾ) of the Timurid Mīrzā Uluḡ Beg (murdered 1449).

  • BADAḴŠĪ, MOLLĀ SHAH

    H. Algar

    (also known as Shah Moḥammad; 1584-1661), a mystic and writer of the Qāderī order, given both to the rigorous practice of asceticism and to the ecstatic proclamation of theopathic sentiment.

  • BADAL

    Cross-Reference

    See PAṦTŪNWĀLĪ.

  • BĀDĀM

    X. de Planhol, N. Ramazani

    “almond.”  i. General.  ii. As food.  The genus Amygdalus is very common in Iran and Afghanistan and throughout the Turco-Iranian area.

  • BĀDĀN B. SĀSĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ABNĀʾ.

  • BĀDĀN PĪRŪZ

    Cross-Reference

    See ARDABĪL.

  • BADAŠT

    M. Momen

    small village of about 1,000 inhabitants, site of a conference  convened on the instructions of the Bāb in 1848.

  • BADĀʾŪNĪ, ʿABD-AL-QĀDER

    A. S. Bazmee Ansari

    (1540-ca. 1615), polyglot man of letters, historian, and translator of Arabic and Sanskrit works into Persian during the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar.

  • BĀDĀVARD

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (windfall), the name of one of the seven treasures of Ḵosrow Parvēz in the Šāh-nāma.

  • BADĀYEʿ

    Cross-Reference

    collection of ḡazals by Saʿdī. See SAʿDĪ.

  • BADĀYEʿNEGĀR, ĀQĀ MOḤAMMAD-EBRĀHĪM

    Cross-Reference

    See NAWWĀB-E TEHRĀNĪ.

  • BAḎḎ

    Ḡ. -Ḥ. Yūsofī

    or BAḎḎAYN (perhaps two places), a mountainous region (kūra) in Azerbaijan, site of the castle  headquarters of Bābak Ḵorramī during his revolt against the ʿAbbasid caliphate (816-37).

  • BĀDENJĀN

    F. Aubaile-Sallenave, ʿE. Elāhī

    “eggplant, aubergine.” Solanum melogena L. of the Solanaceae family. i. The plant.  ii. Uses of cooking.

  • BĀDGĪR

    S. Roaf

    (wind-tower), literally “wind catcher,” a traditional structure used for passive air-conditioning of buildings. Yazd is known as šahr-e bādgīrhā (the city of wind catchers) and is renowned for the number and variety of them, some of which date from the Timurid period.

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  • BĀḎḠĪS

    C. E. Bosworth, D. Balland

    During the first century of Islam, Bāḏḡīs passed into Arab hands, together with Herat and Pūšang, around 652-53, under the caliph ʿOṯmān, for already in that year there is mentioned a rebellion against the Arabs by an Iranian noble Qāren, followed by further unrest in these regions in 661-62.

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  • BĀDHĀ ḴABAR AZ TAḠYIR-e FAṢL MIDĀDAND

    Soheila Saremi

    (The winds presaged the changing of season), a novel by the eminent fiction writer and literary critic, Jamal Mirsadeqi. Set in the 1960s in Tehran and revolves around the turbulent life of Ḥamid, the novel’s narrator, and his cast of friends and neighbors of poverty-stricken families.

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  • BADĪʿ (1)

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    rhetorical embellishment. During the early Islamic period the word developed into a technical term through its use in discussions about Arabic poetry and ornate prose.

  • BADĪʿ (2)

    D. M. MacEoin

    designation of the calendar system of Babism and Bahaism, originally introduced by the Bāb.

  • BADĪʿ BALḴĪ

    Z. Safa

    Persian poet of the 10th century.

  • BADĪʿ KĀTEB JOVAYNĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-Reference

    See KĀTEB JOVAYNĪ.

  • BADĪʿ, ĀQĀ BOZORG

    M. Momen

    (d. 1869), a young Bahai martyr who has gained a certain distinction in Bahai lore.

  • BADĪʿ-AL-ZAMĀN

    M. E. Subtelny

    (d. ca. 1514), Timurid prince, who rebelled against his father,  Sultan Ḥosayn Bāyqarā (r. Herat 1469-1506).

  • BADĪʿ-AL-ZAMĀN HAMADĀNĪ

    F. Malti-Douglas

    (968-1008), Arabic belle-lettrist and inventor of the maqāma genre. His maqāmāt are a set of adventures narrated in rhymed prose and poetry, revolving around a rogue hero and a narrator.

  • BADĪʿ-AL-ZAMĀN MĪRZĀ

    R. D. McChesney

    by most accounts the last of the Chaghatay/Timurid rulers of Badaḵšān (d. ca. 1603). 

  • BADĪʿ-AL-ZAMĀN NAṬANZĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ADĪB NAṬANZĪ.

  • BADĪHA-SARĀʾĪ

    F. R. C. Bagley

    composition and utterance of something improvised (badīh), usually in verse. Among the Arabs, poetic improvisation was practiced and admired from pre-Islamic times. Among the Iranians, it has been a mark of poetical talent and skill.

  • BADĪLĪ, AḤMAD

    H. Algar

    , SHAIKH, a Sufi shaikh in 12th-century Sabzavār, renowned for his mastery of the exoteric as well as the esoteric science. 

  • BĀDKŪBA

    Cross-Reference

    See BAKU.

  • BĀDPĀYĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ARTHROPODS.

  • BADR ČĀČĪ

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    a Persian poet of the 14th century, born in the town or district of Čāč (also written Šāš) in Transoxiana.

  • BADR JĀJARMĪ

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    a 13th-century poet popular in his own time for his rhetorical skills.

  • BADR KHAN

    Cross-Reference

    See BEDIR KHAN.

  • BADR-AL-DĪN EBRĀHĪM

    S. I. Baevskiĭ

    author of the Persian dictionary Farhang-e zafāngūyā wa jahānpūyā (The eloquent and world-seeking dictionary) composed in India in the late 14th or early 15th century.

  • BADR-AL-DĪN SERHENDĪ

    Y. Friedmann

    (b. ca. 1593-94), a Sufi author, translator, and disciple of Aḥmad Serhendī.

  • BADR-AL-DĪN TABRĪZĪ

    H. Crane

    architect and savant active in Konya in Anatolia during the third quarter of the 13th century. 

  • BĀDRANG

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀLANG; CITRUS FRUITS.

  • BADRĪ KAŠMĪRĪ

    Z. Safa

    Persian poet in India in the second half of the 16th century.

  • BĀDRŪDI

    E. Yarshater

    one of the local dialects of the Kāšān region, spoken in Bādrūd, a dehestān (rural district) of Naṭanz.

  • BĀDŪSPĀN

    X. de Planhol

    in medieval geography, a mountainous district of northern Iran on the Caspian side of the Alborz mountains, in Ṭabarestān (Māzandarān).

  • BADUSPANIDS

    W. Madelung

    a dynasty ruling Rūyān and Rostamdār from the late 11th to the 16th century with the title of ostandār and later of king.

  • BĀFQ

    C. E. Bosworth

    a small oasis town of central Iran (altitude 1,004 m) on the southern fringe of the Dašt-e Kavīr, 100 km southeast of Yazd in the direction of Kermān.

  • BĀFQĪ, MOḤAMMAD-TAQĪ

    H. Algar

    , AYATOLLAH (1875-1946), a religious scholar known for his forthright opposition to Reżā Shah Pahlavī.

  • BĀḠ (BAGH)

    Multiple Authors

    “garden.”  In Iranian agriculture, the word bāḡ means, more precisely, an enclosed area bearing permanent cultures— all kinds of cultivated trees and shrubs, as opposed to fields under annual crops.

  • BĀḠ i. Etymology

    W. Eilers

    Bāḡ, the Middle and New Persian word for “garden,” as also the Sogdian βāγ, strictly meant “piece” or “patch of land.”

  • BĀḠ ii. General

    M. Bazin

    Whatever the water source may be, the gardens are usually clustered together close to the head-race of the irrigation network, around the village or just below it. This location allows to irrigate them as frequently as possible, every six to twelve days in the hot season, whereas the fields lying underneath are much less often irrigated.

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  • BĀḠ iii. In Persian Literature

    W. L. Hanaway

    Bāḡ appears both as an object of description and as the prime source of nature imagery in Persian literature. 

  • BĀḠ iv. In Afghanistan

    N. H. Dupree

    The people inhabiting this land have cherished all forms of gardens, which have become an integral part of Afghan culture.

  • BAG NASK

    P. O. Skjærvø

    one of the Avestan nasks of the gāhānīg group, that is, texts connected with the Gāθās; it is now lost almost in its entirety. This nask is listed in the survey of the Avesta in Dēnkard 8.1.9.

  • BĀḠ-E BĀLĀ

    cross-reference

    See BĀḠ iv.

  • BĀḠ-E ERAM

    K. Afsar

    a famous and beautiful garden at Shiraz. Its site was formerly on the northwestern fringe of the city but is now well inside the greatly expanded urban area.

  • BĀḠ-E FĪN

    ʿA.-A. Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    garden southwest of the city of Kāšān, where subterranean waters from the Dandāna and Haft Kotal mountains emerge to form the Fīn springs.

  • BĀḠ-E JAHĀNNĀMA

    cross-reference

    See SHIRAZ.

  • BĀḠ-E PĪRŪZĪ

    Ḡ.-Ḥ. Yūsofī

    “Garden of Triumph,” a garden constructed in Ḡazna by Sultan Maḥmūd (r. 998-1030), no longer extant.

  • BĀḠ-E ŠĀH

    ʿA.-A. Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    (the king’s garden). In the mid-Qajar period, the site was a broad, circular field about 1,000 m in diameter situated on the outskirts of the city and devoted to horseback riding and racing.

  • BĀḠ-E SALṬANATĀBĀD

    cross-reference

    See SALṬANATĀBĀD.

  • BAGA

    H. W. Bailey, N. Sims-Williams, St. Zimmer

    an Old Iranian term for “god,” sometimes designating a specific god. i. General. ii. In Old and Middle Iranian. iii. The use of baga in names.

  • BAGABUXŠA

    cross-reference

    See MEGABYZUS.

  • BAGĀN YAŠT

    P. O. Skjærvø

    (1) one of the dādīg (legal) nasks of the Avesta, which contained descriptions of Ahura Mazdā and the other gods; (2) name of Yasna 19-21 of the Avesta.

  • BAGARAN

    R. H. Hewsen

    (lit. “the god’s place”; Turk. Pakran), a town founded by the Armenian King Orontes (Eruand) II (ca. 212-ca. 200 B.C.) to house the images of the gods and the royal ancestors.

  • BAḠAVĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    H. Schützinger

    ʿALĪ B. ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ B. MARZBĀN B. SĀBŪR, traditionist (moḥaddeṯ) and philologist in the 9th century.

  • BAGAWAN (1)

    H. R. Hewsen

    (Arm. Baguan or Aṭʿši Bagawan), ancient district lying along the right bank of the Araxes river and corresponding to the northeastern part of Iranian Azerbaijan.

  • BAGAWAN (2)

    R. H. Hewsen

    an ancient locality in central Armenia situated at the foot of Mount Npat (Gk. Niphates, Turk. Tapa-seyd) in the principality of Bagrewand west of modern Diyadin.

  • BĀGAYĀDIŠ

    R. Schmitt

    name of the seventh month (September-October) of the Old Persian calendar, mentioned in Darius I’s Behistun inscription.

  • BAGAYAṞIČ

    R. H. Hewsen

    site of the great temple of Mihr (Mithras), one of the eight principal pagan shrines of pre-Christian Armenia, traditionally built by Tigranes II the Great (r. 95-56 B.C.).

  • BAGAZUŠTA

    R. Schmitt

    Old Iranian personal name *Baga-zušta- “beloved of the god(s)” attested in the Achaemenid period and after.

  • BAḠDĀD

    cross-reference

    See BAGHDAD.

  • BAḠDĀDI FAMILY

    Kamran Ekbal

    designation of an Arab family of a Bābi, Shaikh Moḥammad Šebl, and his Bahai progeny, his son Moḥammad-Moṣṭafā Baḡdādi, and the latter’s sons, Żiāʾ Mabsuṭ Baḡdādi and Ḥosayn Eqbāl.

  • BAḠDĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-QĀHER

    J. van Ess

    B. ṬĀHER ŠĀFEʿĪ TAMĪMĪ (ca. 961-1038), mathematician, Shafeʿite jurist, and Asḥʿarite theologian.

  • BAḠDĀDĪ, ABU’L-FAŻL

    H. Algar

    (d. 1155), Sufi whose name appears in the initiatic chain of the Neʿmatallāhī order.

  • BAḠDĀDĪ, BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN

    cross-reference

    See BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN BAḠDĀDĪ.

  • BAḠDĀDĪ, ḴĀLED ŻĪĀʾ-AL-DĪN

    H. Algar

    , MAWLĀNĀ (1779-1827), the founder of a significant branch of the Naqšbandī Sufi order that has had a profound impact on his native Kurdistan and beyond.

  • BAGHDAD i. The Iranian Connection: Before the Mongol Invasion

    H. Kennedy

    Baghdad, whose official name was originally Madīnat-al-Salām, the City of Peace, was founded in 762 by the second ʿAbbasid caliph, Abū Jaʿfar al-Manṣūr as his official capital.

  • BAGHDAD ii. From the Mongol Invasion to the Ottoman Occupation

    ʿAbbās Zaryāb

    The Persian influence had increased in recent decades through Iranian viziers and officials serving the caliphs, the rise of Shiʿite power and their theological literature.

  • BAGHDAD PACT

    J. A. Kechichian

    popular name for the 1955 pro-Western defense alliance between Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom.

  • BAGINA

    F. Grenet

    reconstructed Old Iranian word for a temple housing a cult image; and BAGINAPATI, the master of such a temple. They have descendants in various Middle Iranian languages.

  • BAḠLĀN

    A. D. H. Bivar, D. Balland, X. de Planhol

    The temple excavated at this site appeared to be a fire-temple of dynastic character, dedicated for the rulers of the Kushan dynasty. It was founded perhaps early in the reign of Kanishka, and restored in the year 31 of a different era, probably of Kanishka I’s own enthronement.

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  • BAGŌAS

    M. Dandamayev

    the chief eunuch and general under the Achaemenid Artaxerxes III, and kingmaker of his successors.

  • BAGRATIDS

    C. Toumanoff

    The partition of Armenia in 387 into an Iranian and a Roman vassal state, then the annexation of the Western kingdom by the Empire, and finally the abolition of the East Armenian Monarchy in 428 placed these princes in the necessity of choosing between the two rival imperial allegiances.

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  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DAWLA, ABŪ NAṢR FĪRŪZ

    cross-reference

    See BUYIDS.

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN ʿĀMELĪ

    E. Kohlberg

    , SHAIKH MOḤAMMAD B. ḤOSAYN BAHĀʾĪ, Imami scholar and author, a prolific writer, in Imami circles regarded as one of the leading lights of his age (1547-1621).

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN BAḠDĀDĪ

    Z. Safa

    , MOḤAMMAD B. MOʾAYYAD, a master of the art of Persian letter-writing (tarassol) (d. after 1289).

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN ḴARAQĪ

    D. Pingree

    , ABŪ BAKR MOḤAMMAD (d. 1138-39), author of a work was on astronomy, geography, and chronology.

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD WALAD

    H. Algar

    B. ḤOSAYN B. AḤMAD ḴAṬĪB BALḴĪ (1151-1231), scholar, father of the great Sufi poet Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Dīn Rūmī.

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN NAQŠBAND

    H. Algar

    , ḴᵛĀJA MOḤAMMAD B. MOḤAMMAD BOḴĀRĪ (1318-91), eponym of the Naqšbandīya, one of the most vigorous and widespread Sufi orders.

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN SOLṬĀN WALAD

    M. I. Waley

    , MOḤAMMAD (1226-1312), Sufi shaikh and poet, son and eventual successor of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Dīn Rūmī.

  • BAHĀʾ-ALLĀH

    Juan Cole

    (1817-92), MĪRZĀ ḤOSAYN-ʿALĪ NŪRĪ,  founder of the Bahai religion or Bahaism. 

  • BAHĀDOR

    C. Fleischer

    a Turco-Mongol honorific title, attached to a personal name, signifying “hero, valiant warrior.”

  • BAHĀDOR JANG, AMIR

    A. Gheissari

    , ḤOSAYN PASHA KHAN, the head of the royal guards (kešīkčībāšī) and minister of court under Moẓaffar-al-Dīn Shah (r. 1896-1907).

  • BAHĀDOR KHAN

    cross-reference

    See ABŪ ḠĀZĪ.

  • BAHĀDOR SHAH I, II

    cross-reference

    See MUGHALS.

  • BAHĀʾI TABRIZI

    Tahsin Yazici

    , AḤMAD (1874-1925), Persian calligrapher and poet.

  • BAHAISM

    Multiple Authors

    or Bahai faith, a religion founded in the nineteenth century by Bahāʾ-Allāh that grew out of the Iranian messianic movement of Babism and developed into a world religion with internationalist and pacifist emphases.

  • BAHAISM xiv. Nineteen Day Feast

    Moojan Momen

    a gathering of the Bahai community every nineteen days that has devotional, administrative, and social aspects and is the core of community life.

  • BAHAISM i. The Faith

    J. Cole

    Bahaism as a religion had as its background two earlier and much different movements in nineteenth-century Shiʿite Shaikhism (following Shaikh Aḥmad Aḥsāʾī) and Babism.

  • BAHAISM ii. Bahai Calendar and Festivals

    A. Banani

    The Bahai year consists of 19 months of 19 days each, i.e., 361 days, with the addition of four intercalary days between the 18th and the 19th months in order to adjust the calendar to the solar year. The Bāb named the months after the attributes of God.

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  • BAHAISM iii. Bahai and Babi Schisms

    D. M. MacEoin

    Although it never developed much beyond the stage of a sectarian movement within Shiʿite Islam, Babism experienced a number of minor but interesting divisions, particularly in its early phase.

  • BAHAISM iv. The Bahai Communities

    P. Smith

    Bahai expansion beyond the Middle East and the Iranian diaspora only began after the passing of Bahāʾ-Allāh (1892) and the succession of his son, ʿAbd-al-Bahāʾ (1844-1921), as leader. In the 1890s, an active community developed in North America, Americans in turn establishing Bahai groups in England, France, Germany, Hawaii, and Japan.

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  • BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran

    V. Rafati

    With the Declaration of the Bāb in 1844, followed by his being accepted as the promised Qāʾem (the Hidden Imam) by a handful of early believers, the first Babi community was born in the city of Shiraz.

  • BAHAISM vi. The Bahai Community of Ashkhabad

    V. Rafati

    Attracted by religious freedom and economic opportunities unavailable to them in Iran, Iranian Bahais began to settle in Ashkhabad around 1884; the community prospered and reached its peak during the period 1917-28.

  • BAHAISM vii. Bahai Persecutions

    D. M. MacEoin

    Bahai persecutions were a pattern of continuing discriminatory measures against adherents and institutions of the Bahai religion, punctuated by outbreaks of both random and organized violence.

  • BAHAISM viii. Bahai Shrines

    J. Walbridge

    Of the Bahai sites of pilgrimage and visitation, the most important are the tombs of Bahāʾ-Allāh and the Bāb in Israel and the houses of the Bāb and Bahāʾ-Allāh in Shiraz and Baghdad.

  • BAHAISM xiii. Bahai Pioneers

    Moojan Momen

    “Pioneer” (in English) and mohājer (in Persian) are terms used in Bahai literature to designate those who leave their homes to settle in another locality with the intention of spreading the Bahai faith or supporting existing Bahai communities.

  • BAHAISM ix. Bahai Temples

    V. Rafati and F. Sahba

    Although the faith originated in Iran, no Bahai temple was ever built in that country, due to local antagonism. However,  since the time of Bahāʾ-Allāh, the Bahais of Iran have gathered in private Bahai homes to pray and to read the writings of the faith.

  • BAHAISM x. Bahai Schools

    V. Rafati

    The Bahai schools were a series of government-recognized educational institutions conducted on Bahai principles from 1897 until 1929 in Ashkhabad and until 1934 in Iran.

  • BAHAISM xi. Bahai Conventions

    M. Momen

    The first Bahai convention in the world was probably the meeting convened by the Chicago Spiritual Assembly on 26 November 1907 for the purpose of choosing a site for the House of Worship that was to be built.

  • BAHAISM xii. Bahai Literature

    D. M. MacEoin

    This article is concerned primarily with poetry and belles lettres rather than apologetic, didactic, historiographical, liturgical, or scriptural materials.

  • BAHĀʾĪYA ḴĀNOM

    M. Momen

    (1846-1932), eldest daughter of Bahāʾ-Allāh, considered by Bahais as the “outstanding heroine of the Bahai Dispensation.”

  • BAHĀR (1)

    Ḡ.-Ḥ. Yūsofī

    a Persian literary, scientific, political, and social-affairs monthly, 1910-11, 1921-22. Bahār represented a departure from traditional Persian journalism; readers found its willingness to discuss contemporary literature and literary criticism a refreshing change.

  • BAHĀR (2)

    Esmāʿil Jassim

    a newspaper founded by Shaikh Aḥmad Tehrāni (d. 1957), known as Aḥmad Bahār, in 1917, in Mašhad.

  • BAHĀR, MOḤAMMAD-TAQĪ

    M. B. Loraine, J. Matīnī

    poet, scholar, journalist, politician, and historian (1886-1951). i. Life and work. ii. Bahār as a poet.

  • BAHĀR-E KESRĀ

    M. G. Morony

    “The spring of Ḵosrow,” one of the names of a huge, late Sasanian royal carpet measuring 60 cubits (araš, ḏerāʿ) square (ca. 27 m x 27 m). It was divided among the conquering Muslims after Madāʾen was captured in 637.

  • BAHĀRESTĀN (1)

    G. M. Wickens

    (Spring garden, Abode of spring), an anecdotal and moralistic work of belles-lettres in prose (both plain and rhythmic-rhyming) and verse, by ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Jāmī, composed in the poet’s old age, in 1487.

  • BAHĀRESTĀN (2)

    ʿA.-A. Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    the name of a garden, public square, and complex of buildings in central Tehran.

  • BAHĀRESTĀN-E ḠAYBĪ

    I. H. Siddiqui

    a detailed history in Persian of Bengal and Orissa for the period 1608-24 composed by Mīrzā Nathan ʿAlāʾ-al-Dīn Eṣfahānī.

  • BAHĀRI

    Mortażā Varzi

    , (ʿALI-) AṢḠAR (1905-1995) master of the kamānča (long-necked bowed lute).

  • BAHĀRLŪ

    P. Oberling

    a Turkic tribe of Azerbaijan, Khorasan, Kermān, and Fārs.  

  • BAHĀRVAND

    P. Oberling

    a Lur tribe now living mostly in the dehestāns (districts) of Kargāh and Bālā Garīva, south and southwest of Ḵorramābād.  

  • BAHDĪNĀN

    A. Hassanpour

    (Kurdish Bādīnān), name of a Kurdish region, river, dialect group, and amirate.  

  • BAḤĪRĪ FAMILY

    R. W. Bulliet

    a major Shafiʿite family of Nishapur in the eleventh century.  

  • BAHMAʾĪ

    P. Oberling

    a Lur tribe of the Kohgīlūya (Kūh[-e] Gīlūya).  

  • BAHMAN (1)

    J. Narten, Ph. Gignoux

    the New Persian name of the Avestan Vohu Manah (Good Thought) and Pahlavi Wahman.

  • BAHMAN (2) SON OF ESFANDĪĀR

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    son of ESFANDĪĀR, a Kayanian king of Iran in the national epic.  

  • BAHMAN (3)

    cross-reference

    author of Qeṣṣa-ye Sanjān.

  • BAHMAN (4)

    cross-reference

    “avalanche." See BARF.

  • BAHMAN JĀDŪYA

    M. Morony

    (or Jāḏōē), Sasanian general engaged in the defense of the Sawād of ʿErāq during the Muslim conquest in the 630s.  

  • BAHMAN MĪRZĀ

    ʿA. Navāʾī

    (d. 1883-84), the fourth son of ʿAbbās Mīrzā and brother of Moḥammad Shah (r. 1834-48). Throughout his relatively long exile, he enjoyed the protection and support of the Czarist government.

  • BAHMAN MĪRZĀ BAHĀʾ-AL-DAWLA

    ʿA. Navāʾī

    37th son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah, born 1811 of Golbadan Bājī, originally a (Georgian?) slave girl of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah’s mother Mahd-e ʿOlyā. His diary contains notes on Qajar history.

  • BAHMAN YAŠT

    W. Sundermann

    Middle Persian apocalyptical text preserved in  Pahlavi script, a Pāzand (i.e., Middle Persian in Avestan script) transliteration, and a garbled New Persian translation.

  • BAHMAN-ARDAŠĪR

    M. Morony

    (or Forāt Maysān), ancient and medieval town and subdistrict in Maysān in lower Iraq. The town of Forāt is known from the first century A.D. as a fortified terminus for caravan trade on the left bank of the lower Tigris, eleven or twelve miles downstream from Charax.

  • BAHMAN-NĀMA

    W. L. Hanaway, Jr.

    epic poem in Persian of about 9,500 lines recounting the adventures of Bahman son of Esfandīār.

  • BAHMANAGĀN

    cross-reference

    See BAHMANJANA.

  • BAHMANID DYNASTY

    N. H. Ansari

    dynasty (1347-1528) in the Deccan, the tableland region in India. The Bahmanid kingdom was not only the first independent Muslim kingdom in southern India, but it was also one of the greatest centers of Iranian culture in the subcontinent.

  • BAHMANJANA

    Z. Safa

    Arabicized form of Mid. Pers. Bahmanagān, one of the Zoroastrian festival days which Muslim Iranians observed down to the Mongol invasion in 1219.

  • BAHMANŠĪR

    X. de Planhol

    the name of the distributary which branches off the left bank of the Kārūn river in the Ḵūzestān plain a short distance above Ḵorramšahr, and of a dehestān near this town.

  • BAHMANYĀR, AḤMAD

    J. Matīnī

    scholar, educator, and man of letters (1884-1955). His written works are characterized by clarity and simplicity of language.

  • BAHMANYĀR, KĪĀ

    H. Daiber

    RAʾĪS ABU’L-ḤASAN B. MARZBĀN AʿJAMĪ ĀḎARBĀYJĀNĪ (d. 1066), one of Ebn Sīnā’s pupils and known mainly as a commentator and transmitter of Ebn Sīnā’s philosophy.

  • BAḤR

    cross-reference

    See BAḤR-E ṬAWĪL.

  • BAḤR-AL-ʿOLŪM

    H. Algar

    (1155/1742-1212/1797), a Shiʿite scholar who exercised great influence both in Iraq and in Iran through the numerous students he trained.  

  • BAḤR-E ḴAZAR

    cross-reference

    ḴAZAR. See CASPIAN SEA.

  • BAḤR-E ḴᵛĀRAZM

    cross-reference

    See ARAL SEA.

  • BAḤR-E ʿOMĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See OMAN, SEA OF.

  • BAḤR-E ṬAWĪL

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    a type of Persian verse. generally the repetition of a whole foot (rokn) of the meter hazaj (ᴗ - - -) or of a whole foot of the meter ramal (- ᴗ - -) or a variation of the two.

  • BAHRA

    P. Clawson and W. Floor

    a term meaning “share,” “gain,” or “profit,” used within the economic context of Islamic Iran to mean “return on investment or production.”

  • BAHRAIN

    X. De Planhol, X. De Planhol, J. A. Kechichian

    Ar. Baḥrayn, lit. “two seas,” the name originally applied to the area of the northeastern Arabian peninsula now known as Ḥasā (Aḥsāʾ). i. Geography. ii. Shiʿite elements in Bahrain. iii. History of political relations with Iran.

  • BAHRĀM (1)

    G. Gnoli, P. Jamzadeh

    the Old Iranian god of victory, Avestan Vərəθraγna (“smiting of resistance”);  Middle Persian Warahrān, frequently used as a male proper name.

  • BAHRĀM (2)

    A. Sh. Shahbazi, O. Klíma, W. L. Hanaway, Jr.

    Bahrām was fond of fighting, hunting, and feasting, which he regarded as virtues. Sasanian-based sources praised him as a benevolent and worthy king. This was no doubt partly due to his reversal of Šāpūr’s policy of religious tolerance, which enabled the clergy led by Kardēr to proceed with the establishment of a Zoroastrian state church.

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  • BAHRĀM (3)

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    son of GŌDARZ, in the Šāh-nāma a hero in the reigns of Kay Kāōs and Kay Ḵosrow, renowned for his valiant service in all the wars.

  • BAHRĀM B. MARDĀNŠĀH

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    a Zoroastrian priest (mōbed) of the town of Šāpūr in Fārs, mentioned in several Arabic and Persian sources as a translator of the Xwadāy-nāmag from Pahlavi into Arabic.

  • BAHRĀM MĪRZĀ

    P. Soucek

    (1517-49), youngest son of Shah Esmāʿīl, full brother of Shah Ṭahmāsb, who relied on his loyalty and military valor for assistance against both his internal and external enemies.

  • BAHRĀM MĪRZĀ, MOʿEZZ-AL-DAWLA

    ʿA. Navāʾī

    (d. 1882), second son of the crown prince ʿAbbās Mīrzā, minor figure in military affairs and administration.

  • BAHRĀM newspaper

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    newspaper in Tehran, 1943-47.

  • BAHRĀM O GOLANDĀM

    cross-reference

    See KĀTEBĪ.

  • BAHRĀM PAŽDŪ

    Ž. Āmūzgār

    Zoroastrian poet of the 13th century. His only surviving poem celebrates spring, Nowrūz and those who had propagated the Zoroastrian religion.

  • BAHRĀM SĪĀVOŠĀN

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (Bahrām son of Sīāvoš), in the Šāh-nāma a supporter of Bahrām Čōbīn in the power struggle during the reigns of Hormozd IV (578-90) and Ḵosrow II Parvēz (590-628).

  • BAHRĀMĪ SARAḴSĪ

    Z. Safa

    , ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ, Persian poet and literary scholar, one of the many at the court at Ḡazna in the reigns of Sultan Maḥmūd (r. 998-1030) and his sons.

  • BAHRĀMĪ, FARAJ-ALLĀH

    M. Amānat

    , DABĪR AʿẒAM (1878/79?-1951), Reżā Shah’s personal secretary and an early supporter who played a key role in Reżā Shah’s control of absolute power.

  • BAHRĀMŠĀH B. MASʿŪD (III)

    C. E. Bosworth

    B. EBRĀHĪM, ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR, Ghaznavid sultan in eastern Afghanistan and northwestern India (r. 1117-1157?).

  • BAHRĀMŠĀH B. ṬOḠRELŠĀH

    Cross-Reference

    See SALJUQS OF KERMĀN.

  • BAHRĀMŠĀH SHROFF

    cross-reference

    See BEHRAMSHAH NAOROJI SHROFF.

  • BAḤRĀNĪ, AḤMAD

    E. Kohlberg

    B. MOḤAMMAD B. YŪSOF B. ṢĀLEḤ (d. 1690-91), described as the leading representative in his generation of Imami Shiʿite scholarship in Bahrain.

  • BAḤRĀNĪ, HĀŠEM

    W. Madelung

    B. SOLAYMĀN (d. 1695-96), Imami Shiʿite scholar and author. The number of his books and treatises is said to have approached seventy-five.

  • BAḤRĀNĪ, JAMĀL-AL-DĪN

    W. Madelung

    (also KAMĀL-AL-DĪN) ʿALĪ B. SOLAYMĀN SETRAWĪ, Imami Shiʿite scholar and philosopher inclining to mysticism (13th century).

  • BAḤRĀNĪ, YŪSOF

    E. Kohlberg

    B. AḤMAD B. EBRĀHĪM DERĀZĪ (b. 1695-96, d. 1772), Imami Shiʿite author and jurisprudent.

  • BAḤRAYN

    cross-reference

    See BAHRAIN.

  • BAḤRĪ, MAḤMŪD

    R. M. Eaton

    Sufi and poet of the Deccan (fl. late 17th century).

  • BAIDU

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀYDŪ.

  • BAIEV, GAPPO

    cross-reference

    See BAYATI, GAPPO.

  • BAILEY, HAROLD WALTER

    John Sheldon

    Harold Bailey's first two undergraduate years were highly successful and, no doubt for financial reasons, he took an appointment at the beginning of his third year as an Assistant Master at Guildford Grammar School. One of his former pupils paid tribute in a book of school reminiscences to Bailey’s ability to inspire him to love ancient history.

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  • BĀJ (1)

    A. V. Williams

    a principal Zoroastrian observance meaning primarily “utterance of consecration;” reference to bāj has been current in Mazdean literature since at least Sasanian times,

  • BĀJ (2)

    W. Floor

    a term denoting tribute to be paid by vassals to their overlord, in which sense it is also used as a generic term “tax,” or as referring to road tolls.

  • BĀJALĀN

    P. Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe in the dehestāns of Qūratū, Ḏohāb and Jagarlū in the šahrestān of Qaṣr-e Šīrīn, on the Iraqi border.

  • BĀJARVĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    a town in the medieval Islamic province of Mūḡān, the area southwest of the Caspian Sea and south of the Kor (Kura) and Aras (Araxes) rivers.

  • BĀḴARZ

    C. E. Bosworth

    or Govāḵarz, a district of the medieval Islamic province of Qūhestān/Qohestān in Khorasan.

  • BĀḴARZĪ, ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿALĪ

    Z. Safa

    Iranian littérateur of the 11th century who composed poems in both Persian and Arabic, notable in the art of letter-writing (tarassol).

  • BAKHSHIEV MISHI

    M. Zand

    (1910-1972), Judeo-Tat author.

  • BAḴŠĪ

    P. Jackson

    a Buddhist lama or scholar, in particular during Mongol hegemony in Iran; subsequently, by extension, any kind of scribe or secretary.

  • BAḴT

    W. Eilers, S. Shaked

    “fate, destiny,” often with the positive sense of “good luck” (ḵᵛošbaḵtī).  i. The term.  ii. The concept.

  • BAḴTAGĀN LAKE

    E. Ehlers

    part of the Lake Nīrīz basin situated about 1,525 m above sea level in the province of Fārs, approximately 50 km east of Shiraz.  At present, it is common to divide the basin of the Nīrīz into a northern portion (daryāča-ye Ṭašk) and a larger southern part (daryāča-ye Baḵtagān).

  • BAḴTAK

    F. Gaffary

    a folkloric she-creature of horrible shape, personifying a nightmare. Baḵtak resembles the Āl, another “female devil” of Iranian folklore.

  • BĀḴTAR (1)

    A. Tafażżolī

    designation of the geographical “west” in Modern Persian, but its Pahlavi equivalent abāxtar means “north,” probably borrowed from Parthian.

  • BĀḴTAR (2)

    N. Parvīn

    name of an educational magazine (Isfahan, 1933-35) and a political newspaper (Isfahan and Tehran, 1935-45).

  • BĀḴTAR-E EMRŪZ

    ʿA. M. Š. Fāṭemī

    (Today’s West), daily evening newspaper published in Tehran, 1949-53. The editor-publisher Ḥosayn Fāṭemī (1917-1954) was one of the principal associates of Dr. Moḥammad Moṣaddeq in the National Front (Jebha-ye Mellī).

  • BAḴTĀVAR KHAN, MOḤAMMAD

    S. S. Alvi

    (1620?-85), historian and official at the court of the Mughal emperor Awrangzēb (r. 1658-1707) and a patron of literature.

  • BAḴTĪĀR, ABŪ ḤARB

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    B. MOḤAMMAD, the patron of the poet Manūčehrī (d. 1040-41) who praised his bravery, nobility, magnanimity, learning, and eloquence.

  • BAḴTĪĀR, TEYMŪR

    S. Zabih

    (1914-1970), Iranian general. His meteoric rise to power began after the fall of Moṣaddeq in August, 1953, when he was called to Tehran, promoted to brigadier general, and put in charge of Tehran’s military governorship.

  • BAḴTĪĀR-NĀMA

    W. L. Hanaway, Jr.

    an example of early New Persian prose fiction in the form of a frame story and nine included tales, the earliest version of which seems to be from the late 12th-early 13th centuries.

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ (1)

    ʿA.-A. Saʿīdī Sīrjānī, J.-P. Digard, ʿA.-Ḥ. Navāʾī

    the nesba of a number of Baḵtīārī chiefs.

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ (2)

    cross-reference

    in music, a gūša. See HOMĀYŪN.

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ MOUNTAINS

    E. Ehlers

    The impressive basin-range-structure of the Baḵtīārī mountains, a result of the geological development of the Zagros system since late Cretaceous time and culminating in the orogenesis of Tertiary upfolding, is accentuated by the complicated and unique drainage system, which itself is the result of geology and topography.

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  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ TRIBE

    J.-P. Digard, G. L. Windfuhr, A. Ittig

    The traditional Baḵtīārī way of life is typical of the long-distance nomadism which evolved in the Zagros highlands from the thirteenth century onward, at first under the impact of the Mongol invasions, probably attaining its present form during the eighteenth century, in a defensive reaction against increasing fiscal and administrative pressures experienced under successive Iranian régimes.

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  • BAḴTĪĀRĪS of AFGHANISTAN

    D. Balland

    two small Paṧtō-speaking groups in the eastern part of the Irano-Afghan area bearing the name Baḵtīārī or Baḵtīār.

  • BAKTOḠDĪ

    cross-reference

    See BEKTOḠDĪ.

  • BAKU

    S. Soucek, R. G. Suny

    (Pers. Bādkūba), capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan and one of the chief ports on the Caspian sea.

  • BAKWĀ, DAŠT-E

    D. Balland

    an extensive piedmont alluvial plain in the southwest of Afghanistan, drained by one of the Sīstān rivers, the Ḵospāsrūd. In past times it enjoyed a measure of prosperity based on qanāt irrigation.

  • BĀLĀBĀN

    Ch. Albright

    a cylindrical-bore, double-reed wind instrument about 35 cm long with seven finger holes and one thumb hole, played in eastern Azerbaijan in Iran and in the Republic of Azerbaijan.

  • BALADĪYA

    N. Parvīn

    (Municipality), the name or part of the name of several newspapers and journals published in Iran and Afghanistan ca. 1907-39.

  • BALĀḎORĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    , ABU’L-ḤASAN or ABŪ BAKR AḤMAD B. YAḤYĀ B. JĀBER, leading Arab historian of the 9th century, whose Ketāb fotūḥ al-boldān, in particular, contains much original information on the Arab conquests of Iran.

  • BALĀḠAT

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (Ar. balāḡa), one of the most general terms to denote eloquence in speech and writing. The branches of literary criticism which developed within Muslim civilization became known collectively as the science (ʿelm) or art (ṣenāʿa) of balāḡat.

  • BALĀḠĪ, MOḤAMMAD-JAWĀD

    E. Kohlberg

    B. ḤASAN B. ṬĀLEB B. ʿABBĀS RABAʿĪ NAJAFĪ (d. 1933), Imami author, poet, and polemicist.

  • BALʿAMĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ MOḤAMMAD

    cross-reference

    B. MOḤAMMAD. See AMĪRAK BALʿAMĪ.

  • BALʿAMĪ, ABU’L-FAŻL MOḤAMMAD

    C. E. Bosworth

    B. ʿOBAYD-ALLĀH B. MOḤAMMAD BALʿAMĪ TAMĪMĪ, vizier to the Samanid amir Naṣr b. Aḥmad (r. 913-42), father of the vizier and historian Amirak Baḷʿamī.

  • BĀLANG

    W. Eilers

    citron, the fruit of a species of citrus tree (Citrus medica cedrata). This article discusses the history of the word.

  • BALĀŠ

    M. L. Chaumont, K. Schippmann

    the name of a number of kings and several dignitaries and notables during the Parthian and Sasanian periods. The Parthian form of the name, the oldest, is Walagaš. In Middle Persian it is Wardāxš, in Pahlavi Walāxš.

  • BALĀSAGĀN

    M. L. Chaumont, C. E. Bosworth

     “country of the Balās,” designating a region located for the most part south of the lower course of the rivers Kor (Kura) and the Aras (Araxes), bordered on the south by Atropatene and on the east by the Caspian Sea.  i. In pre-Islamic times.  ii. In Islamic times.

  • BALĀSĀḠŪN

    C. E. Bosworth

    a town of Central Asia, in early Islamic times the main settlement of the region known as Yeti-su or Semirechye “the land of the seven rivers,” now mainly within the eastern part of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  • BALĀSĀNĪ, MAJD-AL-MOLK ABU’L-FAŻL ASʿAD

    C. E. Bosworth

    B. MOḤAMMAD QOMĪ (d. 1099), mostawfī or financial intendant to the Saljuq sultan Berk-yaruq (Barkīāroq) b. Malekšāh and then vizier.

  • BĀLĀSARĪ

    D. M. MacEoin

    term used by the Shaikhis to distinguish ordinary Shiʿites from members of their own sect. The history of conflicts between the Shaikhi and Shiʿite communities is reviewed.

  • BĀLAVĪ

    cross-reference

    See BĀLAWĪ FAMILY.

  • BALAWASTE

    G. Gropp

    a ruin site in the eastern part of the Khotan oasis, near the village of Domoko. Fragments of manuscripts, pottery, and plaster were found at this site by Sir Mark Aurel Stein on his first and second expeditions in 1900.

  • BĀLAWĪ FAMILY

    R. W. Bulliet

    prominent scholars in Nīšāpūr in the 10th-11th centuries.

  • BALDARČĪN

    cross-reference

    See BELDERČĪN.

  • BĀLEḠ

    S. H. Amin

    Ar. “of full age, adult, mature,” in contrast to the term ṣaḡīr (minor): coming of age in Islamic law.

  • BALḴ

    X. de Planhol, C. E. Bosworth, V. Fourniau, D. Balland, F. Grenet

    Within this area and on the irrigated alluvial fan, at a distance of about 12 km from the mountains, the city was built on a site (the Bālā Ḥeṣār of today) which was probably coextensive with a slight rise in the plain and perhaps adjacent to an old arm of the river.

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  • BALḴĀB

    D. Balland

    (Bactros of the classical authors), the river of Balḵ. This perennial river is a major feature of the geography of northern Afghanistan.

  • BALḴĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ ABD-ALLĀH

    H. Schützinger

    B. MOḤAMMAD B. ʿALĪ (d. 907-08), a traditionist (moḥaddeṯ) and author.

  • BALḴĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ-MOḤAMMAD

    cross-reference

    B. AḤMAD. See ʿALĪ B. AḤMAD BALḴĪ.

  • BALḴI, ABU’L-MOʾAYYAD

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’l-MOʾAYYAD BALḴI.

  • BALḴĪ, ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿABD-ALLĀH AḤMAD

    cross-reference

    B. AḤMAD. See ABU’L-QĀSEM KAʿBĪ.

  • BALUCHISTAN

    Multiple Authors

    generally understood by the Baluch and their neighbors to comprise an area of over half a million square kilometers in the southeastern part of the Iranian plateau, south of the central deserts and the Helmand river, and in the arid coastal lowlands between the Iranian plateau and the Gulf of Oman.

  • BALUCHISTAN i. Geography, History and Ethnography

    Brian Spooner

    Baluchistan is generally understood by the Baluch and their neighbors to comprise an area of over half a million square kilometers in the southeastern part of the Iranian plateau, south of the central deserts and the Helmand river, and in the arid coastal lowlands between the Iranian plateau and the Gulf of Oman.

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  • BALUCHISTAN i. Geography, History and Ethnography (cont.)

    Brian Spooner

    appears to have been divided throughout history between Iranian (highland) and Indian (lowland) spheres of influence, and since 1870 it has been formally divided among Afghanistan, Iran, and India (later Pakistan). Parts 8-11.

  • BALUCHISTAN ii. Archeology

    J. G. Shaffer

    may have been inhabited first during the Pleistocene as proposed by Hume (1976), based on Paleolithic sites found in the Ladiz valley.

  • BALUCHISTAN iii. Baluchi Language and Literature

    J. Elfenbein

    Baluchi is the principal language of an area extending from the Marv (Mary) oasis in Soviet Turkmenistan southward to the Persian Gulf, from Persian Sīstān eastward along the Helmand valley in Afghanistan, throughout Pakistani Makrān eastward nearly to the Indus river, including in the south the city of Karachi.

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  • BALUCHISTAN iiia. Balochi Poetry

    Joseph Elfenbein

    divided into 4 periods: (1) classical, from ca. 1550-1700; (2) post-classical, from 1700-1800; (3) 19th century to early 20th century; (4) modern, after ca. 1930.

  • BALUCHISTAN iv. Music of Baluchistan

    M. T. Massoudieh

    usually connected with particular ceremonies (marāsem), usually religious rites, festivals, or holidays. The relationships between melodies and particular ceremonies are reflected in their names.

  • BALUCHISTAN v. Baluch Carpets

    S. Azadi

    a distinct group of carpets, woven by Baluch tribes in the northeastern Iranian province of Khorasan and the Sīstān area. These were not made in Makrān, where the main body of the Baluch tribes live.

  • BALŪHAR O BŪDĀSAF

    cross-reference

    See BARLAAM AND IOSAPH.

  • BALŪṬ

    H. Aʿlam

    common designation in New Persian both for acorn and oak, Quercus L. In west and southwest Iran, where well-defined stands of oak exist, their total surface area has been estimated at 3,448,000 hectares, divided into two main areas: west Kurdistan and the Sardašt region, and on the southwestern slopes of the Zagros.

  • BALYSA-

    H. W. Bailey

    (Khotan Saka), bārza- (Tumšuq Saka), a word adapted to Buddhist use for the transcendental Buddha, translating Buddhist Sanskrit buddha- and also several epithets of the Buddha.

  • BĀLYŪZĪ, ḤASAN MOWAQQAR

    M. Momen

    (1908-1980), Bahai author and administrator.

  • BAM (1)

    W. Eilers

    (also written bām) “bass,” the lowest-pitched string in music. The etymology is discussed.

  • BAM (2)

    X. De Planhol, M.-E Bāstānī Pārīzī

    (in Arabic, Bamm), a town in southeastern Iran, located on the southwestern rim of the Dašt-e Lūt basin at an altitude of 1,100 m. i. History and modern town. ii. Ruins of the old town.

  • BAM EARTHQUAKE

    Manuel Berberian

    OF DECEMBER 26, 2003  A moderate-magnitude (Mw 6.6) earthquake struck the city of Bam and its surroundings at 05:26 AM local time (01:56 GMT) on Friday, 5 Dey 1382 Š./26 December 2003, resulting in the highest casualty rate and the most profound social impact in the recorded post-1900 history of devastating urban earthquakes in Iran.

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  • BĀMBIŠN

    cross-reference

    See BĀNBIŠN.

  • BĀMDĀD

    N. Parvīn

    a weekly Persian newspaper published in Tehran, 1907.

  • BĀMDĀD, MAHDĪ

    ʿA.-A. Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    (d. 1973), civil servant, author of the multi-volume dictionary of national biography of Iran.

  • BĀMDĀD-E ḴOMĀR

    Ali Ferdowsi

    The book’s title is taken from a famous line by Saʿdi: Šab-e šarāb nayarzad be bāmdād-e ḵomār (The night of inebriation is not worth the morning of hangover). Encased by a frame story within which the main story is narrated, Bāmdād-e ḵomār, a love story with a moral lesson, is set in Tehran in the 20th century.

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  • BĀMDĀD-E ROWŠAN

    N. Parvīn

    a Persian journal of news and political comment published in Tehran, 1915-24.

  • BĀMĪA

    H. Aʿlam, N. Ramazani

    (or bāmīā), okra, the edible unripe seed-pods of Hibiscus esculentus of the Malvaceae or mallows. i. The plant. ii. In cooking. iii. The sweet.  It was introduced into the culinary art of Persians by Arabs from Baghdad in the 19th century.

  • BĀMĪĀN

    Multiple Authors

    town and province in central Afghanistan. Bāmīān’s position midway between Balḵ and Peshawar at the approach to the most difficult passes and the resultant opportunities to purvey provisions and accommodation for caravans explain why it became a particularly important stopping place and a chosen site for monumental religious sanctuaries.

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  • BAMPŪR

    B. de Cardi, ʿA.-A. Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    i. Prehistoric Site. ii. In Modern Times. Bampūr is a baḵš and qaṣaba (borough) in the šahrestān of Īrānšahr in the province of Balūčestān o Sīstān. The plain of Bampūr is encircled by several high mountains.

  • BAMPUR ia. PREHISTORIC SITE (Continued)

    Daniel T. Potts

    Since Beatrice de Cardi’s excavations in 1966 (de Cardi, 1968; idem, 1970) no new work has taken place there. Nevertheless, objects recovered at Bampur in the 1960s can now be better dated and understood, thanks to discoveries in recent years at sites in Central Asia, the Indo-Iranian borderlands, and southeastern Arabia..

  • BĀMŠĀD

    A. Tafażżolī

    named as a musician at the court of the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parvēz (r. 591-628).

  • BĀMŠĀD newspaper

    N. Parvīn

    a Persian newspaper and a news and public affairs magazine published in Tehran, 1956-68.

  • BAN-e SORMA

    L. Vanden Berghe

    a necropolis of the Early Bronze Age, excavated in 1967 by the Belgian Mission in Iran. By analogy with the funeral furnishings from the Old Elamite period at Susa IV, the  tombs must be situated in the Early Dynastic III period, about 2600-2400 B.C. Since written sources are lacking, it is difficult to determine which population occupied this necropolis.

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  • BĀNA

    ʿA. Mardūḵ

    a šahrestān in the province of Kurdistan, located in a mountainous, well-forested region of western Iran (lat 35°59′ N,  long 45°53′ E).

  • BANAFŠA

    H. Aʿlam

    “violet,” common name for the genus Viola L. in New Persian. From certain botanical features of violas there have developed some violet-based similes and metaphors in classical Persian literature.

  • BANĀʾĪ HERAVĪ

    Z. Safa

    , KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ŠĪR-ʿALĪ (1453-1512), noted poet at various courts of Persia and Transoxania.

  • BANĀKAṮ

    C. E. Bosworth

    or BENĀKAṮ, the main town of the medieval Transoxanian province of Šāš or Čāč; it almost certainly had a pre-Islamic history as a center of the Sogdians.

  • BANĀKATĪ, Abū Solaymān

    P. Jackson

    Dāwūd b. Abi’l-Fażl Moḥammad (d. 1329-30), poet and historian.

  • BANĀN, ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN

    M. Caton

    (1911-1986), one of the foremost Persian singers of the 20th century, known for the quality of his voice and vast knowledge of āvāz repertory.  

  • BĀNBIŠN

    W. Sundermann

    Middle Persian “queen”: etymology and occurrences in Middle Iranian.

  • BAND “DAM”

    X. De Planhol

    “dam, ” something that factually or figuratively binds, ties, or restricts (cf. Av. banda- “bond,” Eng. bond). In geographical nomenclature it is applied to ranges (mainly in Afghanistan),  passes (darband), and old dams and barrages built to store or divert water.

  • BAND-E AMĪR (1)

    J. Lerner

    (the amir’s dike) or Band-e ʿAżodī (for the Daylamite ruler ʿAżod-al-Dawla, r. 949-83), a dam or weir constructed across the Kor river at the southeast end of the Marvdašt plain in Fārs.

  • BAND-E AMĪR (2)

    X. De Planhol

    the chain of natural lakes 90 km west of Bāmīān in Afghanistan (lat 30°12’ N, long 66°30’ E).

  • BAND-E BAHMAN

    K. Afsar

    an ancient dam built on the Qara Āḡāj river nearly sixty km south of Shiraz, attributed to the legendary king Bahman son of Esfandīār.

  • BAND-E TORKESTĀN

    X. De Planhol

    (boundary wall of Turkestan), the mountain range in northwestern Afghanistan which runs in a west-east direction for 200 km between the upper valley of the Morḡāb to the south and the plains of the Āmū Daryā to the north.

  • BANDA

    W. Eilers, C. Herrenschmidt

    “servant.” i. The term. ii. Old Persian bandaka. Banda (NPers.) and its precursors bandak/bandag (Mid. Pers.) and bandaka (OPers.) meant “henchman, (loyal) servant, vassal,” but not “slave.”

  • BANDAR

    W. Eilers

    “harbor, seaport; commercial town.” The concept of bandar probably continues an old Oriental tradition. Its double meaning of “harbor” on a river or a sea and “town, center of commerce and communications” (also in the inland) agrees well with that of Akkadian kārum.

  • BANDAR-E ʿABBĀS(Ī)

    X. De Planhol

    a port city in the ostān of Hormozgān, on the Persian Gulf, 16 km northwest of Hormoz island and 85 km from the coast of Oman. It is successor to the emporium of old Hormoz, the seaport of Kermān and Sejestān.

  • BANDAR-E GAZ

    X. De Planhol

    a port on the southern shore of Astarābād Bay in the southeastern Caspian Sea, a few kilometers from a group of nine hamlets known collectively as Gaz. The installation of Russians on the Āšūrāda islands after 1837 made it very important strategically.

  • BANDAR-E LENGA

    D. T. Potts

    (lat 26° 33’ N, long 54° 53’ E), a small port on the coast of Lārestān.

  • BANDAR-E MĀHŠAHR

    X. De Planhol

    (Bandar-e Maʿšūr), a port at the western end of the Persian Gulf, on the northern bank of the Ḵor-e Mūsā tideway, which forms the lower course of the Jar(r)āḥī river.

  • BANDAR-E PAHLAVĪ

    cross-reference

    See ANZALĪ.

  • BANDAR-E ŠĀH

    X. De Planhol

    (now Bandar-e Torkaman), a port on the southeastern Caspian Sea at the entrance of Astarābād Bay and about eight km south of the mouth of the Atrak. It was constructed from scratch during the 1930s at the terminus of the trans-Iranian railroad.

  • BANDAR-E ŠĀHPŪR

    X. De Planhol

    (Bandar-e Emām Ḵomeynī since the revolution of 1979), a port at the terminus of the trans-Iranian railroad, about 70 km from the Gulf along the northern shore of the Ḵor Mūsā, the outlet of the Jarāḥī river, which flows down from the Zagros mountains.

  • BANDARI

    Mikhail Pelevin

    the dialect spoken by the native population of Bandar ʿAbbās, administrative center of the Hormozgān province, and of its environs. Bandari belongs to the southwestern group of the Iranian languages. It is tightly encircled by a number of other, less known dialects located between Lārestān and Bašākerd.

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  • BANG

    G. Gnoli, ʿA.-A. Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    a kind of narcotic plant. In older Arabic and Persian sources banj is applied to three different plants: hemp (Cannabis sativa or indica), henbane (Hyoseyamus niger, etc.), and jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). i. In ancient Iran.  ii. In modern Iran.

  • BANG KAUP, JOHANN WILHELM MAX JULIUS

    P. Zieme

    (known as Willy), German orientalist (1869-1934). From 1893 onward Bang Kaup also devoted time to research in the promising area of the Old Turkish stone inscriptions.

  • BANGĀLA

    Cross-Reference

    See BENGAL.

  • BANGAṦ

    D. Balland

    one of the least-known Pashtun tribes in the Solaymān range, Pakistan, and one of the few that are not named after eponymous ancestors.  

  • BANĪ ARDALĀN

    P. Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe of northwestern Iran, now dispersed in Sanandaj (Senna) and surrounding villages.

  • BANĪ ḤARDĀN

    J. Perry

    a Shiʿite Arab tribe of Howayza (Ḥawīza) district in Ḵūzestān.

  • BANĪ LĀM

    J. Perry

    a numerous and historically important Shiʿite Arab tribe of northwestern Ḵūzestān, southern Lorestān, and adjacent parts of Iraq.

  • BANĪ SĀLA

    J. Perry

    a Shiʿite Arab tribe of Howayza (Ḥawīza) district in Ḵūzestān.

  • BANĪ TAMĪM

    J. Perry

    an Arab tribe of western Ḵūzestān, both settled and nomadic, raising sheep and camels. Their range lies between Howayza and Ahvāz.

  • BANĪ ṬOROF

    J. Perry

    (Banu Turuf), a large Shiʿite Arab tribe of Howayza (Ḥawīza) district in Ḵūzestān, mostly sedentary, centered north of Howayza between Sūsangerd and Bostān (Besaytīn).

  • BANISTER, Thomas

    Parvin Loloi

    (d. Arrash, 20 July 1571), British merchant and traveler to Persia who commanded the fifth voyage from Britain to Persia via Russia for the purpose of establishing trade. 

  • BĀNK-E MARKAZĪ-E ĪRĀN

    M. Yeganeh

    (Central Bank of Iran), a bank established under the Iranian Banking and Monetary Act of 28 May 1960 to undertake the central banking activities in the country. The functions and powers of Bānk-e Markazī were revised following the Islamic Revolution of February, 1979, which led to the nationalization of private banking.

  • BANKING

    P. Basseer, P. Clawson and W. Floor

    The first modern bank in Iran was the British-owned New Oriental Bank, which in 1888 opened in Tehran, Mašhad, Tabrīz, Rašt, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Būšehr. The New Oriental Bank was shortly replaced by another British-owned bank, the Imperial Bank of Persia (1889), which was to remain a major financial institution for more than six decades.

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  • BANNĀʾĪ

    C. Bromberger

    While the term bannāʾī covers the entire construction field, in this brief study domestic building techniques, in particular, which are more or less part of the traditional crafts, and the recent evolution of popular housing will be emphasized.

  • BANNERS

    A. S. Melikian-Chirvani

    (ʿalam, derafš). Countless references in epic literature as well as in chronicles show that, in the clouds of dust that enveloped troops as they fought in sandy land, the glitter of the banner was the only way that warriors had of following the moves of their commanders or of identifying the enemy.

  • BĀNŪ

    W. Eilers

    originally “lady,” now also in common use as an alternative to ḵānom “Madam, Mrs.” (from Turkish xan-ım “my lord”).

  • BANŪ ʿABBĀS

    Cross-Reference

    See ABBASID CALIPHATE.

  • BANŪ AMĀJŪR

    D. Pingree

    (or MĀJŪR), ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿABD-ALLĀH  and his son Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī, 10th-century astronomers.

  • BANŪ ʿANNĀZ

    cross-reference

    See ʿANNAZIDS.

  • BANŪ LAḴM

    Cross-Reference

    See ḤIRA.

  • BANŪ MĀJŪR

    cross-reference

    See BANŪ AMĀJŪR.

  • BANŪ MONAJJEM

    D. Pingree

    a family of intellectuals, closely connected to the caliphs of the 9th-10th centuries and claiming descent from an ancient Iranian lineage.

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  • BANŪ MŪSĀ

    D. Pingree

    name applied to three brothers, 9th-century ʿAbbasid astronomers and engineers.

  • BANŪ OMAYYA

    cross-reference

    See OMMAYADS.

  • BĀNŪ PARS

    M. Boyce

    “Lady of Pārs,” the name of a Zoroastrian shrine in the mountains at the northern end of the Yazd plain.

  • BANŪ SĀJ

    W. Madelung

    a family named after its ancestor Abu’l-Sāj which served the ʿAbbasid caliphate (9tth-10th centuries).

  • BANŪ SĀSĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    a name frequently applied in medieval Islam to beggars, rogues, charlatans, and tricksters of all kinds, allegedly so called because they stemmed from a legendary Shaikh Sāsān.

  • BAQĀʾ WA FANĀʾ

    G. Böwering

    Sufi term signifying “subsistence and passing away,” that is, passing away from worldly reality and being made subsistent in divine reality.

  • BĀQELĀ

    H. Aʿlam

    broad beans, the grains of Vicia faba L. In Iran, this crop is grown rather extensively in the Caspian provinces and, to a lesser extent, in the south and southwest.

  • BĀQER KHAN SĀLĀR-E MELLI

    A. Amanat

    one of the popular heroes of the Constitutional Revolution during the defense of Tabrīz in the period of the Lesser Autocracy (June, 1908-July, 1909).

  • BĀQER, ABŪ JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD

    W. Madelung

    The fifth imam of the Twelver Shiʿites (7th-8th century).

  • BĀQĪBELLĀH NAQŠBANDĪ

    J. G. J. Ter Haar

    , ḴᵛĀJA ABU’L-MOʾAYYAD RAŻĪ-AL-DĪN OWAYSĪ (d. 1603). As a Naqšbandi, he represents the sober type of Sufi, adhering to the Islamic law (šarīʿa) and averse to ecstatic mystical experiences.

  • BĀQLAVĀ

    W. Eilers, N. Ramazani

    i. The word. ii. The sweet. Bāqlavā is a sweet pastry known throughout the Middle East, in Iran commonly made with almonds (bādām), less frequently with pistachios (pesta).

  • BAQLĪ, RŪZBEHĀN

    cross-reference

    , ShAIKH. See RŪZBEHĀN.

  • BAQQĀL-BĀZĪ

    F. Gaffary

    (lit. grocer play), a form of improvised, popular slapstick comedy; it is distinguished among the various forms of popular comedy in Iran by its own set of rules.

  • BĀR

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh, Ḥ. Farhūdī

    “audience.” The royal audience was one of the most important and enduring of the court ceremonies practiced in Iran.  i. From the Achaemenid through the Safavid period.  ii. The Qajar and Pahlavi periods.

  • BAR HEBRAEUS

    Cross-Reference

    (b. Malaṭīa, 1225; d. Marāḡa, 1286), Syriac historian and polymath. See EBN AL-ʿEBRĪ, ABU’L-FARAJ.

  • BAR KŌNAY, THEODORE

    J. P. Asmussen

    8th-9th-century Nestorian teacher and writer from Kaškar in Mesopotamia. His The Book of Scholiais notable for its sections on Zarathustra and Mani.

  • BAR-E MEHR

    cross-reference

    a fire temple in Yazd. See DAR-E MEHR.

  • BARĀDŪST

    A. Hassanpour

    name of a Kurdish tribe, region, mountain range, river, and amirate. The tribespeople, mostly settled now, are Shafeʿite Sunnis and speak the Kurmanji dialect of Kurdish mixed with the neighboring Sorani dialects.

  • BARAḠĀNĪ, MOḤAMMAD-TAQĪ

    D. M. MacEoin

    QAZVĪNĪ, ŠAHĪD-E ṮĀLEṮ, MOLLĀ, an important Shiʿite ʿālem of Qazvīn (d. 1847).

  • BARAK

    T. Bīneš

    a kind of firm and durable woven cloth used for coats, overcoats (labbāda), shawls (in Afghanistan), čūḵas (surcoats for shepherds) and leggings.

  • BARAKĪ BARAK

    C. M. Kieffer

    locality in the province of Lōgar, Afghanistan,  the abode of the country’s last Ōrmuṛī speakers.

  • BĀRAKZAY DYNASTY

    cross-reference

    See AFGHANISTAN x. Political History ; and DORRĀNĪ.

  • BĀRAKZĪ

    D. Balland

    (singular Bārakzay), an ethnic name common among the Pashtun of Afghanistan and Pakistan and the Baluch of southeastern Iran. The oldest settlement area is between Herat and the approaches to the Helmand valley.

  • BARĀMEKA

    Cross-Reference

    See BARMAKIDS.

  • BĀRĀN

    D. Balland

    It is interesting to note that in modern Iranian languages violent and dangerous rainfall events are often designated by borrowings from Arabic (ṭūfān for typhoon, barq for lightning, raʿd for thunder, sayl for sudden deluge), whereas for phenomena considered beneficial a terminology of Iranian origin has been preserved.

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  • BARANĪ, ŻĪĀʾ-AL-DĪN

    P. Hardy

    Indian-born Muslim historian who wrote in the period of the Delhi sultanate (ca. 1285-1357).

  • BARĀQ BĀBĀ

    H. Algar

    (b. 1257-58, d. 1307-08), a crypto-shamanic Anatolian Turkman dervish close to two of the Mongol rulers of Iran.

  • BARĀQ KHAN

    cross-reference

    See NOWRŪZ AḤMAD KHAN.

  • BARAQĪ

    H. Algar

    , ḴᵛĀJA ʿABD-ALLĀH, 12th-century Sufi of Bukhara.

  • BARAŠNOM

    M. Boyce

    the chief Zoroastrian purification rite, consisting of a triple cleansing, with gōmēz (cow’s urine), dust, and water, followed by nine nights’ seclusion.

  • BARĀ’A

    E. Kohlberg

    an Imami theological term denoting dissociation from the enemies of the imams. During the conflict between ʿAlī and Moʿāwīa, formulas of dissociation were used by both parties.

  • BĀRBAD

    A. Tafażżolī

    minstrel-poet of the court of the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parvēz (r. 591-628 A.D.).

  • BARBARO, GIOSAFAT

    A. M. Piemontese

    Venetian merchant, traveler, and diplomat (1413-94), appointed Venetian ambassador to Persia (1473-78); author of a travel account.

  • BARBAṬ

    J. During

    the prototype of a family of short-necked lutes characterized by a rather flat, pear-shaped sound box.

  • BARBERRY

    EIr

    (zerešk; Berberis spp., family Berberidaceae). Species of this genus are found in the northern, eastern, and southeastern highlands of Iran.

  • BARBIER DE MEYNARD, CHARLES ADRIEN CASIMIR

    Ch. Pellat

    French orientalist (1826-1908). Among his works, the Tableau littéraire du Khorassan and Dictionnaire géographique attest the excellence of his Persian scholarship.

  • BARD-E BAL

    L. Vanden Berghe

    a necropolis excavated in 1969-70 by the Belgian archeological mission in Iran, Īlām Province.

  • BARD-E BOT

    Cross-Reference

    See ELYMAIS.

  • BARD-E NEŠĀNDA

    K. Schippmann

    a complex of ancient ruins in Ḵūzestān, situated 18 km northwest of the town of Masjed-e Solaymān (where similar ruins exist) at 675 m altitude on the edge of the Baḵtīārī mountains.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI

    Multiple Authors

    Slaves and slavery.  i. In the Achaemenid period. ii. In the Sasanian period. iii. In the Islamic period up to the Mongol invasion. iv. From the Mongols to the abolition of slavery. v. Military slavery in Islamic Iran.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI i. Achaemenid Period

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    At the beginning of the Achaemenid period, the institution of slavery was still poorly developed in Iran. In Media a custom existed whereby a poor man could place himself at the disposal of a rich person if the latter agreed to feed him. The position of such a man was similar to that of a slave.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI ii. In the Sasanian period

    Maria Macuch

    The most commonly used expressions designating slaves in the Middle Persian sources are anšahrīg, literally “foreigner,” and bandag, literally “bound.” The latter term does not exclusively designate the slave but is used of every subject of the sovereign.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI iii. In the Islamic period up to the Mongol invasion

    C. E. Bosworth

    Early Islamic society was essentially a slave-holding one, and it seems likely that Iranian society of the time exhibited two of the types of slavery known elsewhere in the pre-modern Old World—agricultural/industrial slavery and domestic slavery.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI iv. From the Mongols to the abolition of slavery

    Willem Floor

    After the Mongol period, the manner in which white slaves were obtained basically remained unchanged, that is, warfare and raids continued to be the main slave-producing activities.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI v. Military slavery in Islamic Iran

    C. E. Bosworth

    Military slavery may have been known in the Sasanian period, but, as the Sasanian army was based essentially on the free, mailed cavalryman, any slaves within it can only have been in the little-regarded following of infantrymen.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI vi. Regulations Governing Slavery in Islamic Jurisprudence

    Hamid Algar

    Slavery is designated in feqh (religious law) as reqq “weakness.” The weakness in question is extrinsic to the person of the slave and results from his legal debarment (ḥejr).

  • BARḎAʿA

    C. E. Bosworth

    or BARDAʿA (Arm. Partav, Georgian Bardavi, Mid. Pers. Pērōzāpāt), the chief town until the 10th century of the Islamic province of Arrān, the classical Caucasian Albania.

  • BARDAŠĪR

    cross-reference

    old name of the city of Kermān.

  • BARDESANES

    P. O. Skjærvø

    (Syr. Bar Dayṣān, Ar. Ebn Dayṣān), gnostic thinker (154-222) who occupies a position between the Syriac gnostic systems of the first two centuries A.D. and the Iranian gnostic system of Mani of the third century.

  • BARDIYA

    M. A. Dandamayev

    the younger son of Cyrus the Great. Tarius in his Behistun inscription (DB 1.30-33) says that Cambyses, after becoming king, but before his departure to Egypt, slew Bardiya and that the assassination was kept a secret from the people.

  • BAṚĒC(Ī)

    D. Balland

    a Pashtun tribe in southern Afghanistan. Location of the Baṛēc at the southern extremity of Pashtun territory and at the limits of the Baluch has allowed multiple contacts with the latter and Brahui, including intermarriages, as well as linguistic or even genealogical assimilation.

  • BARĒLVĪ, AḤMAD ŠAHĪD

    Q. Ahmad

    Indo­-Muslim saint, author of Persian works, known for his reformist ideas, military ventures, and eventual martyr­dom (1786-1831).

  • BARƎSMAN

    Cross-Reference

    See BARSOM.

  • BĀREZĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀRZĀNĪ.

  • BARF

    D. Balland, B. Hourcade, and C. M. Kieffer

    On the tropical margins of the Irano-Afghan plateau, snow is in fact exceptional below an altitude of 1,000 meters. Not that it cannot fall in abundance there, but then it is a memorable event. In the remaining two-thirds of the territory of Iran and Afghanistan snow is a common occurrence.

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  • BĀRFORŪŠĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ

    D. M. MacEoin

    , MOLLĀ, important figure in early Babism (1823-49).

  • BARG-E BŪ

    A. Parsa

    (or deraḵt-e ḡār; Eng. laurel and sweet bay), Laurus nobilis, the most popular species of the family Lauraceae, the one used for laurel wreaths. The tree is common in Persian gardens.

  • BARḠAŠI, ABU’L MOẒAFFAR MOḤAMMAD b. EBRAHIM

    C. E. Bosworth

    vizier to two of the last Samanid Amirs of Transoxiana and Khorasan. 

  • BARGOSTVĀN

    A. S. Melikian-Chirvani

    horse armor, a distinctive feature of Iranian warfare from very early times on. The earliest known helmet (chamfron) has been excavated at Ḥasanlū from a 9th-century B.C. stratum.

  • BĀRHANG

    Hakim M. Said

    (also bārtang), plantain, general name for about 27 species of Plantago L. (family Plantaginaceae) in Iran, particularly the greater plantain,  the lesser plantain, and fleawort.

  • BARĪD

    C. E. Bosworth

    the official postal and intelligence service of the early Islamic caliphate and its successor states. The service operated by means of couriers mounted on mules or horses or camels or traveling on foot.

  • BARĪDŠĀHĪ DYNASTY

    R. M. Eaton

    The Barīdšāhī dynasty achieved its cultural apex in the mid-16th century, under the thirty-seven-year rule of ʿAlī Barīd. The first Barīdšāhī to adopt the title “king,” ʿAlī presided over the apogee of Barīdšāhī architecture, the most important specimens of which were his tomb and the Rangīn Maḥal, a palace adorned with wood carving and mother-of-pearl.

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  • BARIKĀNU

    M. A. Dandamayev

    a town in Media, which was conquered and forced to pay a tribute by the Assyrian king Sargon II ca. 716 B.C.

  • BARIŠ NASK

    P. O. Skjærvø

    one of the lost nasks of the Haδamąθra group of the Avesta, analyzed in Dēnkard 8.9.

  • BARKĪĀROQ

    C. E. Bosworth

    ROKN-AL-DĪN ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR B. MALEKŠĀH, Great Saljuq sultan (r. 1092-1105); his reign convention­ally marks the opening stages of the decline of Great Saljuq unity.

  • BARḴᵛARDĀR TORKMĀN

    R. D. McChesney

    , MĪRZĀ, author of Aḥsan al-sīar, a history of Shah Esmāʿīl Ṣafawī, completed 1523-24 or 1530-31.

  • BARLAAM AND IOSAPH

    J. P. Asmussen

    Persian Belawhar o Būdāsaf, a Greek Christian or Christianized novel of Buddhist origins. All the manuscripts are later than 1500. Being extremely popular it received various accretions and was often translated.

  • BARLEY

    M. Bazin, D. Balland

    The cultivation of barley in Iran, like that of wheat, goes back to the origin of agriculture itself. Both botanical and archeological data locate the beginning of the “Neolithic revolution” in the Fertile Crescent, where both wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, and a wide-grain kind of wild wheat, Triticum dicoccoides can still be found.

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  • BARM-e DELAK

    L. Vanden Berghe

    a site with a spring about 10 km southeast of Shiraz, where three panels bearing two Sasanian rock reliefs are carved in the mountain at a height of about 6.5 m above the ground.  

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  • BARMAKIDS

    I. Abbas

    or Barāmeka,  fam­ily stemming from Balḵ, secretaries and viziers under the early ʿAbbasids, not before Hešām b. ʿAbd al-Malek (723-42), until 802 (under Hārūn al-Rašīd).

  • BĀRMĀN

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    the son of Vīsa, one of the Turanian heroes mentioned in the Šāh-nāma as a member of the army that Afrāsīāb led into Iran during the reign of Nowḏar.

  • BARMĀYA

    Dj. Khaleghi Motlagh

    in the traditional history, the name of a cow associated with Ferēdūn and eventually killed by Żaḥḥāk.

  • BARNĀMA-RĪZĪ

    F. Daftary

    “planning.” Among the countries of the Middle East Iran has a relatively long history of economic development planning. By the time of the revolution in 1979, five development plans of various durations had been implemented in ran over a thirty-year period.

  • BARNAVĪ, ʿALĀ-AL-DĪN ČEŠTĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ČEŠTĪYA.

  • BARQ

    W. Floor and B. Hourcade, D. Balland

    The electrification of individual government build­ings appears to have begun during the reign of Nāṣer-al-­Dīn Shah with the state armory and the shah’s residence in Tehran It was only in 1900 that the first electrical plant (of 6,6 kw) was built in Iran, in the city of Mašhad.

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  • BARQ newspapers

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    (Lightning), the name of three Persian newspapers, 1910-17,  1943, 1950s.

  • BARQĀNĪ, ABŪ BAKR AḤMAD

    H. Schützinger

    B. MOḤAMMAD B. AḤMAD B. ḠĀLEB (948-1034), a traditionist (moḥaddeṯ), philologist, and lawyer of the Shafeʿite school.

  • BARR, KAJ

    J. P. Asmussen

    Danish orientalist (1896-1970). Among his publications are an edition from F. C. Andreas’s papers of the Pahlavi Psalter fragments discovered at Turfan and a collaboration with A. Christensen and W. B. Henning to publish Andreas’s notes on Iranian dialects.

  • BARRA

    G. Cardascia

    or bāru, an Iranian loanword designating a tax in Babylonian texts. The word appears nearly seventy times between 442 and 417 B.C. almost exclusively in tax receipts.

  • BARRASĪHĀ-YE TĀRĪḴĪ

    N. Parvīn

    journal of historical studies of Iran, 1966-78. Some of the articles, particularly those bearing on the eighteenth and nineteenth cen­turies and descriptive geography, were well researched and original. The journal also published a number of historical documents.

  • BARŠABBĀ

    N. Sims-Williams

    legendary bishop of Marv and founder of the Christian church in eastern Iran. The only completely preserved versions of the legend are found in Arabic sources.

  • BARṢAUMĀ

    A. Vööbus

    a 5th-century bishop of Nisibis. As a convinced Nestorian, he believed that the Persian church should follow this course, as it was in the interest of the Sasanian state to wean the church away from the West.

  • BARSĪĀN

    W. Kleiss

    a village in the dehestān of Barāʾān 45 km southeast of Isfahan on the north bank of the Zāyandarūd; situated on the old caravan route from Isfahan to Yazd, it prospered quickly in Saljuq times.

  • BARSḴĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    or Barsḡān, a place in Central Asia, on the southern shores of the Ïsïq-Göl, in the region known as Semirechye or Yeti-su “the land of the seven rivers,” in what is now the Kyrgyz Republic.

  • BARSOM

    M. F. Kanga

    (Av. barəsman), sacred twigs that form an important part of the Zoroastrian liturgical apparatus. The number varies according to the ceremony to be performed. Today brass or silver wires are used in place of twigs.

  • BARSOM YAŠT

    P. O. Skjærvø

    in the liturgical manuscripts of the Avesta the name of the second hād (chapter) of the Yasna.

  • BARTANGĪ

    G. Buddruss

    The first text in Bartangī, a specimen of folk poetry, was published by Zarubin in 1924. The text corpus available now is limited: Zarubin, 1937 (poetry; prose text in Bartangī and Rōšanī); Sokolova, 1953 (text with versions in Šuḡnī, Rōšānī, Ḵūfī, and Bar­tangī); Sokolova, 1960 (twelve texts with glossary, list of morphemes, and Russian-Bartangī index).

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  • BARTHÉLEMY, ADRIEN

    F. Richard

    French orientalist (1859-1949). A devoted linguist, he published a study of the Pahlavi Gujastag Abāliš, before a career in diplomacy led him to a monumental dictionary of eastern Arabic dialects.

  • BARTHOLD, VASILIĭ VLADIMIROVICH

    Yu. Bregel

    Russian orientalist (1869-1930). He was the first who put the study of the history of Central Asia on a firm scholarly basis and actually founded this branch of Oriental studies. But he never studied Central Asia in isolation.

  • BARTHOLOMAE, CHRISTIAN

    R. Schmitt

    German scholar of Iranian and Indo-European studies (1855-1925). Bartholomae devoted the main part of his life and work to Iranian linguistics, his chief endeavor being directed toward the integration of Iranian into the framework of Indo-European languages.

  • BARTHOLOMAE’S LAW

    M. Mayrhofer

    the name given to a rule of phonetic assimilation in the Indo-Iranian and probably also the proto-Indo-European languages first noted by Christian Bartholomae in 1882.

  • BĀRŪ

    W. Kleiss

    (or bāra), fortress in general, defensive wall, rampart. Defensive walls and earthworks dating from the start of human settlement in Iran still survive. Their forms evolved in parallel with the development of offensive and defensive weapons.

  • BARUCH

    Sh. Shaked

    scribe and disciple of the prophet Jeremiah, at the time of the first Jewish exile to Babylonia (586 B.C.).  Baruch was identified with Zoroaster by some Syriac authors, followed by some Arab historians.

  • BĀRŪT

    W. Floor

    “gunpowder.” Guns and cannon, and thus gunpowder, probably were first introduced in Iran during Uzun Ḥasan Āq Qoyunlū’s reign; in 1473 he asked Venice for “artillery, arquebuses, and gunners.”

  • BARZAN

    W. Eilers

    part of a town, quarter (maḥalla), street (kūča). In modern Iranian place names the forms Varzan and Varzana are common.

  • BĀRZĀNĪ

    W. Behn

    a Kurdish tribe from Bārzān, a town of northeastern Iraq. The shaikhs of Bārzān came to prominence in the disorder following sup­pression of the semi-independent Kurdish principalities in the mid-19th century.

  • BARZĪN

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (from Pahlavi Burzēn), the name of several figures in the Šāh-nāma.

  • BAŠĀKERD

    B. Spooner

    a roughly rectan­gular mountainous district (dehestān) east of Mīnāb and north of Jāsk. The topography and the natural conditions are similar to Makrān to the immediate east.

  • BASAWAL

    Sh. Kuwayama

    the site of a Buddhist cave temple complex in eastern Afghanistan. The caves, 150 in all, are partly hewn out in two rows and arranged in seven groups, which presumably corre­spond to the seven monastic institutions of Buddhist times.

  • BĀṢERĪ

    F. Barth

    a pastoral nomadic tribe of Fārs belonging to the Ḵamsa confederacy. The nomads keep sheep, intermingled with 10-20 percent goats, and use donkeys for transport.

  • BĀŠGĀH-E AFSARĀN

    M. Ṣāneʿī

    (Officers’ Club), an impressive building in Tehran, built in 1939.

  • BĀŠGĀH-E ARĀMENA

    ʿA.-A. Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    (the Armenian Club), a non-profit, non-political social club, founded 1 January 1918 by Armenians in Tehran.

  • BĀŠGĀH-E MEHRAGĀN

    Ḥ. Maḥmūdī

    (Mehragān Club), an organization of the Iran Teachers Association open to teachers, students, and other in­tellectuals in Tehran and eventually in the provinces, 1952-62.

  • BASIL

    Hušang Aʿlam

    Ocimum L. ssp. (fam. Labiatae), now commonly called rayḥān in Persian, an aromatic plant. Ocimum basilicum L., sweet basil or basil royal, is named šāh-esparam “the royal herb.”

  • BASILIUS OF CAESAREA

    J. P. Asmussen

    or Basilius the Great (ca. A.D. 330-79), bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia from 370, after Eusebius, who wrote regarding the Magi.

  • BAŠKARDI

    P. O. Skjærvø

    (Bašākerdī), collective designation for numerous dialects spoken in southeastern Iran from Bandar-e ʿAbbās eastward, forming a transition from the dialects spoken in Fārs and Lārestān to Baluchi.

  • BASKERVILLE, HOWARD C.

    K. Ekbal

    a teacher at the American mission in Tabrīz, killed 19 April 1909 during the siege of Tabrīz by royalist troops.

  • BĀSMA

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

     a Turkish word which originally referred to a design applied (e.g., with a wood block) in ink, silver, and gold to paper, cloth, and other materials.

  • BASRA

    F. M. Donner

    (Ar. al-Baṣra), town located near the Šaṭṭ al-ʿArab river in southern Iraq, predominantly Arab, possessing a rich political, cultural, and economic history. This article concentrates mainly on describing the town’s many significant ties with Iran.

  • BASSĀM-E KORD

    Z. Safa

    the Kharijite (fl. mid-9th century), one of the first poets in the New Persian language, active at the court of the Saffarids.

  • BAŠŠĀR-E MARḠAZĪ

    Z. Safa

    a Persian poet of the 10th century, apparently from Marv in Khorasan.

  • BAST

    J. Calmard

    (sanctuary, asylum), the designation of cer­tain sanctuaries in Iran that are considered inviolable and were often used by people seeking refuge from prosecution.

  • BASṬĀM, BASṬĀMĪ

    cross-reference

    See BESṬĀM, BESṬĀMĪ FAMILY.

  • BASTANEGĀR

    J. During

    a gūša in the instrumental repertory (radīf) of classical Persian music.

  • BASTŪR

    A. Tafażżolī

    (Mid. Pers. Bastwar, Av. Bastauuairi), a hero of the Iranian national epic, son of Zarēr, King Goštāsp’s brother.

  • BĀṬĀS

    R. M. Boehmer

    a village in Iraq, Arbīl province. The nearby rock relief, no longer in good preservation, may  depict Izates II, the king of Adiabene (ca. 36-62 A.D.), who was converted to Judaism. He is likely to have ordered the carving after the unexpected retreat of the Parthian king of kings, Vologases I.

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  • BĀṬEN

    B. Radtke

    (inner, hidden), the opposite of ẓāher (outer, visible). Both terms can be predicated of living beings. Most frequently, however, they are associated with the concept ʿelm (knowledge).

  • BĀṬENĪYA

    H. Halm

    a generic term for all groups and sects which distinguished the bāṭen (inner, hidden) and the ẓāher (outer, visible) of the Koran and the Islamic law (Šarīʿa).

  • BATHHOUSES

    W. Floor, W. Kleiss

    In 1890 there were 72 bathhouses in Isfahan, which were of different quality and cleanliness; this is possibly an estimate, because only 31 public baths have been identified as remaining historical monuments. However, around 1920 there were some 85 bathhouse keepers.

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  • BĀTMAN

    Yu. Bregel

    a measure of weight, the same as mann but more common in Central Asia, especially in modern times. There was a great variety of bātmans in different regions and for weighing different goods.

  • BATRAKATAŠ

    H. Koch

    place name, apparently the same as Pasargadae, which appears on the Elamite fortification tablets found at Persepolis.

  • BATS

    A. F. DeBlase

    (Pers. šabpara, mūš(-e)kūr; Ar. ḵoffāš). All but two Iranian bat species fall into one of three geographic groups in Iran. Rousettus aegyptiacus is known from Baluchistan, Qešm island, and three sites near Jahrom in Fārs. Records indicate that it ranges across southern Iran wherever dates and other fruits are grown.

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  • BAṬṬAI YAZDĀNĪ

    W. Madelung

    the 5th-century founder or reformer of the Kantheans, a sect related to the Mandeans.

  • BATTLE-AXES in Eastern Iran

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    Battle-axes made of bronze appeared in Eastern Iran during the Bronze Age. One such object comes from a burial at the Sapalli-tepa settlement in southern Uzbekistan.

  • BAUR, FERDINAND CHRISTIAN

    W. Sundermann

    (1792-1860), German theologian and scholar of Manicheism. Most important was Baur’s view of Manicheism, as a religion born at the watershed of the ancient and Christian worlds.

  • BAUSANI, ALESSANDRO

    Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti

    (1921-1988), prolific Italian orientalist in several fields: Persian literature, Islam, linguistics, the history of Islamic science, Urdu, Indonesian, and other Islamic literatures.

  • BAVĀNĀTĪ

    Ī. Afšār

    , MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD-BĀQER, Persian man of letters, poet, instructor of Persian in London, and self-styled prophet (d. 1892-93).

  • BĀVANDIDS

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E BĀVAND.

  • BĀVĪ

    P. Oberling

    (or Bābūʾī), a Luri-speaking tribe of the Kohgīlūya, in Fārs.

  • BĀWĪYA

    J. Perry

    a Shiʿite tribe of Ḵūzestān. They range east and south of Ahvāz, between the Kārūn and Jarrāḥī rivers, to the south of Band-e Qīr and north of Māred.

  • BÄX FÄLDISỊN

    F. Thordarson

    “horse dedication,” a funeral rite practiced by the Ossetes until recent times.

  • BAY

    Cross-Reference

    See BARG-E BŪ.

  • BAYĀN (1)

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    term (lit. “statement,” “exposition,” “explanation”) from an early date encompassing the various arts of expression in speech and writing. Often ʿelm-e bayān merely denotes rhetoric as a whole.

  • BAYĀN (2)

    D. M. MacEoin

    term applied to the writings of the Bāb in general and to two late works in particular, the Bayān-e fārsī and al-Bayān al-ʿarabī.

  • BAYĀNI, JĀR-ALLĀH-ZĀDA

    Tahsin Yazici

    , Shaikh Moṣtafā (d. 1597), a Turkish poet who composed on the ḡazals of Hāfeẓ.

  • BAYĀNĪ, MEHDĪ

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    (1906-68), specialist in Persian manuscripts and calligraphy and pioneer in the field of Persian librarianship.

  • BAYĀT

    G. Doerfer

    an important Turkish tribe. A substantial proportion of the Bayāt people must have entered Iran in the train of the Saljuq invaders in the first half of the 11th century.

  • BAYĀT(Ī)

    J. During

    one of the old modes of the Irano-Arabic musical tradition, mentioned for the first time by Šayḵ Ṣafadī (15th century).

  • BAYĀT-E EṢFAHĀN

    M. Caton

    or ĀVĀZ-e EṢFAHĀN, a musical system based on a specific collection of modal pieces (gūšahā) which are performed in a particular order.

  • BAYĀT-E KORD

    M. Caton

    or KORD-e BAYĀT, a part of the modal system (dastgāh) of Šūr in Persian music.

  • BAYĀT-E TORK

    M. Caton

    a musical system (āvāz, naḡma) and one of the branches of the modal system (dastgāh) of Šūr in traditional classical music.

  • BAYATỊ, GAPPO

    F. Thordarson

    (Ger.: Georg-Gappo Baiew; 1869-1939), Ossetic man of letters.

  • BAYĀŻ

    M.-T. Dānešpažūh

    literally “white,” usually a small paper notepad that opens lengthwise and was carried around in an inside pocket. Several such MS are found in various libraries.

  • BAYAZIT

    R. W. Edwards

    (Bāyazīd; Osm. Bayezid), a stronghold located three kilometers southeast of the modern village of Doğubayazit, Turkey, and approximately twenty-five kilometers southwest of Mt. Ararat, important in the defense of Anatolia against invasion from Iran.

  • BĀYBŪRTLŪ

    P. Oberling

    (also Bāybūrdlū), a Turkic tribe of northwestern Iran whose only vestiges seem to be the names of a few historical personalities.

  • BĀYDŪ

    B. Spuler

    a son of Ṭaraḡāy and grandson of Hülegü (Hūlāgū), reigned as il-khan in Iran, 1295.

  • BAYHAQ

    C. E. Bosworth

    a rural area (rostāq) of medieval Khorasan, between the district of Nīšāpūr and the eastern borders of Qūmes, and its town, also known as Sabzavār.

  • BAYHAQĪ, ABU’L-FAŻL

    Ḡ.-Ḥ. Yūsofī

    MOḤAMMAD B. ḤOSAYN, secretary at the Ghaznavid court and renowned Persian historian (995-1077).

  • BAYHAQĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN MOḤAMMAD

    H. Halm

    B. ŠOʿAYB ʿEJLĪ NAYSĀBŪRĪ (d. 936), a jurist who helped promote the spread of the Shafeʿite school of Islamic law in Khorasan.

  • BAYHAQĪ, EBRĀHĪM

    C. E. Bosworth

    B. MOḤAMMAD, 10th-century Arabic littérateur, author of a work of adab.

  • BAYHAQĪ, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN

    H. Halm

    ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ B. ZAYD (ca. 1097-1169), also known as Ebn Fondoq, an Iranian polymath of Arab descent, author of the Tārīḵ-e Bayhaq.

  • BĀYJŪ

    P. Jackson

    Mongol general and military governor in northwestern Iran (fl. 1228-1259). He belonged to the Besüt tribe and was a kinsman of Jengiz Khan’s general Jebe (Jaba).

  • BAYLAQĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    a town of the medieval Islamic region of Arrān, the classical Caucasian Albania, lying in the triangle between the Kor and Aras (Araxes) rivers.

  • BĀYQARĀ B. ʿOMAR ŠAYḴ

    E. Glassen

    (b. 1392-93, d. 1422-23?), a Timurid prince and grandson of Tīmūr, active in Fārs.

  • BAYRAM KHAN

    N. H. Ansari

    (or BAYRĀM) KHAN, Moḥammad Ḵān(-e) Ḵānān (d. 1561), an illustrious and powerful Iranian noble at the court of the Mughal emperors Homāyūn and Akbar.

  • BAYRĀMŠĀH

    Ḡ.-Ḥ. Yūsofī

    (d. 1367-69), the beloved companion (nadīm) of Sultan Oways, second ruler (r. 1356 to 1374-75) of the Jalayerids.

  • BAYRĀNAVAND

    P. Oberling

    a Lor tribe of the Pīš(-e)Kūh region in Lorestān.

  • BĀYSONḠOR, ḠĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN

    H. R. Roemer

    B. ŠĀHROḴ B. TĪMŪR (1397-1433), Timurid prince who played an important role as a statesman and a patron of art and architecture and was himself a first-class calligrapher.

  • BĀYSONḠORĪ ŠĀH-NĀMA

    Dj. Khaleghi Motlagh, T. Lentz

    an illuminated and gilded manuscript of Ferdowsī’s Šāh-nāma measur­ing 26.5 × 38 cm, containing 346 pages and twenty-one paintings, written in nastaʿlīq, and kept in the former Royal Library (Golestan Palace Museum, no. 6) in Tehran. i. The manuscript.  ii. The paintings.

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  • BAYT

    A. Hassanpour

    a genre of Kurdish folk art, an orally transmitted story which is either entirely sung or is a combination of sung verse and spoken prose.

  • BAYT-AL-ʿADL

    M. Momen

    (House of Justice), a Bahai administrative institution.

  • BAYTUZ

    C. E. Bosworth

    a Turkish commander who controlled the town of Bost in southern Afghanistan during the middle years of the 10th century.

  • BAYŻĀ

    C. E. Bosworth

    a town of medieval Islamic Fārs (modern Tall-e Bayżā), 25 miles north of Shiraz, 8 farsaḵs according to the medieval geographers and one stage east of the Sasanian and early Islamic town of Eṣṭaḵr.

  • BAYŻĀWĪ, NĀṢER-AL-DĪN

    E. Kohlberg

    Shafeʿite jurist, Asḥʿarite theologian, and renowned Koran commentator (13th-14th centuries).

  • BĀZ

    H. Aʿlam

    general term formerly applied particularly to birds from the genera Falco (falcons) and Accipiter (hawks), which were traditionally prized and trained for hunting game birds.

  • BĀZ-NĀMA

    Moḥammad-Taqī Dānešpažūh

    books or treatises on the keeping and training of falcons.

  • BĀZA-ḴŪR

    D. Huff

    (Baz-e Hur), a village and site of some important Sasanian structures on the road from Mašhad to Torbat-e Ḥaydarīya.

  • BAZAG

    Cross-Reference

    “toilette.” See COSMETICS.

  • BĀZĀR

    Multiple Authors

    “market (place),” term which may refer to: a market day, usually once a week, when farmers bring their wares to the market to sell; a fair held at specific times; and the physical establishments, the shops, characterized by specific morphology and architectural design.

  • BAZAR i. General

    Michael E. Bonine

    Large interior courtyard caravanserais are an integral part of most bāzārs, particularly in the larger cities where international long-distance trade was once significant. Around the courtyard are single- or two-storied complexes of offices occupied by wholesalers, although the bottom level is more often for storage and in some instances even contains shopkeepers or craftsmen.

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  • BĀZĀR ii. Organization and Function

    Willem Floor

    Both weekly market days and regular fairs occurred in pre-Islamic times. Among the latter, for example, was the bāzār of Māḵ in Bukhara.

  • BAZAR iii. Socioeconomic and Political Role

    Ahmad Ashraf

    The bāzār in the Islamic city has been (1) a central marketplace and craft center located in the old quarters of the town; (2) a primary arena, along with the mosque, of extrafamilial sociability; and (3) a sociocultural milieu of a traditional urban life-style.

  • BAZAR iv. In Afghanistan

    E. F. Grötzbach

    In Afghanistan a bāzār is a collection of shops and workshops forming a topographic unit. As regards size and layout, however, there can be great differences.

  • BAZAR v. Temporary Bazars in Iran and Afghanistan

    M. Bazin

    The most firmly established form of periodic bāzār is certainly the one observed in the Caspian lowlands of Iran and especially in the central plain of Gīlān, where weekly bāzārs (bāzār-e haftagī) are part of a particularly long tradition.

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  • BĀZĀR-E WAKĪL

    Karāmat-Allāh Afsar

    an architectural monument of Shiraz from the reign of Karīm Khan Zand (Wakīl, r. 1750-79) and still an important center of business.

  • BĀZARGĀN

    Bernard Hourcade

    a village on the Turkish-Iranian frontier eighteen kilometers northwest of Mākū,  West Azerbaijan province. The development of this village is very recent and limited, linked with the nearby frontier crossing.

  • BĀZĀRGĀNĪ

    cross-reference

    See COMMERCE.

  • BĀZDĀRĪ

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    (or bāzyārī, lit. “bāz keeping,” obs.), falconry, as a practical art and as a sport.

  • BĀZGAŠT-E ADABĪ

    William L. Hanaway, Jr.

    “literary return,” a move­ment for a return to writing poetry in the Ḵorāsānī and ʿErāqī styles, which began in the mid-18th century and continued into the 20th century.

  • BĀZĪ

    Fereydūn Vahman

    (games). The growing interest in Iranian folklore in recent decades has resulted in the publication of descriptions of many games played in various parts of Iran, often to be found in dialect glossaries.

  • BĀZRANGĪ

    Richard N. Frye

    the family name of a dynasty of petty rulers in Fārs overthrown during the rise of the Sasanians.

  • BĀZYĀR

    cross-reference

    See BĀZ.

  • BĀZYĀRĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀZDĀRĪ.

  • BDEAXŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See BIDAXŠ.

  • BE SŪ-YE ĀYANDA

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Toward the future), Per­sian daily newspaper and unofficial organ of the Communist Ḥezb-e Tūda (Tudeh party, 1950-53.

  • BEADS

    cross-reference

    See JEWELRY.

  • BEANS

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    term applied to plants (and their seeds) of different genera of the vast family Leguminosae. In this article, discussion is confined to what is commonly called lūbīā in Persian.

  • BEAR

    Paul Joslin

    (Pers. ḵers, Av. arša-). Two varieties of bears are found on the Iranian plateau: the Eurasian brown bear and the Baluchistan black bear. The Eurasian brown bear is the most common of all bears. 

  • BEAUSOBRE, ISAAC DE

    Werner Sundermann

    (1659-1738), Huguenot pastor, scholar and pioneer of modern studies of Manicheism.

  • BEAVER

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    Castor fiber L., semiaquatic mammalian rodent, in Persian commonly sag-e ābī (lit. “aquatic dog”), no longer extant in Iran. There appear to be references to beavers in Avestan and Pahlavi literatures.

  • Bečka, Jiři

    Manfred Lorenz

    (1915-2004), a noted Czech scholar of Iran, Afghanistan, and particularly, Tajikistan.

  • BĒDIL

    cross-reference

    See BĪDEL.

  • BEDIR KHAN

    Mehmed Uzun

    (Badr Khan; d. 1867), last ruler of the principality of Cizre-Botan, by extension, name of a Kurdish clan that has played important political, social, and cultural roles since the mid-19th century.

  • BEDLĪS

    Robert Dankoff

    (Turk. Bitlis, Arm. Bałēš, Ar. Badlīs), town and province of Turkey, of Kurdish population, situated twenty km southwest of Lake Van, commanding the passes between the Armenian highlands and the Mesopotamian lowlands.

  • BEDLĪSĪ, ḤAKĪM-AL-DĪN EDRĪS

    Cornell H. Fleischer

    B. ḤOSĀM-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ, MAWLĀNĀ (d. 1520), scholar, his­torian, poet, and statesman under the Ottoman Sultan Salīm I (r. 1512-20).

  • BEDLĪSĪ, ŠARAF-AL-DĪN KHAN

    Erika Glassen

    (b. 1543, d. 1603-04?), chief of the Rūzagī tribe of Kurds, whose traditional center was the town of Bedlīs; author of the Šaraf-nāma, a history of the Kurds in Persian.

  • BEDLĪSĪ, ŻĪĀʾ-AL-DĪN ʿAMMĀR

    Edward Badeen

    Sufi shaikh (d. between 1194 and 1207-08), teacher of Najm-al-Din Kobrā.

  • BEDŽỊZATỊ ČERMEN

    Fridrik Thordarson

    (Russ.: Chermen Begizov; DAUỊTỊ FỊRT;  1899-1941), Ossetic writer and editor.

  • BEECH

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    Fagus L. Modern Iranian botanists tend to refer to this tree as rāš. Its timber is used more than any other wood for making doors, windows, inexpensive furni­ture, and tools.

  • BEET

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    Beta vulgaris L., PERS. čoḡondar. The present distinction of beet varieties into vegetable (or red) beet, sugar beet, and fodder beet was unknown to the early Islamic botanists-pharmacologists.

  • BEG

    Peter Jackson

    (Pers. also beyg) a Turkish title meaning “lord” or “chief,” later “prince,” equivalent to the Arabic-Persian amīr, fem. BEGOM.

  • BEGGING

    C. Edmund Bosworth, Hamid Algar, ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    (Pers. gadāʾī, takaddī, soʾāl).  i. In the early centuries of the Islamic period. ii. In Sufi literature and practice. iii. In later Iran.

  • BEGLERBEGĪ

    Peter Jackson

    a Turkish title meaning “beg of begs,” “commander of commanders,” In the Il-khanid period sometimes employed to designate the leading amir in the state.

  • BEGRĀM

    Martha L. Carter

    the site of ancient Kāpiśa, located 80.5 km north of Kabul overlooking the Panjšīr valley at the confluence of the Panjšīr and Ḡorband rivers.

  • BEGTOḠDÏ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Turkish slave com­mander of the Ghaznavid sultans Maḥmūd and Masʿūd (d. 1040).

  • BEGTUZUN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (Pers. Baktūzūn), a Turkish slave general of the Samanids prominent in the confused struggles for power during the closing years of the Samanid amirate (end of the 10th century).

  • BEH

    Wilhelm Eilers, Hūšang Aʿlam, Nesta Ramazani

    “quince, Cydonia.”  i. The word.  ii. The tree.  iii. Culinary uses of the fruit. Wild quince trees are found in the Caucasus, and the cultivated variety may have originated there.

  • BEH-ARDAŠĪR

    Michael Morony

    (Mid. Pers. Vēh-Ardaxšēr, Ar. Bahorasīr), name of two cities founded by the first Sasanian king of kings, Ardašīr I (r. 226-41).

  • BEH-QOBĀD

    Michael Morony

    (Mid. Pers. Vēh-Kavāt), an administrative district created by the Sasanian king Qobād I in the early sixth century along the Babylon branch of the Euphrates.

  • BEHĀFARĪD

    Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī

    Zoroastrian heresiarch and self-styled prophet, killed 748-49.

  • BEḤĀR AL-ANWĀR

    Etan Kohlberg

    (Oceans of light) by Mollā Moḥammad-Bāqer b. Moḥammad-Taqī Majlesī (d. 1699 or 1700), an encyclopedic compilation in Arabic of Imamite traditions.

  • BEHAZIN

    ḤASSAN MIRʿĀBEDINI

    noted translator, editor, fiction writer, and active Marxist, who, in different stages of his literary career, assumed other pseudonyms: Nowruz ʿAli Āzād, and Hormoz Malekdād. In January 1938, he returned to Iran to serve in the navy and was posted in Ḵorramπahr, where he found ample leisure time to pursue his literary interests.

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  • BEHBAHĀN

    Aḥmad Eqtedārī

    Iranian city and county (šahrestān) in the province of Ḵūzestān.

  • BEHBAHĀNĪ, ʿABD-ALLĀH

    cross-reference

    See ʿABD-ALLĀH BEHBAHĀNĪ.

  • BEHBAHĀNĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Hamid Algar

    , AYATOLLAH (1874-1963), a leading mojtahed of Tehran who played a role of some importance in the events of the first two postwar decades.

  • BEHBAHĀNĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ

    Hamid Algar

    B. MOḤAMMAD-BĀQER, ĀQĀ  (1731-1801), Shiʿite mojtahed celebrated primarily for his ferocious hatred of Sufis.

  • BEHBAHĀNĪ, MOḤMMAD-BĀQER

    Hamid Algar

    , ĀQĀ SAYYED, Shiʿite mojtahed and champion of the Oṣūlī school in Shiʿite law (feqh).

  • BEHBŪDĪ

    Yuri Bregel

    , MOLLĀ MAḤMŪD ḴᵛĀJA (1875-1919), one of the leaders of the Jadīd movement in Central Asia in the 1900s-1910s, journalist and playwright.

  • BEHDĀRĪ

    Mohammad Ali Faghih

    Despite the advent of western physicians and the introduction of western medicine into Iran in the late seventeenth century and the foundation of the Polytechnic in the mid-nineteenth, at the outset of Reżā Shah’s reign, medicine in Iran was still predominantly Galenic in nature, based mostly on the traditional schools of Persian medicine.

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  • BEHDĀŠT BARĀ-YE HAMA

    Akbar Moarefi

    (“Health for All”), a magazine published by the Division of Public Health Education in Tehran, 1953-56.

  • BEHDĪN

    James R. Russell

    “the Good Religion,” i.e., Zoroastrianism, or one of its adherents, in modern usage, specifically of the laity.

  • BEHDĪNĀN DIALECT

    Gernot L. Windfuhr

    a Central dialect spoken by the Behdīnān “the people of the Good Religion,” i.e., Zoroastrianism, who live in, or came from, the cities of Kermān and Yazd and surrounding towns and villages.  

  • BEHEŠT-E ZAHRĀʾ

    Hamid Algar

    the chief cemetery of Teh­ran and principal shrine of the Islamic Revolution of 1357 Š./1978-79.

  • BEHĪZAK

    cross-reference

    See CALENDARS.

  • BEHRAMSHAH NAOROJI SHROFF

    John R. Hinnells

    (1858-­1927), Parsi religions teacher and founder of the move­ment known as Ilm-i Khshnoom (ʿElm-e ḵošnūm; Path of knowledge).

  • BEHRANGĪ, ṢAMAD

    Michael C. Hillmann

    (1939-1968), teacher, social critic, folklorist, translator, and short story writer.

  • BEHRŪZ DONBOLĪ

    cross-reference

    , AMĪR. See DONBOLĪ, AMĪR BEHRŪZ.

  • BEHRŪZ, ḎABĪḤ

    Paul Sprachman

    (1889-1971), Persian satirist,  writer of highly popular parodies and burlesques.

  • BEHŠAHR

    Eckart Ehlers

    older Ašraf, a town situated at 36°41′55″ north latitude and 53°32′30″ east longitude in the eastern part of central Māzandarān.

  • BEHSOTŪN, ABŪ MANṢŪR

    cross-reference

    See BĪSOTŪN, ABŪ MANṢŪR.

  • BEHZĀD

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    in the traditional history, the name of the black horse belonging successively to Sīāvoš, Kay Ḵosrow, and Goštāsb.

  • BEHZĀD, ḤOSAYN

    Layla Diba

    (1894-1968), lacquer artist, painter, and book illustrator.

  • BEHZĀD, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN

    Priscilla Soucek

    master painter, proverbial for his skill, active in Herat during the reign of the Timurid Ḥosayn Bāyqarā (1470-1506).

  • BEKTĀŠ, ḤĀJĪ

    Hamid Algar

    (d. 1270-71?), Khorasanian Sufi and eponym of the Bektāšī order, once widespread in Anatolia and the Balkans, with offshoots in Egypt, Iraq, and Western Iran.

  • BEKTĀŠĪYA

    Hamid Algar

    a syncretic and heterodox Sufi order, found principally in Anatolia and the Balkans, with offshoots in other regions, named after Ḥājī Bektāš and regarding him as its founding elder (pīr).

  • BELBĀS

    Pierre Oberling

    a former Kurdish tribal confederacy of northwestern Iran and northeastern Iraq.

  • BELDERČĪN

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    (quail, Coturnix coturnix L.). The quail is mentioned in both the Bible and the Koran. Allusions to these Koranic reminiscences are occasionally found in Persian poetry. Various virtues are attributed to the quail in traditional or popular Islamic medicine.

  • BELGIAN-IRANIAN RELATIONS

    Annette Destrée

    Official diplomatic relations between Belgium and Iran date from the end of the nineteenth century.

  • BELGRĀMĪ, ʿABD-AL-JALĪL

    cross-reference

    See ʿABD-AL­-JALĪL BELGRĀMĪ.

  • BELGRĀMĪ, ĀZĀD

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀZĀD BELGRĀMĪ.

  • BELL, GERTRUDE Margaret Lowthian

    G. Michael Wickens

    (1868-1926), British traveler, private scholar, archeolo­gist, sometime government servant, and a translator of Ḥāfeẓ.

  • BELLES LETTRES i. SASANIAN IRAN

    Werner Sundermann

    Belles lettres, that is, entertaining works, are not lacking in Sasanian Iran but can by no means match with their development in New Persian literature, both for quality and quantity.

  • BELLEW, HENRY WALTER

    D. Neil MacKenzie

    (1834-92), surgeon and amateur orientalist. Throughout his service he took a lively interest in the languages and ethnography of the peoples within his charge.

  • BELOVED

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (maʿšūq in Arabic and Persian), together with Lover (ʿāšeq) and Love (ʿešq), making the three concepts that dominate the semantic field of eroticism in Persian literature and mysticism.

  • BELOWHAR O BŪDĀSAF

    Cross-Reference

    See BARLAAM AND IOSAPH.

  • BELQĪS

    Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī

    the queen of Sheba (Sabā), whose meetings with Solomon (Solaymān) are a favorite theme in Persian and Arabic literature.

  • BELTS

    Multiple Authors

    (Mid. Pers, kamar, NPers. kamar-band). Investigation of representations of belts in Iran between the fall of the Achaemenid dynasty in the 4th century BC and the coming of Islam reveals that they were almost exclusively male accessories. Depictions of females wearing belts are rare, and most are heavily influenced by Hellenistic and Roman styles.

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  • BĒMA

    Werner Sundermann

    the chief festival of the Manicheans. The Greek word bēma meant “platform,” “stage,” or “judge’s seat.” 

  • BENDŌY

    Cross-Reference

    See BESṬĀM O BENDŌY.

  • BENFEY, THEODOR

    Thomas Oberlies

    German comparative philologist with a focus on Indian languages. His path-breaking research on the Pañcatantra made him one of the pioneers of comparative folklore studies.

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  • BENGAL

    Richard M. Eaton, N. H. Ansari and S. H. Qasemi

    the deltaic region of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna rivers, and the easternmost haven of Indo-Iranian culture on the Indian subcontinent.

  • BENNIGSEN, ALEXANDRE

    Michael Rywkin

    (1913-1988), scholar of Soviet Islam. Bennigsen saw the unassimilable quality of Soviet Muslim peoples and the continued strength of Soviet Islam based on the national-religious symbiosis.

  • BENVENISTE, ÉMILE

    Gilbert Lazard

    (1902-76), French scholar, eminent Iranist, and one of the greatest linguists of his era. At a very young age he caught the attention of the dean of linguistics in France, Antoine Meillet, and was soon engaged in the research activities that he was to pursue through half a century.

  • BERENJ “brass”

    A. Souren Melikian-Chirvani, James W. Allan

    Very few analyses have been carried out on Iranian metalwork. It would seem that brass was used for making many of the wares executed from sheet metal hammered into shape and then engraved and inlaid with silver that were the products of the Khorasan school in the later 12th and early 13th centuries.

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  • BERENJ “rice”

    Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger, Daniel Balland, Ṣoḡrā Bāzargān

    Rice farming is a marginal activity in arid regions where it is limited to a few areas with an adequate water supply: namely the lower Aras and Qezel Ozon valleys; the upper Isfahan oasis; some oases in Khorasan, Sīstān, and Baluchistan; parts of the alluvial plain of Ḵūzestān; the Marvdašt plain and other basins in Fārs.

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  • BEREZIN, IL’YA NIKOLAEVICH

    Jean Calmard

    (1818-96), Rus­sian orientalist known for his works on Iranian, Arabic, and Turkish philology and dialectology and on Mongol history,  and for his travel ac­counts.

  • BERJĪS

    Wilhelm Eilers

    Arabic word listed in the dictionaries as meaning the planet Jupiter (usually al-Moštarī in Arabic, Hormozd in Persian).

  • BERK-YARUQ

    cross-reference

    See BARKĪĀROQ.

  • BEROSSUS

    Stanley M. Burstein

    Babylonian 4th-3rd-century priest-chronicler; he took note of Iranian actions insofar as they directly affected Babylon.

  • BERTHELS, EVGENIĭ ÈDUARDOVICH

    Michael Zand

    [BERTEL’S] (1890-1957), Soviet Iranologist, head of the Soviet school of Persian and Central Asian Turkic studies in the 1930s-50s.

  • BERYĀNĪ

    Ṣoḡrā Bāzargān

    (from beryān “roast”), an Iranian meat dish usually served wrapped in flat bread.

  • BĒŠĀPŪR

    Cross-Reference

    See BĪŠĀPŪR.

  • BEŠĀRAT

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Glad tidings), a weekly Persian journal of news and political comment, Mašhad, 1907.

  • BESĀṬ

    Cross-Reference

    See CARPETS.

  • BESĀṬĪ SAMARQANDĪ

    Zabihollah Safa

    , SERĀJ AL-DĪN, Per­sian poet (14th-15th centuries).

  • BESMEL ŠĪRĀZĪ

    Zabihollah Safa

    , ḤĀJĪ ʿALĪ-AKBAR, also known as Nawwāb, Persian writer and poet of note of the 18th-19th centuries.

  • BESMELLĀH

    Philippe Gignoux, Hamid Algar

    Islamic formula meaning “in the name of God,” more fully Besmellāh al-raḥmān al-raḥīm “in the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.”

  • BESSOS

    Michael Weiskopf

    satrap of Bactria and last Achaemenid king (ca. 336-329 BC). From his capital at Bactra (Zariaspa), in the area of modern Balḵ, Bessos exercised control over Bactria, Sogdia to the north, and border regions of India.

  • BESṬĀM (1)

    Wilhelm Eilers

    (or Bestām), an Iranian man’s name; as a result of its past popularity, it is a fairly common component of place names.

  • BESṬĀM (2)

    Wolfram Kleiss

    (or Basṭām), Elamite Rusa-i Uru.Tur, the name of a village at the foot of the ruins of an ancient Urartian hill fortress in the province of West Azerbaijan (85 km southeast of Mākū and 54 km northwest of Ḵᵛoy; altitude ca. 1,300 m above sea level).

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BESṬĀM (3)

    Chahryar Adle

    or Basṭām, a small town in the medieval Iranian province of Qūmes and modern Ostān-e Semnān. It is located in a large valley on the southern foothills of the Alborz.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BESṬĀM O BENDŌY

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    maternal uncles of Ḵosrow II Parvēz and leading statesmen and soldiers under Hormozd IV and Ḵosrow Parvēz.

  • BESṬĀMĪ family

    Richard W. Bulliet

    leading family among the Shafeʿites of Nīšāpūr from the late 4th/10th through the early 6th/12th century.

  • BESṬĀMĪ, BĀYAZĪD

    Hamid Algar

    [Basṭāmī], ABŪ MOḤAMMAD BĀYAZĪD b. ʿEnāyat-Allāh, a 16th-century faqīh and Sufi of Khorasan.

  • BESṬĀMĪ, ŠEHĀB-AL-DĪN

    Hamid Algar

    [Basṭāmī], SHAIKH (d. 1405), a Sufi of Herat during the Timurid period.

  • BESṬĀMĪ, ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    Hamid Algar

    b. Moḥammad b. ʿAlī [Basṭāmī], al-Ḥanafī, al-Ḥorūfī (d.1454), Ottoman polymath of Khorasanian ancestry.

  • BESṬĀMĪ, BĀYAZĪD

    Gerhard Böwering

    [Basṭāmī] (Abū Yazīd Ṭayfūr b. ʿĪsā b. Sorūšān), early (9th-century) Muslim mystic of Iran. Much of his fame is owing to ecstatic utterances, which he was the first to employ consistently as expressions of Sufi experience.

  • BĒṮ ĀRAMAYĒ

    Michael Morony

    lit. “land of the Arameans,” the region and Sasanian province of Āsōristān in Iraq between the Jabal Ḥamrīn and Maysān.

  • BĒṮ DARAYĒ

    Michael Morony

    (Arabic Bādarāyā), a district southeast of the lower Nahrawān canal in Gōḵē (Arż Jūḵā), Iraq.

  • BĒṮ GARMĒ

    Michael Morony

    a region and province in northeastern Iraq named after a people, possibly a Persian tribe.

  • BĒṮ LAPAṬ

    Michael Morony

    the Syriac name for Vēh Antiōk Šāpūr (Gondēšāpūr), founded in ca. 260 by Šāpūr I in Ḵūzestān with the Roman captives from Valerian’s army.

  • BĒṮ SELŌḴ

    Michael Morony

    “house of Seleucos,” abbreviation of Karkā ḏe Bēṯ Selōḵ, “fortress of the house of Seleucos,” modern Kirkuk in Iraq.

  • BĒṬANĪ

    Daniel Balland

    a Pash­tun tribe on the eastern edge of the Solaymān moun­tains. The recent history of the Bēṭanī has been largely determined by the land that they now inhabit, adjacent to the plains of the middle Indus and the Wazīr uplands.

  • BETLĪS

    cross-reference

    See BEDLĪS.

  • BĒVARASP

    cross-reference

    See ŻAḤḤĀK.

  • BHADRA

    Ronald E. Emmerick

    a magician, who according to Buddhist legend tried to deceive the Buddha by means of his magic powers in order to disprove the Buddha’s claim to omniscience.

  • BHADRACARYĀDEŚANĀ

    Ronald E. Emmerick

    the name of a Buddhist text belonging to the Mahāyāna Tantric tradition of which a Khotanese translation is extant.

  • BHADRAKALPIKASŪTRA

    Ronald E. Emmerick

    the name of a Buddhist Mahayanist text (Sanskrit sutra) concerning the names of the Buddhas to appear in the good aeon (Sanskrit bhadrakalpa).

  • BHAGARIAS

    Mary Boyce and Firoze M. P. Kotwal

    lit. “Sharers,”  one of the five groups (panth) of Parsi Zoroastrian priests on the coast of Gujarat.

  • BHAGVĀN DĀS HENDĪ

    N. H. Ansari

    Indian poet and author writing in Persian. He belonged to the Hindu Srīvāstava Kāyastha community, which is known for its deep interest in Persian.

  • BHAIṢAJYAGURUVAIḌŪRYAPRABHARĀJASŪTRA

    Ronald E. Emmerick

    the name of a Buddhist Mahayanist text of which a number of fragments in Old Khotanese and Sogdian are extant.

  • BHANDĀRĪ

    N. H. Ansari

    putative author of Ḵolāṣat al-tawārīḵ, a general history of India written in Persian during the reign of Awrangzēb (r. 1658-1707), with special emphasis on the rulers of Delhi.

  • BHARUCHA, SHERIARJI DADABHAI

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    Parsi scholar (1843-1915). During the last years of his life he was criticized for his reformist views that the Zoroastrian religion was not meant for a particular fold but was open for all.

  • BHARUCHAS

    Mary Boyce and Firoze M. P. Kotwal

    the name of a group (panth) of Parsi Zoroastrian priests who had their headquarters at the ancient port of Bharuch (Broach) in Gujarat.

  • BHAVĀṄGA

    Ronald E. Emmerick

    the name assigned by H. W. Bailey to ten fragmentary Khotanese folios, a transcription of which he published.

  • BHOWNAGGREE, Mancherjee Merwanjee

    John McLeod

    , Sir, Parsi statesman (1851-1933). His ancestors were from the principality of Bhāvnagar in Gujarat, whence his surname originates.

  • BĪA-PAS, BĪA-PĪŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See GĪLĀN.

  • BĪĀBĀN

    Brian Spooner

    name of the coastal plain that extends south from the mouth of the Mīnāb river for 88 miles to the cape Raʾs al-Kūh, which is 30 miles west of the Jask promontory.

  • BĪĀBĀN

    Cross-Reference

    Persian word meaning “desert.” See DESERT.

  • BĪĀBĀNAK

    Eckart Ehlers

    a group of isolated oasis settlements in central Iran, stretching over an area of 70 by 90 miles of what is mostly desert.

  • BĪĀR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (from Ar. plur. of beʾr “well, spring”), a small settlement of medieval Islamic times on the northern fringe or the Dašt-e Kavīr, modern Bīārjomand.

  • BĪBĪ KHANOM MOSQUE

    Bernard O’Kane

    named after Bībī Khanom, otherwise known as Sarāy-Molk Khanom, chief wife of Tīmūr (r. 7/1370-1405).

  • BĪBĪ ŠAHRBĀNŪ

    Mary Boyce

    the dedication of a Moslem shrine on a hillside by Ray to the south of Tehran. The legend attached to it is that of Šahrbānū, a daughter of the last Sasanian king, Yazdegerd III (r. 632-51).

  • BĪBĪ ZAYNAB, MAUSOLEUM OF

    Bernard O’Kane

    named after Bībī Zaynab, its legendary occupant, together with her mother Oljā Aīm, the wet nurse of Tīmūr (r. 1370-1405). It is in the Šāh-e Zenda necropolis in Samarkand.

  • BIBLE

    Multiple Authors

    This series of articles covers various aspects of the Bible, as pertaining to Iran and Iranian lands.

  • BIBLE i. As a Source for Median and Achaemenid History

    M. A. Dandamayev

    The old biblical texts arose in various historic periods. Except for some parts of the books of Ezra and Daniel, composed in Aramaic, all these texts are written in Hebrew.

  • BIBLE ii. Persian Elements in the Bible

    Morton Smith

    Identification of Persian elements in the Bible is difficult because: (1) nobody knows just what was “Persian” when the biblical books were being written. (2) many things then “Persian” were also elements of other cultures.

  • BIBLE iii. Chronology of Translations

    Kenneth J. Thomas

    1. Middle Iranian translations. 4th century. Statement by John Chrysostom (Homily on John) that doctrines of Christ had been translated into the languages of the Persians. 5th century. Statement by Theodoret (Graecarum affect­ionum curatio IX.936) that Persians regarded the Gospels as divine revelation. ...

  • BIBLE iv. Middle Persian Translations

    Shaul Shaked

    The only extant Middle Persian Bible version is represented by fragments of a translation of the Psalms found at the ruin of the Nestorian monastery at Bulayïq near Turfan.

  • BIBLE v. Sogdian Translations

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    The following manuscripts containing biblical texts in Sogdian have been made known. None of them survives in anything like complete form, and some are mere fragments.

  • BIBLE vi. Judeo-Persian Translations

    Jes P. Asmussen

    Judeo-Persian or Jewish-Persian is the common designation for, Persian written with Hebrew characters. Among the earliest and most important Judeo-Persian texts are the Bible translations.

  • BIBLE vii. Persian Translations

    Kenneth J. Thomas and Fereydun Vahman

    The Pentateuch, the books of the prophets, and the writings (Heb. ketūbīm), including the Psalms, from the Hebrew scriptures, collectively known as the Old Testament, and the Gospels and other writings in Greek, collectively known as the New Testament, have all been translated into Persian.

  • BIBLE viii. Translations into other Modern Iranian Languages

    Kenneth J. Thomas

    John Leyden, a gifted Scottish linguist and poet who went to Calcutta in 1803 as a surgeon’s assistant for the East India Company and subsequently became a professor at the College of Fort William, was involved in translating the Gospels into a number of languages, including both Pashto and Bal­uchi.

  • BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND CATALOGUES

    Multiple Authors

    i. In the West. ii. In Iran. This series of articles covers the catalogues of manuscripts and bibliographies of printed works on Iran compiled by scholars in Iran, Europe (including Russia) and North America.

  • BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND CATALOGUES i. In the West

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    European interest in Iranian bibliography was awakened in the 16th and early 17th centuries, when manuscripts were brought to the West in ever-increasing numbers and became much sought after by humanists engaged in Oriental studies.

  • BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND CATALOGUES ii. In Iran

    Aḥmad Monzawī and ʿAlī Naqī Monzawī

    Persian-language catalogues of manuscripts preserved in libraries in Iran and elsewhere range from detailed works in book form to articles in journals and short lists published separately or as supplements to other publications.

  • BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND CATALOGUES ii. In Iran (continued)

    Aḥmad Monzawī and ʿAlī Naqī Monzawī

    fehrest (lit. list, index).  The word has now generally been superseded in Persian by ketāb-šenāsī.

  • BĪČAGĀN LAKE

    cross-reference

    See BAḴTAGĀN LAKE.

  • BICKERMAN, ELIAS JOSEPH

    Muhammed A. Dandamayev

    (1897-1981), a leading scholar of Greco-Roman history and the Hellenistic world, whose research interests extended to Judaism and some aspects of Iranian history.

  • BICKNELL, HERMAN

    Michael C. Hillmann

    (1830-1875), a translator of Ḥāfeẓ. Some of his metered and rhymed translations replicate, or at least giving the impression of, Persian monorhyme patterns.

  • BĪD

    Wilhelm Eilers, Hūšang Aʿlam

    common desig­nation in modern Persian for the genus Salix L., willow. Willow trees are found in all the Iranian lands, mainly along streams and canals.

  • BĪDĀD

    Hormoz Farhat

    a melody (gūša) in the modal system (dastgāh) Homāyūn, one of the twelve modal systems of the contemporary tradition of Persian classical music. An important and popular gūša, Bīdād is always included in the performance of Homāyūn, even when the performance is short and selective.

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  • BĪDAR

    S. H. Qasemi

    city in the state of Karnataka, India, about 80 miles northwest of Hyderabad, and also the surrounding district. In the 15th-16th centuries, under the Bahmanid dynasty, Bīdar was an important center of Persian cultural influence in the Deccan.

  • BĪDĀR

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (lit. awake) the name of three Persian periodicals, two of which were published in Tehran in 1923 and 1951 and the other in Mazār-e Šarīf in 1925.

  • BĪDĀRĪ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (lit. wakefulness) the name of three Persian newspapers published in Tehran (1907), Rašt (1920), and Kermān (1923-53) and also the name of several other Persian-language periodicals.

  • BĪDĀRĪ-E ĪRĀNĪĀN, TĀRĪḴ-E

    cross-reference

    See TĀRĪḴ-E BĪDĀRĪ-E ĪRĀNĪĀN.

  • BĪDASTAR

    Cross-Reference

    See BEAVER.

  • BIDAXŠ

    Werner Sundermann

    title of an official, a word of Iranian origin found in various languages from the first to the eighth century.

  • BĪDEL, ʿABD-AL-QĀDER

    Moazzam Siddiqi

    (BĒDIL), the fore­most representative of the later phase of the “Indian style” (sabk-e hendī) of Persian poetry and the most difficult and challenging poet of that school (1644-1721).

  • BĪDERAFŠ

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    in the traditional history, a Turanian hero of the army of Arjāsp.

  • BĪDGOL

    Ehsan Yarshater

    and BĪDGOLI dialect. Bīdgol and Ārān, two practically contiguous townships in the province of Kāšān, are located some 10 km to the north and slightly to the east of the city of Kāšān.

  • BĪDMEŠK

    Cross-Reference

    See BĪD.

  • BIDOḴT

    Habib Borjian

    the center of a subdistrict (dehestān) in Gonābād šahrestān in central Khorasan and the seat of the Gonābādi Sufi order.

  • BĪDPĀY

    Cross-Reference

    the narrator of the animal fables known as Kalila wa Demna. See KALĪLA WA DEMNA.

  • BĪḠAMĪ

    William L. Hanaway

    , MAWLĀNĀ SHAIKH ḤĀJĪ MOḤAMMAD, oral storyteller of the 8th/14th century, narrator of the romance Dārāb-nāma.

  • BĪGĀR

    Yuri Bregel

    and BĪGĀRĪ, a term of taxation in Iran and Central Asia, generally meaning “corvıe,” the duty of supplying workers without pay, such as for the construction and repair of irrigation systems, roads, and public buildings.

  • BĪGDELĪ

    Gerhard Doerfer

    (or Bēgdelī, also Bagdīlū), a former Turkish tribe; the name Bīgdelī appears to have survived only in personal names.

  • BĪGDELĪ, ĀḎAR

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀẔAR BĪGDELĪ.

  • BIHAR

    Syed Hasan Askari

    (Behār), a state in northeastern India, bounded by Nepal in the north, West Bengal in the east, Orissa in the south, and Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh in the west. This article treats the influence of Persian language and culture in Bihar.

  • BĪJĀPŪR

    Muhammad Baqir

    capital city and domain of the ʿĀdelšāhī dynasty (1489-1686), located on the western Deccan plateau. The ʿĀdelšāhīs established Shiʿism in Bījāpūr and actively encouraged the immigration of Persian writers and religious figures.

  • BĪJĀR

    Eckart Ehlers

    a town and a šahrestān (county) in the Kurdistan province of Iran. The town, which has the highest elevation in Iran (1,920 m), lies ca. 120 miles north-northwest of Hamadān.

  • BĪLAQĀN(Ī)

    Cross-Reference

    See BAYLAQĀN.

  • BILGETIGIN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Turkish name associated with personalities before and during the Ghaznavid period.

  • BILIMORIA, NUSHERWANJI FRAMJI

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    (1852-1922), Zoroastrian journalist, editor, and publisher.

  • BĪMA

    Willem Floor

    (bīme; Hindi bīmā), insurance. “Insurance” activities are re­ferred to for the first time in 1891, by Eʿtemād-­al-Salṭana in his diary entry of 13 Decem­ber.

  • BĪMĀRESTĀN

    Ṣādeq Sajjādī

    "hospital." The oldest Iranian hospital about which we have some information was that at Jondīšāpūr (earlier Bēt Lapaṭ), which, with the attached school of medi­cine, was founded at an unknown date.

  • BĪNĀLŪD, KŪH-E

    Eckart Ehlers

    mountain range in northeast­ern Iran between Mašhad in the east and Nīšāpūr in the west with elevations of up to 3,211 m.

  • BĪNAMĀZĪ

    James R. Russell, Hamid Algar

    NPers. “the state of being without prayer,” term for the state of a menstruant woman. i. In Zoroastrianism. ii. In Islam. All bodily discharges are regarded by Zoroastrians as violations of the wholeness of the person.

  • BĪNEŠ KAŠMĪRĪ, ESMĀʿĪL

    N. H. Ansari

    Persian poet of India in the 17th century. He left six maṯnawīs and a dīvān of ḡazals and qaṣīdas.

  • BINYON, (ROBERT) LAURENCE

    Parvin Loloi

    (1869-1943), prolific English poet, translator, art historian and critic, notably of Oriental art.

  • BIOGRAPHIES

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • BIRCH

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    (Pers.tūs), the genus Betula L., found in western Azer­baijan, along the Karaj river, and other locations on the southern slopes of the Alborz.

  • BIRD, ISABELLA L

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    also known under her married surname of Bishop (1831-1904), British traveler in western Iran and Kurdistan during the late Victorian period.

  • BIRDS

    Derek A. Scott

    Of 324 breeding species, 131 occur widely in the Palearctic region, 81 are Western Palearctic species, reaching the easternmost extremities of their ranges in Iran, while 19 are typically Eastern Palearctic species, reaching the westernmost tip of their ranges in Iran.

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  • BĪRĪ

    Cross-Reference

    or BĪRĪTEKĪN. See BÖRI.

  • BĪRJAND

    Moḥammad-Ḥasan Ganjī

    town and district in the southeastern part of the province of Khorasan (lat 32°52’  N, long 59°13’ E).

  • BĪRŪNĪ

    Mohammad Ali Djamalzadeh and Ḥasan Javādī

    the public or male quarters of wealthy households, used for the conduct of business, male religious ceremonies, and parties for men.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN

    Multiple Authors

    scholar and polymath of the period of the late Samanids and early Ghaznavids and one of the two greatest intellectual figures of his time in the eastern lands of the Muslim world (973-after 1050).

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN i. Life

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Bīrūnī was born in the outer suburb (bīrūn, hence his nesba) of Kāṯ, the capital of the Afrighid Ḵᵛārazmšāhs, and spent the first twenty-five years of his life in Ḵᵛārazm.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN ii. Bibliography

    David Pingree

    Ca. 1035-36 Bīrūnī wrote a Resāla fī fehrest kotob Moḥammad b. Zakarīyāʾ al-Rāzī in two parts, the first devoted to Rāzī and his works, the second to the books that he himself had authored up to that time.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN iii. Mathematics and Astronomy

    George Saliba

    Ninety-five of 146 books known to have been written by Bīrūnī were devoted to astronomy, mathematics, and related subjects like math­ematical geography.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN iv. Geography

    David Pingree

    Bīrūnī’s conceptions of the spherical shape of the earth and of the geographical features on its surface are those of Greek scientists, especially Ptolemy, as modified by earlier Muslim geographers.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN v. Pharmacology and Mineralogy

    Georges C. Anawati

    Bīrūnī, a traveler proficient in several Asian languages and an inquisitive and attentive ob­server, was interested all his life in gathering precise information on plants and their medicinal uses.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN vi. History and Chronology

    David Pingree

    Bīrūnī’s main essay on political history is now known only from quotations. Discussions of historical events and methodology are found in connection with the lists of kings in his al-Āṯār al-bāqīa and Qānūn, in India, and scattered throughout his other works.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN vii. History of Religions

    François de Blois

    In this article some of his remarks on pre-Islamic Iranian religions, on Christian­ity and Judaism, and on Muslim sects will be discussed.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN viii. Indology

    Bruce B. Lawrence

    Bīrūnī’s magnum opus in Indology is Ketāb taḥqīq mā le’l-Hend men maqūla maqbūla fi’l-ʿaql aw marḏūla (The book confirming what pertains to India, whether rational or despicable).

  • BĪŠĀPŪR

    Edward J. Keall

    ancient and medieval town in Fārs, in the Sasanian period the administrative center of one of the five districts in the province of Fārs.

  • BISHOP, ISABELLA L.

    cross-reference

    See BIRD, ISABELLA L.

  • BISOTUN

    Multiple Authors

    (Bīsetūn, Bīstūn, Behistun), the modern name of a cliff rising on the north side of the age-old caravan trail and main military route from Babylon and Baghdad over the Zagros mountains to Hamadān).

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  • BISOTUN i. Introduction

    R. Schmitt

    Bagistanon (óros). As shown by its name, Bisotun had been holy from time immemorial and Darius’s monument was well known to the ancients.

  • BISOTUN ii. Archeology

    Heinz Luschey

    Although the relief and inscription of Darius on the cliff have made Bīsotūn famous, there are also various other remains in the neighborhood, including some that were discovered or identified only in 1962 and 1963. Some Paleolithic cave finds are the earliest evidence of human presence at the spring-fed pool of Bīsotūn.

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  • BISOTUN iii. Darius's Inscriptions

    R. Schmitt

    Over the millennia all the inscriptions on the rock at Bīsotūn, especially the Babylonian version, have suffered severe damage from erosion by rain and drifting sand and from seasonal torrents. Calcareous deposits on the engraved cuneiform characters caused by water seepage have obscured several passages, but have also preserved them from weathering.

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  • BĪSOTŪN, ABŪ MANṢŪR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Vošmgīr, ẒAHĪR-AL-DAWLA,  Ziyarid amir in Ṭabarestān and Gorgān (r. 967-78). Much of his reign was spent in fending off Samanid claims to sovereignty over the Caspian provinces.

  • BĪSTGĀNĪ

    Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī

    Persian term for pay and rations of troops used in classical texts, corresponding to Arabic ʿešrīnīya.

  • BĪT BUNAKKI

    Louis D. Levine

    (or Bīt Burnakki/Purnakki), the name of an Elamite border city mentioned frequently in the eighth and seventh centuries in neo-Assyrian texts.

  • BĪT HAMBAN

    Louis D. Levine

    (also Bīt Habban), a district on the Iranian-Iraqi frontier which appears in Akkadian cuneiform sources after the fall of the Kassite dynasty (1157 B.C.) and disappears with the fall of the Assyrian empire in 612 B.C.

  • BĪT RAMATIYA

    Louis D. Levine

    a place name and personal name associated with Media in Asyrian sources.

  • BĪTĀB, ʿABD-AL-ḤAQQ

    Nāṣer Amīrī

    b. Mollā ʿAbd-al-Aḥmad ʿAṭṭār, scholar and poet laureate (malek al-šoʿarāʾ) of Afghanistan (1883-1968).

  • BĪṬARAF

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (The impartial), a news and political affairs journal published in Persian and French in Tehran (1913-14).

  • BĪŽAN

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    in the traditional history, son of Gīv by Rostam’s daughter Bānū Gošasp; he figures prominently in the Šāh-nāma as a hero in Kay Ḵosrow’s reign.

  • BĪŽAN-NAMA

    William Hanaway, Jr.

    an epic poem of about 1,900 lines relating the adventures of the legendary hero Bīžan son of Gīv.

  • BLACK SEA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    an almost entirely landlocked sea (lat 40°55’ to 46°32’ N, long 27°27’ to 41°42’ E). Its surface is more than 423,000 km2, and its maximum depth is 2,244 m. In this article only the Achaemenid period is considered.

  • BLACK SHEEP DYNASTY

    Forthcoming

    Forthcoming online.

  • BLEEDING

    Cross-Reference

    See BLOODLETTING.

  • BLOCHET (Gabriel Joseph) EDGARD

    Francis Richard

    French orientalist (1870-1937). His published works include editions and catalogues of manuscripts in Arabic and Turkish, but his main focus was the Iranian world.

  • BLOCHMANN, HEINRICH FERDINAND

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (also Henry), a German orientalist and scholar of Persian language and literature who spent most of his career in India (1838-1878).

  • BLOOD TRANSFUSION SERVICES IN IRAN

    Ali Ameri

    A centralized, state-funded organization was established in 1974 for the recruitment of safe, voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors and the subsequent collection, testing, processing, and distribution of blood and blood products to hospitals.

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  • BLOODLETTING

    Willem Floor

    (Ar.-Pers. ḥejāmat, faṣd; Pers. ragzanī, ḵūn gereftan), a common medical treatment throughout Iranian history, though applied only in exceptional circumstances by modern medical practi­tioners.

  • BOAR

    Paul Joslin

    (Sus scrofa, Pers. gorāz). The wild boar is found in a broad cross-section of habitats and has a range that extends over much of Europe and Asia.

  • BOARD GAMES in pre-Islamic Persia

    Ulrich Schädler and Anne-Elizabeth Dunn-Vaturi

    include the games of chess and backgammon. our knowledge of other board games remains scanty. The study of ancient games relies on archeological material which is supplemented by data from epigraphic and iconographic sources, and direct evidence is lacking in most cases.

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  • BOČĀQČĪ

    Pierre Oberling

    a Turkic tribe of Sīrjān in Kermān province.

  • BODHISATTVA

    Werner Sundermann

    in the Middle Iranian languages. The Sanskrit word Bodhisat(t)va, literally a being (blessed with) understanding, designates someone des­tined for Buddhahood later in life or in a future existence.

  • BŌĒ

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    (Gk. Boēs), the name of two of Kavād’s (r. 488-­96 and 498-531) generals.

  • BOḠĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See BŪQĀ.

  • BOḠRĀ KHAN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    , ABŪ MŪSĀ HĀRŪN, the first Qarakhanid khan to invade the Samanid emirate from the steppes to the north in the 990s.

  • BOHLŪL

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    a weekly comic illustrated paper, published in Tehran from 1911.

  • BOHLŪL, ABŪ WOHAYB

    Ulrich Marzolph

    , b. ʿAmr b. Moḡīra Majnūn Kūfī (d. ca. 805), variously cited in later Persian literature as Bohlūl-e majnūn (Bohlūl the fool) or Bohlūl-e dānā (Bohlūl the wise), the archetype of the "wise fool"  genre.

  • BOHRĀS

    cross-reference

     See ISMAʿILISM xvi. MODERN ISMAʿILI COMMUNITIES.

  • BOḤŪR AL-ALḤĀN

    Taqī Bīneš, Jean During

    (Meters of melodies), a treatise on Persian music and prosody by Sayyed Mīrzā Moḥammad-Naṣīr Forṣat Šīrāzī (1855-1920).

  • BOIR AḤMADĪ

    Reinhold Loeffler, Gernot L. Windfuhr

    the largest of the six tribal groups of Kūhgīlūya, inhabiting the mountainous territory from east of Behbahān and north of Dogonbadān to the Kūh-e Denā range in the northeast, an area of some 2,500 sq miles.

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  • BOJNŪRD

    Eckart Ehlers, C. Edmund Bosworth

    a town and district in Khorasan. i. The town and district. ii. History. The town (1976: 47,719 inhabitants; lat  37°29’ N, long 57°17’ E)  is situated at the foot of the Ālādāḡ.

  • BOḴĀRĀ

    cross-reference

    See BUKHARA.

  • BOḴĀRĀ-YE ŠARĪF

    Michael Zand

    “Boḵārā the noble,” the first Central Asian newspaper published in Persian, 1912 to 1913.

  • BOḴĀRĪ, ʿABD-AL-KARĪM

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-­KARĪM BOḴĀRĪ.

  • BOḴĀRĪ, ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN

    Wilferd Madelung

    ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH MOḤAMMAD b. ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad, Hanafite scholar of feqh, legal method, kalām theology, and preacher and moftī in Bukhara (d. 1151).

  • BOḴĀRĪ, ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    Hamid Algar

    b. Moḥammad (d. 1400), close associate and primary successor of Bahāʾ-al-Dīn Naqš­band, the eponym of the Naqšbandī Sufi order.

  • BOḴĀRĪ, AMĪR AḤMAD

    Hamid Algar

    (d. 1516), a Sufi instrumental in establishing the Naqšbandī order in Turkey.

  • BOḴĀRĪ, JALĀL-AL-DĪN

    Richard M. Eaton

    , SHAIKH, popularly known as Maḵdūm-e Jahānīān and Jahāngašt, a celebrated Indo-Persian Sufi of Uch in the southern Punjab (1308-84).

  • BOḴĀRĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ŠARĪF

    Robert D. McChesney

    , ĀḴŪND MOLLĀ, also known as Šarīf-e Boḵārī and Mollā Šarīf, the leading Koran exegete and traditionist in Transoxiana (late 17th century).

  • BOKĀVOL

    David O. Morgan

    (büke’ül), a term used in the Il-khanid period and after for a royal food taster or, later and more commonly, a military commissariat officer.

  • BOKAYR B. MĀHĀN

    ʿAbbās Zaryāb

    MARVAZĪ, ABŪ HĀŠEM (d. 745-46), a leading ʿAbbasid propagandist (dāʿī).

  • BOḴT-ARDAŠĪR

    Jes P. Asmussen

    name of a town (Mid. Pers. rōstāg) that Ardašīr I is said to have founded as an expression of his gratitude to God during his flight from the court of the last Parthian king, Ardawān.

  • BOḴT-NARSA

    cross-reference

    See NEBUCHADNEZZAR.

  • BOḴTĪŠŪʿ

    Lutz Richter-Bernburg

    the name of the eponymous ancestor of a Syro-Persian Nestorian family of physicians from Gondēšāpūr, Ḵūzestān, 8th-11th centuries, and of several of its members.

  • BOLANDMĀZŪ

    cross-reference

    See BALŪṬ.

  • BOLBOL “nightingale”

    Hūšang Aʿlam, Jerome W. Clinton

    “nightingale.” i. The bird. ii. In Persian literature. The term bolbol is applied to at least three species of the genus Luscinia (fam. Turdidae). To Persian poets, however, all refer to a single bird, characterized by its sweet  or plaintive song, supposedly sung for its beloved, the rose.

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  • BOLBOL, AŠRAF DAYRĪ

    Giri L. Tikku

    Persian poet of Kashmir (1682-1775-6).

  • BOLOD

    Bertold Spuler

    CHʿENG-HSIANG (Pers. Pūlād Čīnksāng; d. 1313), the representative of the Great Khan Qubilai at the court of the Il-khans of Iran.

  • BOLOḠĀN ḴĀTŪN

    Charles Melville

    (Būlūḡān Ḵātūn), the name of three of the royal wives of the Mongol Il-khans in Iran. Of Mongol origin, the word Boloḡān, variously spelled in the Persian sources, means “sable.”

  • BOLŪḠ

    cross-reference

    See BĀLEḠ.

  • BOLŪR

    cross-reference

    (Ar. ballūr, bellawr) “rock crystal.” See CRYSTAL.

  • BOMBAY

    John R. Hinnells, Momin Mohiuddin and Ismail K. Poonawala

    Persian communities of Bombay.

  • BOMBAY PARSI PANCHAYAT

    John R. Hinnells

    the largest Zoroastrian institution in modern history, originally founded in the 17th century in order to maintain Zoroastrian family and social values at a time of dramatic change, when Parsis were migrating from rural Gujarat to cosmopolitan Bombay.

  • BONDĀR RĀZĪ

    Zabihollah Safa

    (or Pendār), poet in the 10th-11th centuries, named as the author of a small number of surviving poems, some in literary (Darī) Persian, others in his local dialect.

  • BONDĀRĪ, FATḤ B. ʿALĪ

    Cross-Reference

    b. Moḥammad EṢFAHĀNĪ. See SUPPLEMENT.

  • BONGĀH-E ḤEMĀYAT-E MĀDARĀN O KŪDAKĀN

    EIr

    (Institute for the protection of mothers and infants), founded 16 December 1940 on the order of Reżā Shah, originally funded by charitable contributions.

  • BONGĀH-E MOSTAQELL-E ĀBYĀRĪ

    EIr

    (Inde­pendent irrigation agency), established by the Majles on 19 May 1943 to improve irrigation in Iran.

  • BONGĀH-E TARJOMA WA NAŠR-E KETĀB

    Edward Joseph

    “The [Royal] Institute for Translation and Publication,” founded 1953, since 1986 called the Scientific and Cultural Publication Company (Šerkat-e Entešārāt-e ʿElmī wa Farhangī).

  • BONĪČA

    Willem Floor

    a tax assessed on a group as a single unit and particularly the base on which the tax was calculated—in Iran: a tax on guilds, an agricultural tax on villages and tribes, and a military tax on villages.

  • BONYĀD-E FARHANG-E ĪRĀN

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    The "Iranian Culture Foundation" was established 16 September 1964.

  • BONYĀD-E MOSTAŻʿAFĀN

    cross-reference

    See MOSTAZ­AFAN FOUNDATION.

  • BONYĀD-E PAHLAVĪ

    cross-reference

    See PAHLAVI FOUNDATION.

  • BONYĀD-E ŠĀH-NĀMA-YE FERDOWSĪ

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    a research institute, 1971-78,  intended for preparation of a new critical edition of the Šāh-nāma.

  • BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪD

    EIr

    The Bonyād officially started work on 9 April 1980. A decision taken by the Revolutionary Council on 13 June 1980 attached the Martyrs’ Foundation to the National Health Organization (Sāzmān-e Behzīstī-e Keš­var), itself administered under the supervision of the prime minister.

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  • BOOK OF ZAMBASTA

    Ronald E. Emmerick

    a Khotanese poem on Buddhism. It is the longest indigenous literary compo­sition in the Khotanese language and played a crucial role in the decipherment of the Khotanese language.

  • BOOKBINDING (article 1)

    Duncan Haldane

    (tajlīd, ṣaḥḥāfī) in Iran at first followed the pattern of previous Near Eastern book covers, but subsequently Persian craftsmen developed new types.

  • BOOKBINDING (article 2)

    Iraj Afshar

    (ṣaḥḥāfi, jeld-sāzi), the traditional craft of binding new books and decorating the cover with embossed or painted designs, or of repairing worn out volumes by restoring their cover.

  • BOQʿA

    Hamid Algar

    the mausoleum of a sacred or revered personage, sometimes taken to include additional structures adjoining the tomb or the open space surrounding it.

  • BORAGE

    cross-reference

    See GĀV-ZABĀN.

  • BŌRĀN

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    (Pers. Pōrān, Pūrān), Sasanian queen ca. 630-31, daughter of Ḵosrow II (r. 590, 591-628). There are extant coins of Bōrān dated from the first, second, and third years of her reign.

  • BORĀQ

    Bertold Spuler

    ruler of the Chaghatay khanate in Transoxiana (1266-71), a great-grandson of Jengiz Khan and a son of Yesün-Toʾa.

  • BORĀQ, ḤĀJEB

    cross-reference

    See QOṬLOQḴĀNĪYA (Kermān).

  • BORĀZJĀN

    ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    town and county (šahrestān) in Bushehr Province in southern Iran. The present town came into being in the late 12th/18th century.

  • BORHĀN BALḴĪ

    Zabihollah Safa

    , BORHĀN-AL-DĪN MOẒAFFAR b. Šams b. ʿAlī b. Ḥamīd-al-Dīn, a poet of the 14th century from Balḵ. He was descended from Ebrāhīm b. Adham, the renowned Iranian Sufi of the 2nd/8th century. 

  • BORHĀN NAFĪS

    Zabihollah Safa

    : BORHĀN-AL-DĪN NAFĪS b. ʿEważ b. Ḥakīm Kermānī, a physician of great renown in the 15th century.

  • BORHĀN, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN

    cross-reference

    See BORHĀN-E QĀṬEʿ.

  • BORHĀN-AL-DĪN MOḤAQQEQ TERMEḎĪ

    cross-reference

    See MOḤAQQEQ TERMEḎĪ.

  • BORHĀN-AL-DĪN NASAFĪ

    Wilferd Madelung

    , ABU’L-FAŻĀʾEL MOḤAMMAD b. Moḥammad b. Moḥammad b. ʿAbd-Allāh (d. 1288), Hanafite theologian, logician, and expert on legal points of disagreement (ḵelāf) and dialectic (jadal).

  • BORHĀN-AL-DĪN, ḴᵛĀJA ABŪ NAṢR FATḤ-ALLĀH

    F. R. C. Bagley

    a vizier (d. 1358) eulogized by Ḥāfeẓ in two ḡazals (nos. 374 and 478).

  • BORHĀN-AL-MAʾĀṮER

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • BORHĀN-E JĀMEʿ

    Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    (Comprehensive proof), title of a dictionary (completed 1833) by Moḥammad-Karīm b. Mahdīqolī Garmrūdī Šaqāqī.

  • BORHĀN-E QĀṬEʿ

    Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    (Conclusive proof), the title of a Persian dictionary compiled in India in the 11th/17th century by Moḥammad-Ḥosayn b. Ḵalaf Tabrīzī, who used the pen-name Borhān.

  • BORHĀNIDS

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E BORHĀN.

  • BORHĀNPŪRĪ, BORHĀN-AL-DĪN

    Richard M. Eaton

    Indo-Persian Sufi of the Šaṭṭārī order (d. 1089/1678).

  • BÖRI

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    or Böritigin,  name of a Turkish commander in Ḡazna and of the ruler of the western branch of the Qarakhanid dynasty of Transoxania.

  • BORJ

    Abbas Daneshvari, David Pingree

    The use of a word meaning “tower” in this special astronomical sense presumably arose from the conception of the zodiac as a barrier between heaven and earth through which access was gained by means of twelve zodiacal gates, each of which was assumed to be guarded by a tower.

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  • BORJ-E ṬOḠROL

    Bernard O’Kane

    name commonly applied to a large tomb tower of the Saljuq period situated near Ray.

  • BORJ-NĀMA

    Žāla Āmuzgār

    maṯnawi by Anuširavān b. Marzbān Rāvari (17th century), who wrote poems on several subjects relating to the Zoroastrian religion and uses several Zoroastrian terms here.

  • BOROUGH, Christopher

    Parvin Loloi

    (fl. 1579-1587), English merchant and linguist who traveled to Russia and Persia as an interpreter with the sixth voyage by the Muscovy Company to establish trade with these countries.

  • BOROWSKY, ISIDORE

    Bo Utas

    (ca. 1770-ca. 1838), Polish officer in the Persian army, said to have been fatally injured by a bullet in the abdomen during the second siege of Herat in 1837-38.

  • BORQAʿĪ

    Hamid Algar

    (Ar. Borqoʿī), AYATOLLAH ʿALĪ-AKBAR (b. 1900), religious leader of the postwar period to whom leftist tendencies were imputed and whose name became embroiled in a significant incident in Qom in January, 1953.

  • BORŪJ

    cross-reference

    See BORJ.

  • BORŪJERD

    Eckart Ehlers

    (or Barūjerd), town and šahrestān in the province of Lorestān in western Iran. It has always been a road and railway junction of great strategic importance.

  • BORŪJERDĪ, ḤOSAYN ṬABĀṬABĀʾĪ

    Hamid Algar

    , AYATOLLAH ḤĀJJ ĀQĀ (1875-1961), director (zaʿīm) of the religious teaching institution (ḥawza) at Qom Qom for seventeen years and sole marjaʿ-e taqlīd of the Shiʿite world for fifteen years.

  • BORŪJERDĪ, ḤOSAYN

    Hamid Algar

    b. Moḥammad-Reżā Ḥosaynī, Shiʿite scholar of the Qajar period (d. ca. 1860); his main work was  a collection of chronograms on the deaths of famous transmitters of ḥadīṯ.

  • BORŪMAND, NŪR-ʿALĪ

    Bruno Nettl

    (1905-1977), one of the foremost authorities on the performance and history of Persian classical music in the 20th century.

  • BORZMEHR

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (Pahlavi, lit. “deep affection”) one of the priests (mōbed) and scribes who served Ḵosrow I (r. 531-79).

  • BORZŪ-NĀMA (article 1)

    William L. Hanaway, Jr.

    an epic poem of ca. 65,000 lines recounting the exploits and adventures of the legendary hero Borzū, son of Sohrāb.

  • BORZU-NĀMA (article 2)

    Gabrielle van den Berg

    an epic poem named after its main hero, Borzu, son of Sohrāb and grandson of Rostam. The Borzu-nāma belongs to the cycle of epics dealing with the dynasty of the princes of Sistān.

  • BORZŪYA

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (also transcribed Burzōē), a physician of the time of Ḵosrow I (r. 531-79) and responsible for a translation of the Pañcatantra from Sanskrit to Pahlavi, the Persian translation of which is known as the Kalīla wa Demna.

  • BOSḤĀQ AṬʿEMA

    Heshmat Moayyad

    , FAḴR-AL-DĪN ḤALLĀJ ŠĪRĀZĪ (d. 1420s), satirical poet who used Persian culinary vocabulary and imagery and kitchen terminology to create a novel style of poetry.

  • BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Hamid Algar

    : Persian Influence in Ottoman and post-Ottoman times. The Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina came to assimilate virtually all the cultural habits and interests of the Ottoman Turks. For the learned elite, this included an acquaintance with Persian language and literature.

  • BOŠRŪʾĪ, Mollā Moḥammad-Ḥosayn

    Denis M. MacEoin

    Shaikhi ʿālem who became the first convert to Babism, provincial Babi leader in Khorasan, and organizer of Babi resistance in Māzandarān (1814-49).

  • BOST

    Klaus Fischer, Xavier de Planhol

    archeological site and town located near the confluence of the Helmand and Arḡandāb rivers in southwest Afghanistan.

  • BOSTĀN AL-SĪĀḤA

    ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Šīrjānī

    a descriptive geography book by a mystic writer of the early 19th century, Mast-ʿAlīšāh, Ḥājī Zayn-al-ʿĀbedīn b. Mollā Eskandar Šīrvānī.

  • BOSTĀNAFRŪZ

    Ahmad Parsa

    amaranth, a medicinal and ornamental plant of the family Amaranthaceae.

  • BOSTĪ, ABU’L-FATḤ

    Zabihollah Safa

    NEẒĀM-AL-DĪN ʿAMĪD ʿALĪ b. Moḥammad b. Ḥosayn b. Yūsof Kāteb, a notable bilingual secretary and poet of the 10th century.

  • BOSTĪ, ABU’L-QĀSEM

    Wilferd Madelung

    ESMĀʿĪL b. Aḥmad JĪLĪ, Muʿtazilite and Zaydī author of the late 10th and early 11th century.

  • BOT

    William L. Hanaway, Jr.

    a term frequent in poetry with meanings ranging from an idol in the literal sense to a metaphor for ideal human beauty. These senses have been used since the earliest surviving Persian poetry.

  • BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF IRAN

    Valiolla Mozaffarian

    (Žurnāl-e giāhšenāsi-e Irān), begun in 1976 as an outcome of the National Botanical Garden of Iran. The contributions are in English with brief abstracts in Persian.

  • BOTANICAL STUDIES

    Hūšang Aʿlam, S.-W. Breckle, Hūšang Aʿlam and Aḥmad Qahramān

    ON IRAN i. The Greco-Islamic tradition. ii. The Western tradition. iii. Persian Studies in the Western tradition. In the Islamic period, generally speaking, botany was an ancillary branch of medicine or, more precisely, pharmacology.

  • BOUNDARIES

    Multiple Authors

    i. With the Ottoman empire. ii. With Russia. iii. Boundaries of Afghanistan. iv. With Iraq. v. With Turkey.

  • BOUNDARIES i. With the Ottoman Empire

    Keith McLachlan

    shaped by conflict over an ill-defined strip of territory with constantly shifting outlines extending from the Caucasus to the Persian Gulf.

  • BOUNDARIES ii. With Russia

    Xavier de Planhol

    West of the Caspian. The problem of drawing a stable territorial boundary between the Russian and Iranian powers must have arisen with the first arrival of the Russians in the Caspian area, after the conquest of Astrakhan in 1556.

  • BOUNDARIES iii. Boundaries of Afghanistan

    Daniel Balland

    None of these boundaries was established before the last third of the 19th century. It was the “great game,” the famous rivalry between Britain and Russia in Central Asia, that led the latter two states to contemplate creating a buffer state between their respective dependencies, a kind of defensive barrier.

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  • BOUNDARIES iv. With Iraq

    Joseph A. Kechichian

    Efforts by Algeria to mediate during the summit meeting of OPEC on 6 March 1975 brought the shah together with Ṣaddām Ḥosayn, then vice-president of the Iraqi Revolutionary Council, to redefine their common frontier. In the resulting settlement 593 new border points were designated.

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  • BOUNDARIES v. With Turkey

    Richard N. Schofield

    v. With Turkey. The Mixed Commission of 1914, on which Britain and Russia were vested with powers to arbitrate, had settled the line of the Perso-Ottoman frontier in detail for almost its whole length from the Persian Gulf to Mount Ararat.

  • BOWAYH

    cross-reference

    See BŌĒ; BUYIDS.

  • BOWAYHIDS

    cross-reference

    See BUYIDS.

  • BOXTREE

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    Buxus L. spp., šemšād, common name for numerous species of evergreen shrubs or trees of the family Buxaceae. The species B. sempervirens grows wild in lowland or plain forests of the Caspian provinces.

  • BOYCE, MARY

    John Hinnells

    (1920-2006), scholar of Zoroastrianism and its relevant languages, and Professor of Iranian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) of the University of London. In addition to her own contribution, Boyce was an outstanding teacher and supervised the research of many who went on to hold professorships.

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  • BOYEKAN

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    the name of a mec naxarar “great satrap,” defeated and killed at Ṭʿawrēš (Tabrīz) by the Armenian general Vasak under Šāpūr II (r. 309-79).

  • BOYLE, JOHN ANDREW

    Peter Jackson

    (1916-78), British orientalist, will perhaps best remembered for his work on the Mongol period of Iranian history.

  • BOYŪTĀT-E SALṬANATĪ

    Birgitt Hoffmann

    (lit. royal houses), in the Safavid period (1501-1732) departments and production workshops within the royal household serving primarily the needs of the court.

  • BOZ

    Jean-Pierre Digard

    the domestic goat. The earliest evidence for domestication of the goat has been found in Iran (ca. 10,000 B.C.), as have the largest number of prehistoric sites (ca. 7000 B.C.) showing traces of the systematic breeding of this animal.

  • BOZBĀŠ

    Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar

    Azeri Turkish name for an Iranian dish usually called ābgūšt-e sabzī (green vegetable stew).

  • BOZGŪŠ

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    the traditional reading of the name of a mythical tribe in Māzandarān mentioned in the Šāh-nāma.

  • BOZKAŠĪ

    G. Whitney Azoy

    (lit. “goat-dragging”), an equestrian folk game played by Turkic groups in Central Asia. Its origins are obscure; quite probably the game first developed as a recreational extension of livestock raiding.

  • BOZORG

    Jean During

    one of the modes in traditional Iranian and Arabic music, mentioned for the first time by Ṣafī-al-Dīn ʿOrmavī among the twelve šodūd, later on called maqāmāt.

  • BOZORG, MĪRZĀ

    cross-reference

    See QĀʾEMMAQĀM, MĪRZĀ BOZORG.

  • BOZORG-OMĪD, KĪĀ

    Wilferd Madelung

    the second Ismaʿili ruler of Alamūt (1124-38). He was of Deylami origin from the region of Rūdbār.

  • BOZORGĀN

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    the third class-rank of the four or five divisions of the early Sasanian aristocracy, namely šahryār “landholders,” wispuhr “princes” or members of the royal house, wuzurg “grandees,” āzād “nobles,”  and kadag-xwadāy “householders.”

  • BOZORGMEHR-E BOḴTAGĀN

    Djalal Khaleghi Motlagh

    identified in literature and legend as a vizier of Ḵosrow I Anōšīravān (r. 531-78). According to Persian and Arabic sources, he was characterized by ex­ceptional wisdom and sage counsels.

  • BOZPĀR

    Louis Vanden Berghe

    a valley situated about 100 km southwest of Kāzerūn and 11 km by donkey path through the mountains from Sar Mašhad, Fārs. The most important ruin in the Bozpār valley is the building known locally as Gūr-e Doḵtar.

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  • BOZPAYIT

    James R. Russell

    Middle Persian name, attested only in Armenian, of a Zoroastrian school or body of religious teaching in the Sasanian period.

  • BRAHM

    Werner Sundermann

    “manner, fashion, costume,” Middle Persian word used in connection with human beings, referring either to mode of behavior or to outward appearance.

  • BRĀHMĪ

    Douglas A. Hitch

    Indian script used for a variety of languages in Chinese Turkestan, including Iranian languages. From the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang, China) we have first-millennium documents in Brāhmī script in several Iranian languages.

  • BRAHUI

    Josef Elfenbein

    As “long-distance cattle-herders” in 1880 no fewer than 80 percent of these tribesmen were tent-dwelling nomads; fewer than 20 percent were described as settled. In 1975 the proportions were almost exactly the reverse, and Brahui settlement in large towns has been increas­ing ever more rapidly.

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  • BRASS

    cross-reference

    See BERENJ.

  • BRAZIER

    Asadullah Souren Melikian-Chirvani, Jaʿfar Šahrī

    two distinct types of utensil traditionally used in Iran. One type is a closed container on legs, a kind of stove that holds slowly burning coals for heating.

  • BRAZMANIY(A)

    cross-reference

    See AŠA ii.

  • BREAD

    Hélène Desmet-Grégoire

    Persian nān. In modern Iran bread is the dietary staple food for the population and accounts, on the average, for 70 percent of the daily caloric intake.

  • BRĒLVĪ

    cross-reference

    See BARĒLVĪ.

  • BREST-LITOVSK TREATY

    Joseph A. Kechichian

    treaty signed by the Central Powers and Soviet Russia on 3 March 1918 that was consequential in the history of modern Iran.

  • BRETON, LE

    Cross-Reference

    See LE BRETON.

  • BRICK

    Guitty Azarpay

    blocks of tempered mud, either sun-dried (ḵešt) or baked in a kiln (ājor), the traditional building material in most of Iran. It has customarily been made from a mixture of water-soaked earth (gel-čāl), straw, and chaff.

  • BRICKS AND CERAMICS INDUSTRY

    Willem Floor

    Traditional brick-kilns were and are still found all over the country. Until recently, bricks were only made in small traditional kilns. A European established the first modern brick-kiln around 1905. However, it was only in 1935 that a German engineer constructed the so-called “Hoffman brick-kiln,” with its characteristic high chimney, in south Tehran.

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  • BRIDGES

    Dietrich Huff, Wolfram Kleiss

    (Pers. pol, Mid. Pers. pohl, Av. pərətu-). i. Pre-Islamic bridges. ii. Bridges in the Islamic period. Bridges may have existed in the Iranian highlands as monuments of vernacular architecture since prehistoric times.

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  • BRITAIN

    cross-reference

    See ANGLO-IRANIAN RELATIONS; GREAT BRITAIN.

  • BRỊTʾIATỊ (COPANỊ FỊRT) ELBỊZDỊQO

    Fridrik Thordarson

    (Russian: Elbyzdyko Britaev), playwright regarded as the founder of Ossetic drama(1881-1923). His first plays (two short comedies) were published in 1905.

  • BRITISH COUNCIL

    EIr

    : activities in Iran 1942-79. The first British Council representative was appointed to Iran in 1942. The priority was English language teaching, and by 1944 the Council was teaching over 4,000 students.

  • BRITISH MUSEUM and BRITISH LIBRARY

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • BRITISH PETROLEUM

    cross-reference

    See ANGLO-PERSIAN OIL COMPANY.

  • BROACH

    cross-reference

    See BHARUCHAS.

  • BROAD BEANS

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀQELĀ.

  • BROADBEAN

    cross-reference

    See BĀQELĀ.

  • BROCHT

    cross-reference

    See QEŠM.

  • BROCKELMANN, CARL

    Rudolph Sellheim

    German orientalist (1868-1956).During a long and serene life as a scholar Brock­elmann produced a wealth of fundamental publications. His monumental output represents the unity of Oriental studies in his time.

  • BRONZE

    Multiple Authors

    an alloy of two metals, copper and tin. When tin is alloyed with copper, it decreases the temperature at which the two metals will melt, increases fluidity during casting, and acts as a deoxidant. Although copper deposits occur with reasonable frequency throughout the highland zones of south­western, sources of tin are far less common.

  • BRONZE i. In pre-Islamic Iran

    Vincent C. Pigott

    Current understanding of early developments in copper-base metallurgy on the Iranian plateau is based largely on archeological excavations, archeometallurgical field surveys conducted by Theodore A. Wertime and colleagues and a team led by Thierry Berthoud, and from independent research by such scholars as D. L. Heskel, P. R. S. Moorey, J. D. Muhly, and A. R. Vatandoost-Haghighi.

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  • BRONZE ii. In Islamic Iran

    James W. Allan

    The most common copper alloys in use in Iran were brass and a quaternary alloy of copper, lead, zinc, and tin. As for bronze, two alloys should be differentiated: low-tin bronze, with a tin content of 10 percent or less, and high-tin bronze, with a tin content of about 20 percent.

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  • BRONZE AGE

    Robert H. Dyson, Jr., and Mary M. Voigt

    in Iranian archeology a term used informally for the period from the rise of trading towns in Iran, ca. 3400-3300 B.C., to the beginning of the Iron Age, ca. 1400-1300 B.C. It has long since lost any precise meaning in relation to technology.

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  • BRONZES OF LURISTAN

    Oscar White Muscarella

    The British Museum had acquired the first of its Luristan bronzes in 1854, followed by others in 1885, 1900, 1914, and 1920. Until the late 1920s such objects continued to appear sporadi­cally, but mass plundering of Luristan tombs seems to have begun in that decade.

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  • BROWNE, EDWARD GRANVILLE

    G. Michael Wickens, Juan Cole, Kamran Ekbal

    eminent British Iranologist (1862-1926). i. Browne’s life and academic career. ii. Browne on Babism and Bahaism. iii. Browne and the Persian Constitutional movement.

  • BRYDGES, HARFORD JONES

    John Perry

    , Sir (1764-1847), English diplomat and author, ambassador to the court of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah Qājār from 1807 to 1811.

  • BŪ DOLAF

    cross-reference

    See ABŪ DOLAF.

  • BŪ ḤALĪM ŠAYBĀNĪ FAMILY

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (or Bāhalīm),  military commanders and governors in northern India under the later Ghaznavid sultans in the late 5th/11th and early 6th/12th centuries.

  • BŪ KORD DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E BŪ KORD.

  • BŪ NAṢR MOŠKĀN

    cross-reference

    See ABŪ NAṢR MOŠKĀN.

  • BŪ ŠOʿAYB HERAVĪ

    cross-reference

    See ABŪ ŠOʿAYB HERAVĪ.

  • BŪDAG

    Mansour Shaki

    Middle Persian term, in Mazdean theological and philosophical texts as “material becoming, genesis,” the counterpart of āfrīdag “spiritually/ideally created."

  • BŪDANA

    cross-reference

    See BELDERČĪN.

  • BŪḎARJOMEHR

    cross-reference

    See BOZORGMEHR.

  • BŪḎARJOMEHRĪ, Karīm Āqā

    Bāqer ʿĀqelī

    , Major General (sar-laškar) (1886-1951), military officer, mayor of Tehran, and minister of Public Welfare. 

  • BUDDHISM

    Multiple Authors

    Among Iranian peoples. This series of articles covers Buddhism in Iran and Iranian lands: i.  In pre-Islamic times. ii.  InIslamic times. iii. Buddhist Literature in Khotanese and Tumshuqese. iv. Buddhist Sites in Afghanistan and Central Asia.

  • BUDDHISM i. In Pre-Islamic Times

    Ronald E. Emmerick

    Origin and early spread of Buddhism. Buddhism arose in northeast India in the sixth century b.c. as the result of the teaching of the historical Buddha Śākyamuni, who died about 483 b.c.

  • BUDDHISM ii. In Islamic Times

    Asadullah Souren Melikian-Chirvani

    The Muslim conquerors of eastern Iran, Afghanistan, and Transoxania in the mid-8th century found Buddhism flourishing in a series of prosperous trading communities along the old caravan routes to India and China.

  • BUDDHISM iii. Buddhist Literature in Khotanese and Tumshuqese

    Ronald F. Emmerick and Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Khotan played an important role in the transmission of Buddhism during the period represented by the extant material (probably from around 700 to the end of the kingdom of Khotan ca. 1000). 

  • BUDDHISM iv. Buddhist Sites in Afghanistan and Central Asia

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    The spread of Buddhism beyond the Indian subcontinent accelerated under the Mauryan king Aśoka (r. 265–238 BCE). An active proponent of Buddhism, he sent out religious missions.

  • BŪF

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    owl, commonly called joḡd. Eleven species, from two families, occur in Iran.

  • BŪF-E KŪR

    Michael C. Hillmann

    (The blind owl), the chef d’œuvre of Ṣādeq Hedāyat (1903-51) and one of the first major modernist Persian novels. 

  • BŪKĀN

    Amir Hassanpour

    (Kurd. Bōkān), name of a town, a baḵš (district), and a river in the šahrestān (county) of Mahābād, West Azerbaijan.

  • BUKHARA

    Multiple Authors

    i. In pre-Islamic times. ii. From the Arab invasions to the Mongols. iii. After the Mongol invasion. iv. The khanate of Bukhara and Khorasan. v. Archeology and monuments. vi. The Bukharan school of miniature painting. vii. Bukharan Jews.

  • BUKHARA i. In Pre-Islamic Times

    Richard N. Frye

    one of many settlements in the large oasis formed by the mouths of the Zarafshan (Zarafšān) river in ancient Sogdiana.

  • BUKHARA ii. From the Arab Invasions to the Mongols

    C. E. Bosworth

    The first appearance of Arab armies there is traditionally placed in Moʿāwīa’s caliphate when, according to Naršaḵī, ʿObayd-Allāh b. Zīād b. Abīhe crossed the Oxus and appeared at Bukhara (673-74).

  • BUKHARA iii. After the Mongol Invasion

    Yuri Bregel

    conquered by Chingiz Khan on 10 February 1220, and the citadel fell twelve days later. All the inhabitants were driven out, their property pillaged, and the city burned; the defenders of the citadel were slaughtered.

  • BUKHARA iv. Khanate of Bukhara and Khorasan

    Yuri Bregel

    The first distinctive political separation of Transoxania from Persia took place in 873/1469 when the Timurid empire was finally divided into two independent states, Transoxania and Khorasan, ruled by the descendants of Abū Saʿd and ʿOmar Shaikh, respectively.

  • BUKHARA v. Archeology and Monuments

    G. A. Pugachenkova and E. V. Rtveladze

    The earliest settlement levels at Bukhara can be dated to the 5th-2nd centuries B.C. During this period Bukhara consisted of a citadel on a hill and a large, sprawling settlement.

  • BUKHARA vi. Bukharan School of Miniature Painting

    Barbara Schmitz

    As far as is known, illustrated manuscripts were produced in Bukhara only under the Shaibanid (1500-98) and Janid (also known as Tughay -Timurid; 1599-1785) dynasties. Partly as a result of frequent raids on Herat by ʿObayd-Allāh Khan (918-46/1512-39) Persian manuscripts, artists, and calligraphers were brought to Bukhara.

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  • BUKHARA vii. Bukharan Jews

    Michael Zand

    “Bukharan Jews” is the common appellation for the Jews of Central Asia whose native language is the Jewish dialect of Tajik.

  • BUKHARA viii. Historiography of the Khanate, 1500-1920

    Anke von Kügelgen

    About 70 extant works of Persian historiography focus on the politics of the Shïbanid–Abulkhayrid (Shaybanid) dynasty (r. 1500-99), the Janids (also known as Toqay-Timurids or Ashtarkhanids, r. 1599-1747), and the Manḡïts (r. 1747-1920).

  • BULAYÏQ

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    town in eastern Turkestan, modern Chinese Sinkiang, situated about ten km north of Turfan in the foothills of the Tien-shan.  

  • BULLAE

    Richard N. Frye

    the sealings, usually of clay or bitumen, on which were impressed the marks of seals showing ownership or witness to whatever was attached to the sealing.  

  • BULSARA, SOHRAB JAMSHEDJI

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    (1877-1945), Parsi scholar of Avestan, Pahlavi, Pazand, and Persian and Iranian history, born to a middle class family in Bulsar, Gujarat.  

  • BŪM

    cross-reference

    See BŪF.

  • BUN-XĀNAG

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    term in the inscriptions of Kirdīr at Naqš-e Rostam (KKZ and KNRm), variously interpreted.

  • BUNDAHIŠN

    D. Neil MacKenzie

    “Primal creation,” traditional name of a major Pahlavi work of compilation, mainly a detailed cosmogony and cosmography based on the Zoroastrian scriptures.

  • BUNTING, Basil Cheesman

    Parvin Loloi

    (1900-1985), British poet, linguist, translator, journalist, diplomat, and spy.

  • BŪQĀ

    Bertold Spuler

    (Būqāy, Boḡā), Mongolian Boḡa, Mongol general who took part in the fighting between the il-khans Aḥmad Takūdār (Tegüder) and Arḡūn in 1284 and then became the vizier.

  • BŪQALAMŪN

    Hūšanḡ Aʿlam

    term applied to a variety of objects or animals exhibiting changing colors, such as (silk) fabrics, the gemstone jasper, the chameleon, and the turkey. 

  • BŪRĀN

    Ihsan Abbas

    (Middle Pers. Bōrān) also called Ḵadīja (807-84), wife of al-Maʾmūn and daughter of Ḥasan b. Sahl, probably so named after the Sasanian queen Bōrān.

  • BŪRĀNĪ

    Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar

    (rarely būlānī), generic term for a category of Iranian dishes, now usually prepared with yogurt and cooked vegetables and served either hot or cold.

  • BURBUR CASTLE

    Dariush Borbor

    The village has changed hands several times between Burbur family members, the Qajar aristocracy, and the central government in the last few centuries. In the 1840s, Esmāʿil Khan Burbur bought back the estate from ʿIsā Khan Biglarbegi Qajar, the governor of Malāyer, Nehāvand, and Tuyserkān, for 36,000 tomans.

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  • BURBUR, ʿALI

    Dariush Borbor

    administrative and military official under the Qajars.

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  • BURDAR

    James R. Russell

    Pahl. burdār “carrier, sustainer,  bringer,” attested in Armenian as a proper name. 

  • BURHANPUR

    Nisar Ahmed Faruqi

    (Borhānpūr), city in Madhya Pradesh (formerly Central Provinces and Berar), India, on the Tapti river, 275 miles northeast of Bombay.

  • BURIAL

    Multiple Authors

    This series of articles covers burial practices in Iran and Iranian lands.

  • BURIAL i. Pre-Historic Burial Sites

    Ezzatollah Negahban

    The earliest human skeletal remains found in Persia date from before the 8th millennium B.C. They have been excavated at several cave dwelling sites: Hotu Cave (Angel) and Belt Cave, both on the south­eastern shore of the Caspian Sea; Behistun (Bīsotūn) Cave near Kermānšāh; and Konjī and Arjana Caves in Luristan.

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  • BURIAL ii. Remnants of Burial Practices in Ancient Iran

    Frantz Grenet

    The burial practices of pre-Islamic Iran are known partly from archeological evidence, partly from the Zoroastrian scriptures, namely the Avesta and the later Pahlavi and Persian literature.

  • BURIAL iii. In Zoroastrianism

    James R. Russell

    Death being regarded as an evil brought about by Aŋra Mainyu, the Destructive Spirit, the corpse of a holy creature, particularly man or dog, is considered to be greatly infested by the druj Nasu.

  • BURIAL iv. In Islam

    Hamid Algar

    In the handbooks of feqh that the detailed procedures for washing, enshrouding, praying over, and burying the dead are expounded, with little variation among the different schools of Islamic law.

  • BURIAL v. In Bahai Communities

    Vahid Rafati

    Bahai laws on burial are limited to a few basic principles that are binding on all Bahai communities around the world.

  • BURNES, ALEXANDER

    Malcolm E. Yapp

    (1805-41), author of Travels into Bukhara (published in 1834), an account of his exploratory mission to Afghani­stan, Turkestan, and Iran.

  • BURNOUF, EUGÈNE

    Clarisse Herrenschmidt

    (1801-52), virtually the founder of Iranian linguistics, as well as of the study of the history of Buddhism.

  • BURUSHASKI

    Hermann Berger

    language spoken in Hunza-Karakorum, North Pakistan, containing some Iranian loanwords of various origins.

  • BURZĒNMIHR

    cross-reference

    See ĀDUR BURZĒNMIHR.

  • BŪSALĪK

    Hormoz Farhat

    Būsalīk has remained a maqām in Arabian, Turkish, and Persian musical traditions to this day. As is often the case, however, the contemporary form of the maqām of Būsalīk differs from that which is given by the classical scholars. In Turkish music Būsalīk, or Puselik, defines a mode comparable to the aeolian of ecclesiastic modes.

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  • BŪŠĀSP

    Allan V. Williams

    demon of slothfulness and procrastination in Zoroastrianism.

  • BUSCARELLO DE GHIZOLFI

    Jean Richard

    Genoese merchant and diplomat who served the il-khan Arḡūn (r. 1284-91). Buscarello belonged to a great family of Genoa that played an important role in the maritime trade of the city.  

  • BŪŠEHR

    Xavier de Planhol, Moḥammad-Taqī Masʿūdīya

    (Ar. Būšahr, European spellings Bushire, Busheer, Bouchir), port city in southern Iran on the Persian Gulf. i. The city. ii. Music of Būšehr. 

  • BŪŠEHRĪ, ḤĀJĪ MOḤAMMAD

    Bāqer ʿĀqelī

    MOʿĪN-AL-TOJJĀR (1859-1933), a merchant active in the Constitutional Revolution.  

  • BŪSTĀN

    G. Michael Wickens

    in early sources referred to as Saʿdī-nāma, a moralistic and anecdotal verse work consisting of some 4,100 maṯnawī couplets by Shaikh Moṣleḥ-al-Dīn Saʿdī, completed in 1257. 

  • BŪSTĀNĪ, MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD

    Yuri Bregel

    ʿABD-AL-ʿAẒĪM SĀMĪ, poet and historian of Bukhara (b. ca. 1840, d. after 1914).

  • BUSTARD

    Hūšang Aʿlam and Derek A. Scott

    any of a family (Otididae) of game birds of which three species, generally called hūbar(r)a in contemporary Persian, occur in Iran.

  • BUYIDS

    Tilman Nagel

    (also Bowayhids, Buwaihids, etc.; Pers. Āl-e Būya), dynasty of Daylamite origin ruling over the southern and western part of Iran and over Iraq from the middle of the 4th/10th to the middle of the 5th/11th centuries.

  • BŪZĪNA

    Maḥmūd Omīdsālār

    monkeys. Other names: meymūn (common), ʿantar (vulgar), kappī (Mid. Pers. kabīg, from Indian kapi). Two myths of the creation of monkeys exist in the Zoroastrian literature.

  • BŪZJĀNĪ, ABU’L-WAFĀʾ

    Cross-reference

    See ABU’L-WAFĀʾ BŪZJĀNĪ.

  • BŪZJĀNĪ, DARWĪŠ ʿALĪ

    Heshmat Moayyad

    (d. after 1522), a Sufi scholar of Khorasan attached to Aḥmad-e Jām.

  • BYRON, ROBERT

    Robert Irwin

    (1905-1941), British travel writer and amateur historian of architecture. 

  • BYZANTINE-IRANIAN RELATIONS

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    From the middle of the 1st century B.C. the Middle East was dominated by the political rivalries of the empires of Rome and Iran.  

  • BYZANTIUM

    Jack Martin Balcer

    (Byzantion): contact with the Achaemenids (ca. 513-439 BCE). The Greek polis of Byzantium, in the European province of Thrace (OPers. Skudra), played a pivotal role in the Greco-Persian wars.

  • BAYĀT-E TORK

    music sample

    sample of Bayāt-e Tork: a musical system (āvāznaḡma) and one of the branches of the modal system (dastgāh) of Šūr (q.v.) in traditional classical music.  

  • B~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter B entries.