Table of Contents


    H. Algar

    , MAWLĀNĀ (1779-1827), the founder of a significant branch of the Naqšbandī Sufi order that has had a profound impact on his native Kurdistan and beyond.

  • BAGHDAD i. The Iranian Connection: Before the Mongol Invasion

    H. Kennedy

    Baghdad, whose official name was originally Madīnat-al-Salām, the City of Peace, was founded in 762 by the second ʿAbbasid caliph, Abū Jaʿfar al-Manṣūr as his official capital.

  • BAGHDAD ii. From the Mongol Invasion to the Ottoman Occupation

    ʿAbbās Zaryāb

    The Persian influence had increased in recent decades through Iranian viziers and officials serving the caliphs, the rise of Shiʿite power and their theological literature.


    J. A. Kechichian

    popular name for the 1955 pro-Western defense alliance between Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom.


    F. Grenet

    reconstructed Old Iranian word for a temple housing a cult image; and BAGINAPATI, the master of such a temple. They have descendants in various Middle Iranian languages.


    A. D. H. Bivar, D. Balland, X. de Planhol

    The temple excavated at this site appeared to be a fire-temple of dynastic character, dedicated for the rulers of the Kushan dynasty. It was founded perhaps early in the reign of Kanishka, and restored in the year 31 of a different era, probably of Kanishka I’s own enthronement.

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    M. Dandamayev

    the chief eunuch and general under the Achaemenid Artaxerxes III, and kingmaker of his successors.


    C. Toumanoff

    The partition of Armenia in 387 into an Iranian and a Roman vassal state, then the annexation of the Western kingdom by the Empire, and finally the abolition of the East Armenian Monarchy in 428 placed these princes in the necessity of choosing between the two rival imperial allegiances.

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    See BUYIDS.


    E. Kohlberg

    , SHAIKH MOḤAMMAD B. ḤOSAYN BAHĀʾĪ, Imami scholar and author, a prolific writer, in Imami circles regarded as one of the leading lights of his age (1547-1621).