Table of Contents


    Z. Safa

    , KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ŠĪR-ʿALĪ (1453-1512), noted poet at various courts of Persia and Transoxania.


    C. E. Bosworth

    or BENĀKAṮ, the main town of the medieval Transoxanian province of Šāš or Čāč; it almost certainly had a pre-Islamic history as a center of the Sogdians.

  • BANĀKATĪ, Abū Solaymān

    P. Jackson

    Dāwūd b. Abi’l-Fażl Moḥammad (d. 1329-30), poet and historian.


    M. Caton

    (1911-1986), one of the foremost Persian singers of the 20th century, known for the quality of his voice and vast knowledge of āvāz repertory.  


    W. Sundermann

    Middle Persian “queen”: etymology and occurrences in Middle Iranian.

  • BAND “DAM”

    X. De Planhol

    “dam, ” something that factually or figuratively binds, ties, or restricts (cf. Av. banda- “bond,” Eng. bond). In geographical nomenclature it is applied to ranges (mainly in Afghanistan),  passes (darband), and old dams and barrages built to store or divert water.

  • BAND-E AMĪR (1)

    J. Lerner

    (the amir’s dike) or Band-e ʿAżodī (for the Daylamite ruler ʿAżod-al-Dawla, r. 949-83), a dam or weir constructed across the Kor river at the southeast end of the Marvdašt plain in Fārs.

  • BAND-E AMĪR (2)

    X. De Planhol

    the chain of natural lakes 90 km west of Bāmīān in Afghanistan (lat 30°12’ N, long 66°30’ E).


    K. Afsar

    an ancient dam built on the Qara Āḡāj river nearly sixty km south of Shiraz, attributed to the legendary king Bahman son of Esfandīār.


    X. De Planhol

    (boundary wall of Turkestan), the mountain range in northwestern Afghanistan which runs in a west-east direction for 200 km between the upper valley of the Morḡāb to the south and the plains of the Āmū Daryā to the north.


    W. Eilers, C. Herrenschmidt

    “servant.” i. The term. ii. Old Persian bandaka. Banda (NPers.) and its precursors bandak/bandag (Mid. Pers.) and bandaka (OPers.) meant “henchman, (loyal) servant, vassal,” but not “slave.”


    W. Eilers

    “harbor, seaport; commercial town.” The concept of bandar probably continues an old Oriental tradition. Its double meaning of “harbor” on a river or a sea and “town, center of commerce and communications” (also in the inland) agrees well with that of Akkadian kārum.


    Multiple Authors

    a port city and capital of Hormozgan province on the Persian Gulf.

  • BANDAR ʿABBĀS i. The city

    X. De Planhol

    At the entrance to the Persian Gulf, Bandar-e ʿAbbās extends about 2 km along the shallow Clarence (ūrān) strait between Qešm island and the mainland.

  • BANDAR ABBAS ii. Basic Population Data, 1956-2011

    Mohammad Hossein Nejatian

    Bandar Abba has experienced a very high rate of population growth, increasing more than twenty five-fold from a population of 17,710 in 1956 to 435,751 in 2011.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    X. De Planhol

    a port on the southern shore of Astarābād Bay in the southeastern Caspian Sea, a few kilometers from a group of nine hamlets known collectively as Gaz. The installation of Russians on the Āšūrāda islands after 1837 made it very important strategically.


    D. T. Potts

    (lat 26° 33’ N, long 54° 53’ E), a small port on the coast of Lārestān.


    X. De Planhol

    (Bandar-e Maʿšūr), a port at the western end of the Persian Gulf, on the northern bank of the Ḵor-e Mūsā tideway, which forms the lower course of the Jar(r)āḥī river.



    See ANZALĪ.


    X. De Planhol

    (now Bandar-e Torkaman), a port on the southeastern Caspian Sea at the entrance of Astarābād Bay and about eight km south of the mouth of the Atrak. It was constructed from scratch during the 1930s at the terminus of the trans-Iranian railroad.