Table of Contents

  • BAAT

    N. Sims-Williams, J. Russell

    Middle Iranian personal name, borrowed in Armenian. i. Baat in Iranian sources. ii. Armenian Bat. Baat is the name of a disciple of Mani mentioned several times in the Coptic “crucifixion narrative.”

  • BĀB (1)

    D. M. MacEoin

    “door, gate, entrance,” a term of varied application in Shiʿism and related movements.

  • BĀB (2)

    H. Algar

    Title given to certain Sufi shaikhs of Central Asia.

  • BĀB AL-ABWĀB

    cross-reference

    Ancient city in Dāḡestān on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, located at the entrance to the narrow pass between the Caucasus foothills and the sea. See DARBAND (1).

  • BĀB AL-BĀB

    cross-reference

    Shaikhi ʿālem who became the first convert to Babism, provincial Babi leader in Khorasan, and organizer of Babi resistance in Māzandarān (1814-49). See BOŠRŪʾĪ.

  • BĀB, ʿAli Moḥammad Širāzi

    D. M. MacEoin

    the founder of Babism (1819-1850).

  • BĀB-E FARḠĀNĪ

    cross-reference

    title given to certain Sufi shaikhs of Central Asia. See BĀB (2).

  • BĀB-E HOMĀYŪN

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    Sardar Almāsīya was renamed Bāb-e Homāyūn and rebuilt as a two-storied structure. The lower level was partly dressed with ashlar masonry and partly faced with glazed tiles of brilliant colors. Access was gained through a large gateway crowned by a round arch and flanked by arcades, porticoes and guardrooms.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BĀB-E MĀČĪN

    cross-reference

    title given to certain Sufi shaikhs of Central Asia. See BĀB (2).

  • BĀBĀ AFŠĀR

    cross-reference

    , MĪRZĀ. See ḤAKĪMBĀŠĪ.

  • BĀBĀ AFŻAL-AL-DĪN

    William Chittick

    poet and author of philosophical works in Persian (d. ca. 1213-14).

  • BĀBĀ BEG

    cross-reference

    See JŪYĀ.

  • BĀBĀ FAḠĀNI

    Z. Safa

    Persian poet of the 15th-16th centuries.

  • BĀBĀ FARĪD

    Cross-Reference

    a major Shaikh of the Češtīya mystic order, born in the last quarter of the 12th century in Kahtwāl near Moltān, Punjab. See GANJ-E ŠAKAR, Farid-al-Din Masʿud.

  • BĀBĀ ḤĀTEM

    A. S. Melikian-Chirvani

    11th-century mausoleum in northern Afghanistan, some 40 miles west of Balḵ. It follows the simple plan of the earliest Islamic mausoleums in the Iranian world—a single square room with a cupola resting on squinches.

  • BĀBĀ JĀN ḴORĀSĀNI

    Priscilla Soucek

    16th-century calligrapher, poet, and craftsman.

  • BĀBĀ JĀN TEPE

    R. C. Henrickson

    an archeological site in northeastern Luristan (34° north latitude, 47° 56’ east longitude), on the southern edge of the Delfān plain at approximately 10 km from Nūrābād, important primarily for excavations of first-millennium B.C. levels conducted by C. Goff from 1966-69.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BĀBĀ KUHI

    M. Kasheff

    popular name of Shaikh Abū ʿAbdallāh Moḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh b. ʿObaydallāh Bākūya Šīrāzī, Sufi of the 10th-11th centuries.

  • BĀBĀ ŠAMAL

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    weekly satirical periodical, 1943-45, founded by Reżā Ganjaʾī. It was impartially opposed to all foreign intervention and influence in Iran.

  • BĀBĀ SAMMĀSĪ

    H. Algar

    , ḴᵛĀJA MOḤAMMAD (d. 1354), Central Asian Sufi of the line known as selsela-ye ḵᵛājagān (line of the masters).

  • BĀBĀ SANKŪ

    H. Algar

    ecstatic Central Asian dervish of disorderly habits, contemporary with Timur (d. 1405) and one of several Sufis with whom Timur chose to associate for reasons of state.

  • BĀBĀ SHAH ESFAHĀNI

    Pricilla Soucek

    calligrapher and poet who lived in Isfahan and Baghdad where he died in 1587-88. He was famous as a writer of the nastaʿlīq script.

  • BĀBĀ ṬĀHER ʿORYĀN

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    medieval dervish poet from the area of Hamadān, best known for his do-baytīs, quatrains composed  in a simpler meter still widely used for popular verse.

  • BĀBĀ-YE DEHQĀN

    Anna Krasnowolska

    a mythological and ritual character whose cult has been reported in agrarian communities of mountainous and lowland Tajikistan, northern Afghanistan, and adjacent countries.

  • BĀBĀʾĪ BEN FARHĀD

    Amnon Netzer

    18th-century author of a versified history of the Jews of Kāšān with brief references to the Jews of Isfahan and one or two other towns.

  • BĀBĀʾĪ BEN LOṬF

    Amnon Netzer

    Jewish poet and historian of Kāšān during the first half of the 17th century (d. after 1662).

  • BĀBĀʾĪ BEN NŪRĪʾEL

    Amnon Netzer

    rabbi (ḥāḵām) from Isfahan;  at the behest of Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1736-47), he translated the Pentateuch and the Psalms of David from Hebrew into Persian.

  • BABĀJĀʾĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See KURDISTAN TRIBES.

  • BĀBAK (1)

    R. N. Frye

    (Mid. Pers. Pāpak, Pābag), a ruler of Fārs at the beginning of the third century, father of Ardašīr, the founder of the Sasanian dynasty.  

  • BĀBAK

    Touraj Daryaee

    reformer of the Sasanian military and in charge of the department of the warriors (Diwān al-moqātela) during the reign of Ḵosrow I Anušervān in the 6th century CE. 

  • BĀBAK ḴORRAMI

    Ḡ. -Ḥ. Yūsofī

    leader of the Ḵorramdīnī or Ḵorramī uprising in Azerbaijan in the early 9th century (d. 838), which engaged the forces of the caliph for 20 years before it was crushed in 837.

  • BĀBAKĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See ḴORRAMĪS.

  • BABAN

    C. E. Bosworth

    (or Bavan), a small town in the medieval Islamic province of Bāḏḡīs, to the north and west of Herat.

  • BĀBĀN

    W. Behn

    (or Baban), Kurdish princely family in Solaymānīya, ruling an area in Iraqi Kurdistan and western Iran (17th—19th centuries) and actively involved in the Perso-Ottoman struggles.

  • BĀBĀN DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E BĀBĀN.

  • BĀBAY

    A. Vööbus

    catholicos of the Persian Church elected at the synod at Seleucia in 497 (d. 502).

  • BĀBAY OF NISIBIS

    N. Sims-Williams

    Christian Syriac writer who flourished about the beginning of the seventh century CE; a homily of his is attested in Sogdian.

  • BĀBAY THE GREAT

    A. Vööbus

    (d. 628), abbot and prominent leader in the Nestorian church in Iran under Ḵosrow II.

  • BĀBEL

    Cross-Reference

    See BABYLON.

  • BABILLA, ASHUR BANIPAL IBRAHIM

    Khosro Shayesteh

    In acting also, just as did Artaud, Bani placed heavy emphasis on invoking deeply rooted feelings of the actors and argued that “while actors are wearing masks in their daily lives, in theater, these masks are torn off and we are facing the inner self of the actor.”

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BĀBIRUŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See BABYLON.

  • BABISM

    D. M. MacEoin

    a 19th-century messianic movement in Iran and Iraq under the overall charismatic leadership of Sayyed ʿAlī-Moḥammad Šīrāzī, the Bāb (1819-1850). Babism was the only significant millenarian movement in Shiʿite Islam during the 19th century.

  • BĀBŌĒ

    A. Vööbus

    catholicos (d. 481 or 484), orthodox leader of the Christian church in Iran under Pērōz, one of Barṣaumā’s chief opponents. 

  • BĀBOL

    X. de Planhol, S. Blair

    town in Māzandarān, occupying a central position in the coastal plain. i. The town.  ii. Islamic monuments.

  • BĀBOLSAR

    X. de Planhol

    town on the Caspian coast in the province of Māzandarān.

  • BĀBOR

    M. E. Subtelny

    Timurid prince (1422-1457), the youngest son of Bāysonqor and a great-grandson of the conqueror Tīmūr.

  • BĀBOR, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    F. Lehmann

    (1483-1530), Timurid prince, military genius, and literary craftsman, founder of the Mughal Empire in India.

  • BĀBORĪ

    D. Balland

    (or Bābor, Bābar; sing. Bāboray), a Paṧtūn tribe originally from the Solaymān mountains, now widely dispersed.

  • BABR

    P. Joslin

    “tiger.” The little evidence suggests only tentative differences between the Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) and the Indian tiger (P. t. tigris) or the Siberian tiger (P. t. altaica).

  • BABR-E BAYĀN

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (or babr, also called palangīna), in the traditional history, the name of the coat which Rostam wore in combat.