Table of Contents

  • ASFEZĀRĪ, ABŪ ḤĀTEM

    D. Pingree

    5th/12th-century astronomer, of whose life almost nothing is known.

  • ASFĪJĀB

    C. E. Bosworth

    (or ASBĪJĀB, ESBĪJĀB) a town and district of medieval Transoxania.

  • ASHKHABAD

    B. Spuler

    (Russian; Persian ʿEšqābād), since the Soviet period the capital of Turkmenistan.

  • ASHRAF, GHODSIEH

    Mahnaze A. da Silveira

    Throughout her life, Ghodsieh Ashraf repeatedly observed, not without pride, that her material belongings could be packed into one suitcase. Though she may not have been an easy taskmaster, she was served by an unflagging joie de vivre and cut a figure distinct from the traditional models of her times.

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  • AŠI

    B. Schlerath, P. O. Skjærvø

    Avestan feminine noun meaning “thing attained, reward, share, portion, recompense” and, as a personification, the goddess “Reward, Fortune.”

  • ĀSĪĀ (or āsīāb, Mill)

    M. Harverson

    or āsīāb, "mill." Before World War II most grain ground to produce flour for the staple in the Iranian diet, bread, was processed by traditionally powered mills, principally watermills. Except in remote areas they have been replaced by diesel or electrically-driven mills, and old machinery has fallen derelict.

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  • Asia Institute

    Richard N. Frye

    founded in 1928 in New York City as the American Institute for Persian Art and Archaeology, incorporated 1930 in the state of New York and active in Shiraz 1965-79. In its affiliation, functions, and publications, the Institute has had a complicated and eventful career, illustrating some of the vicissitudes of Iranian studies during the twentieth century.

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  • ASIA INSTITUTE, BULLETIN OF THE

    Richard N. Frye

    originally Bulletin of the American Institute of Persian Art and Archaeology from July 1931; and the first issue was edited by Arthur Upham Pope, director of the Institute.

  • ASIA MINOR

    M. Weiskopf

    IRANO-ANATOLIAN RELATIONS.

  • ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL

    Cross-Reference

    See BENGAL ii. Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal.